Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480463

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The proportion of COVID-19 patients having active pulmonary tuberculosis, and its impact on COVID-19 related patient outcomes, is not clear. We conducted this systematic review to evaluate the proportion of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis among COVID-19 patients, and to assess if comorbid pulmonary tuberculosis worsens clinical outcomes in these patients. METHODS: We queried the PubMed and Embase databases for studies providing data on (a) proportion of COVID-19 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis or (b) severe disease, hospitalization, or mortality among COVID-19 patients with and without active pulmonary tuberculosis. We calculated the proportion of tuberculosis patients, and the relative risk (RR) for each reported outcome of interest. We used random-effects models to summarize our data. RESULTS: We retrieved 3,375 citations, and included 43 studies, in our review. The pooled estimate for proportion of active pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.07% (95% CI 0.81%-1.36%). COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis had a higher risk of mortality (summary RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.56-2.39, from 17 studies) and for severe COVID-19 disease (summary RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.02, from 20 studies), but not for hospitalization (summary RR 1.86, 95% CI 0.91-3.81, from four studies), as compared to COVID-19 patients without tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: Active pulmonary tuberculosis is relatively common among COVID-19 patients and increases the risk of severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-related mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Humans , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/virology
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 633297, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133913

ABSTRACT

The C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 17 (CXCL17) is chemotactic for myeloid cells, exhibits bactericidal activity, and exerts anti-viral functions. This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the respiratory tract, suggesting a role in lung defenses. However, little is known about the participation of CXCL17 against relevant respiratory pathogens in humans. Here, we evaluated the serum levels and lung tissue expression pattern of CXCL17 in a cohort of patients with severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1) from Mexico City. Peripheral blood samples obtained on admission and seven days after hospitalization were processed for determinations of serum CXCL17 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of CXCL17 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHQ) in lung autopsy specimens from patients that succumbed to the disease. Serum CXCL17 levels were also analyzed in two additional comparative cohorts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Additionally, the expression of CXCL17 was tested in lung autopsy specimens from COVID-19 patients. A total of 122 patients were enrolled in the study, from which 68 had pandemic influenza A(H1N1), 24 had COVID-19, and 30 with PTB. CXCL17 was detected in post-mortem lung specimens from patients that died of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and COVID-19. Interestingly, serum levels of CXCL17 were increased only in patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1), but not COVID-19 and PTB. CXCL17 not only differentiated pandemic influenza A(H1N1) from other respiratory infections but showed prognostic value for influenza-associated mortality and renal failure in machine-learning algorithms and regression analyses. Using cell culture assays, we also identified that human alveolar A549 cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages increase their CXCL17 production capacity after influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. Our results for the first time demonstrate an induction of CXCL17 specifically during pandemic influenza A(H1N1), but not COVID-19 and PTB in humans. These findings could be of great utility to differentiate influenza and COVID-19 and to predict poor prognosis specially at settings of high incidence of pandemic A(H1N1). Future studies on the role of CXCL17 not only in severe pandemic influenza, but also in seasonal influenza, COVID-19, and PTB are required to validate our results.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Chemokines, CXC/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Lung/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Chemokines, CXC/genetics , Chemokines, CXC/immunology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Lung/pathology , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prognosis , Survival Analysis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Young Adult
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3273-3276, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077536

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between tuberculosis case rate and COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR) among districts within a tuberculosis-endemic metropolitan area. We analyzed data from 43 districts in Lima, Peru. We used districts as the units of observation. Linear regressions were used to investigate the relationship between COVID-19 CFRs and tuberculosis case rates. The mean COVID-19 CFR in each district for reporting Weeks 5-32 was used as the dependent variable. Independent variable was the mean rate of confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis cases for 2017-2019 period. Analyses were adjusted by population density, socioeconomic status, crowded housing, health facility density, and case rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and HIV infection. The mean COVID-19 CFR in Lima was 4.0% ± 1.1%. The mean tuberculosis rate was 16.0 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. In multivariate analysis, tuberculosis case rate was associated with COVID-19 CFR (ß = 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.24-2.28; p = .02), after adjusting for potential confounders. We found that Lima districts with a higher burden of tuberculosis exhibited higher COVID-19 CFRs, independent of socioeconomic, and morbidity variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Linear Models , Peru/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 118-124, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-785394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The case fatality rate (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly between countries. We aimed to describe the associations between health indicators and the national CFRs of COVID-19. METHODS: We identified for each country health indicators potentially associated with the national CFRs of COVID-19. We extracted data for 18 variables from international administrative data sources for 34 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We excluded the collinear variables and examined the 16 variables in multivariable analysis. A dynamic web-based model was developed to analyse and display the associations for the CFRs of COVID-19. We followed the Guideline for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). RESULTS: In multivariable analysis, the variables significantly associated with the increased CFRs were percentage of obesity in ages >18 years (ß = 3.26; 95%CI = 1.20, 5.33; p 0.003), tuberculosis incidence (ß = 3.15; 95%CI = 1.09, 5.22; p 0.004), duration (days) since first death due to COVID-19 (ß = 2.89; 95%CI = 0.83, 4.96; p 0.008), and median age (ß = 2.83; 95%CI = 0.76, 4.89; p 0.009). The COVID-19 test rate (ß = -3.54; 95%CI = -5.60, -1.47; p 0.002), hospital bed density (ß = -2.47; 95%CI = -4.54, -0.41; p 0.021), and rural population ratio (ß = -2.19; 95%CI = -4.25, -0.13; p 0.039) decreased the CFR. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic hits population-dense cities. Available hospital beds should be increased. Test capacity should be increased to enable more effective diagnostic tests. Older patients and patients with obesity and their caregivers should be warned about a potentially increased risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Americas/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/pathology , Population Density , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Urban Population
7.
Infection ; 49(1): 15-28, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734048

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Covid-19 is a global threat that pushes health care to its limits. Since there is neither a vaccine nor a drug for Covid-19, people with an increased risk for severe and fatal courses of disease particularly need protection. Furthermore, factors increasing these risks are of interest in the search of potential treatments. A systematic literature review on the risk factors of severe and fatal Covid-19 courses is presented. METHODS: The review is carried out on PubMed and a publicly available preprint dataset. For analysis, risk factors are categorized and information regarding the study such as study size and location are extracted. The results are compared to risk factors listed by four public authorities from different countries. RESULTS: The 28 records included, eleven of which are preprints, indicate that conditions and comorbidities connected to a poor state of health such as high age, obesity, diabetes and hypertension are risk factors for severe and fatal disease courses. Furthermore, severe and fatal courses are associated with organ damages mainly affecting the heart, liver and kidneys. Coagulation dysfunctions could play a critical role in the organ damaging. Time to hospital admission, tuberculosis, inflammation disorders and coagulation dysfunctions are identified as risk factors found in the review but not mentioned by the public authorities. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with increased risk of severe or fatal disease courses were identified, which include conditions connected with a poor state of health as well as organ damages and coagulation dysfunctions. The results may facilitate upcoming Covid-19 research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/virology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/pathology , Obesity/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/virology
8.
Pulmonology ; 26(4): 233-240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260030

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the relationship between the COVID-19 and tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study is to describe a group of patients who died with TB (active disease or sequelae) and COVID-19 in two cohorts. Data from 49 consecutive cases in 8 countries (cohort A) and 20 hospitalised patients with TB and COVID-19 (cohort B) were analysed and patients who died were described. Demographic and clinical variables were retrospectively collected, including co-morbidities and risk factors for TB and COVID-19 mortality. Overall, 8 out of 69 (11.6%) patients died, 7 from cohort A (14.3%) and one from cohort B (5%). Out of 69 patients 43 were migrants, 26/49 (53.1%) in cohort A and 17/20 (85.0%) in cohort B. Migrants: (1) were younger than natives; in cohort A the median (IQR) age was 40 (27-49) VS. 66 (46-70) years, whereas in cohort B 37 (27-46) VS. 48 (47-60) years; (2) had a lower mortality rate than natives (1/43, 2.3% versus 7/26, 26.9%; p-value: 0.002); (3) had fewer co-morbidities than natives (23/43, 53.5% versus 5/26-19.2%) natives; p-value: 0.005). The study findings show that: (1) mortality is likely to occur in elderly patients with co-morbidities; (2) TB might not be a major determinant of mortality and (3) migrants had lower mortality, probably because of their younger age and lower number of co-morbidities. However, in settings where advanced forms of TB frequently occur and are caused by drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, higher mortality rates can be expected in young individuals.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL