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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 570-579, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore changes over time in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Denmark in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based cohort study we included all adult PLWH from the Danish HIV Cohort Study (1995-2017) without previous TB. We estimated TB incidence rate (IR), all-cause mortality rate (MR), associated risk and prognostic factors using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 6982 PLWH (73 596 person-years (PY)), we observed 217 TB events (IR 2.9/1000 PY, 95% CI 2.6-3.4: IR 6.7, 95% CI 5.7-7.9 among migrants and IR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7 among Danish-born individuals; p < 0.001). The IR of concomitant HIV/TB remained high and unchanged over time. The IR of TB diagnosed >3 months after HIV diagnosis declined with calendar time, longer time from HIV diagnosis, and CD4 cell recovery. Independent TB risk factors were African/Asian/Greenland origin (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 5.2, 95% CI 3.5-7.6, aIRR 6.5, 95% CI 4.2-10.0, aIRR 7.0, 95% CI 3.4-14.6, respectively), illicit drug use (aIRR 6.9, 95% CI 4.2-11.2), CD4 <200 cells/µL (aIRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.6) and not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aIRR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.3). Fifty-five patients died (MR 27.9/1000 PY, 95% CI 21.4-36.3), with no improvement in mortality over time. Mortality prognostic factors were Danish-origin (adjusted mortality rate ratio (aMRR) 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), social burden (aMRR 3.9, 95% CI 2.2-7.0), CD4 <100 cells/µL at TB diagnosis (aMRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9), TB diagnosed >3 months after HIV versus concomitant diagnosis (aMRR 4.3, 95% CI 2.2-8.7) and disseminated TB (aMRR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.9). CONCLUSION: Late HIV presentation with concomitant TB remains a challenge. Declining TB rates in PLWH were observed over time and with CD4 recovery, highlighting the importance of early and successful antiretroviral therapy. However, MR remained high. Our findings highlight the importance of HIV and TB screening strategies and treatment of latent TB in high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 638, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increased risk of loss to follow-up among TB smokers raises concern over the secondary spread within the community. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. METHODS: All registered TB patients who smoke in the state of Selangor between 2013 and 2017 via the Malaysian Tuberculosis Information System (MyTB) database were included for analysis. TB patients who smoke were considered those who are "current smoker" during the notification, while loss to follow-up was defined as a TB patient who had interrupted treatment for 2 months or longer. There were 3 main variable domains included for analysis: sociodemographic profiles, disease profiles, and comorbidities. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. RESULTS: A total of 14.1% (N = 813) of TB patients who smoke loss to follow-up. The determinants of loss to follow-up among TB smokers were working age population aged 32-41 and 42-53 years old (AOR 1.08; 95%CI 1.23,2.08) and (AOR 1.44; 95%CI 1.11,1.87) respectively, Malaysian nationality (AOR 2.34; 95%CI 1.66,3.30), patients staying in urban area (AOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.23,1.97), income level less than RM2160 (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.14,2.20), un-employed (AOR 1.30; 95%CI 1.09-1.55), have low education level i.e., secondary school education, primary school education and no formal education (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.22,2.10), (AOR 1.73; 95%CI 1.16,2.57) and (AOR 2.29; 95% CI 1.57,3.33) respectively, previously treated TB cases (AOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.71,2.81), active TB case detection methods (AOR 2.06; 95%CI 1.40,3.02), moderate lesion x-ray (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.13,2.27) and HIV positive (AOR 1.36; 95%CI 1.02,1.82). All the significant factors gave rise to the final model of determinants, with a predictability of 67.2% (95% CI 65.0,69.3). CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke highlight the importance of providing early risk detection that examines the three main domains of risk factors such as socioeconomic, disease profiles and comorbidities. Potential integrated intervention should aim to reduce the proportion of smoking among TB patients through the stop smoking programme together with directly observed therapy (DOT).


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Registries , Smoking/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
3.
Tuberk Toraks ; 70(1): 8-14, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789611

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and tuberculosis are serious and mortal diseases worldwide. There are few studies about the association between tuberculosis and COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed to describe the characteristics of tuberculosis and COVID-19 co-infection cases in light of the literature. Materials and Methods: Tuberculosis patients who applied to the tuberculosis outpatient clinic between September 1-September 30, 2020, and patients hospitalized in the COVID-19 service between June 1- September 30, 2020, were retrospectively screened. Patients with tuberculosis and COVID-19 co-infection were recorded. Clinical, radiological, laboratory data, and treatments were recorded and analyzed. For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, sputum acid-resistant bacillus (ARB) smear or culture positivity or pathological diagnosis were used. For the diagnosis of COVID-19, positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and/or typical radiological findings were sought. Result: Seven hundred and fifty-one patients' data at the tuberculosis outpatient clinic, 229 patients' data at the COVID-19 clinic were screened. Sixteen patients meet the criteria. COVID-19 infection rate in tuberculosis patients was 2.1%. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had received COVID-19 disease during diagnosis or initial tuberculosis treatment phase. There were no drugdrug interactions between anti-tuberculosis drugs and COVID-19 treatment. During the COVID-19 treatment, one patient (6%) died, 15 (94%) patients completed the treatment. Conclusions: : In our study, no effect of the coexistence of TB and COVID-19 on morbidity or mortality was observed. Although the number of patients is small, it can be said that patients with early TB disease and with widespread involvement may be riskier for COVID-19 infection. Frequent hospital visits by TB patients may be a risk for COVID-19. It may be beneficial to carry out the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients by tuberculosis dispensaries as in our country or authorized units to reduce the risk of hospital admissions and COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(3): 478-483, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786135

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 cases are still rising globally in the middle of the tuberculosis epidemic. Several countries have reported TB-COVID-19 coinfection that could pose a double burden in the health care facilities in developing countries. We reported two pulmonary tuberculosis patients coinfected with COVID-19 with an overlapping clinical manifestation of tuberculosis and COVID-19 with a good prognosis at the end of COVID-19 treatment. This paper aims to discuss TB patients' susceptibility against SARS-COV-2 infection, the clinical profile of TB-COVID-19 coinfection, and the disease's prognosis. The clinician should be aware of both common disease symptoms that appear in a patient and should be confirmed and treat promptly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
5.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 14(1): 6, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761641

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) and Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) infection are two respiratory diseases that are of particular concern epidemiologically. Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases recorded in the history of mankind dating back thousands of years. It is estimated that approximately one quarter of the world's population is infected with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI). This contrasts with COVID-19, which emerged in late 2019. Data continues to accumulate and become available on this pathogen, but the long-term side effect of fibrotic damage in COVID-19 patients evokes parallels between this novel coronavirus and its ancient bacterial affiliate. This similarity as well as several others may incite inquiries on whether coinfection of individuals with latent TB and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lead to excessive fibrosis in the lungs and thus the emergence of an active TB infection. While it is well understood how TB leads to structural and immunological lung complications including granuloma formation, fibrosis, and T cell exhaustion, less is known about the disease course when coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is present. Past and present research demonstrate that IL-10, TNF-α, IFN class I-III, TGF-ß, IL-35, and Regulatory T cells (T-regs) are all important contributors of the characteristics of host response to mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has also been noted with current research that IL-10, TNF-α, IFN class I, II, and III, TGF-ß, ACE-2, and T-regs are also important contributors to the host response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus in different ways than they are to the TB pathogen. Both pathogens may lead to an unbalanced inflammatory immune response, and together a shared dysregulation of immune response suggests an increased risk of severity and progression of both diseases. We have reviewed 72 different manuscripts between the years 1992 and 2021. The manuscripts pertaining to the SARS-COV-2 virus specifically are from the years 2020 and 2021. Our literature review aims to explore the biomolecular effects of these contributors to pathogenicity of both diseases along with current publications on TB/COVID-19 coinfection, focusing on the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 infection with both latent and active TB, as well as the challenges in treating TB during the COVID-19 pandemic. The compiled material will then aid the latticework foundation of knowledge for future research leading to a hopeful improved system of therapeutic strategies for coinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications
6.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68S: S86-S88, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720099

ABSTRACT

Smoking, TB and Covid-19 are high prevalence entities with public health consequences. All three of them have a possible complex interaction at cellular level. Smoking behavior makes it difficult to maintain infection control measures. Smoking is known to increase TB infection and also adversely affect treatment outcomes in TB. There is also upcoming evidence which suggests that smoking and TB increase the risk of severe Covid-19 symptoms. Simple infection control measures like, social distancing, cough etiquette, isolation, hand hygiene, quarantine, use of masks etc. play a pivotal role in prevention of these diseases. There is need of strengthening of the public health policies and incorporation of the Covid-19 safety awareness measures into the various national programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Tuberculosis/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 621, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is predicted to have a net negative effect on tuberculosis control, with an estimated excess of 6.3 million tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths by 2025. Programmatic issues such as the lockdown of tuberculosis services affect all patients, while biosocial factors have a differential impact on an individual's risk for tuberculosis or adverse tuberculosis outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: We report three Hispanic cases of incident tuberculosis (two males, 43 and 44 years old; one female, 49 years old) after resolution of coronavirus disease episodes. Coincidentally, all cases shared a common risk factor: a chronic history poorly controlled diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings alert to the threat posed by the synergy between coronavirus disease and diabetes, on tuberculosis reactivation. In medium- to high-risk settings for tuberculosis, we recommend implementation of routine screening for latent tuberculosis infection in these cases, and preventive tuberculosis treatment in those who are positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Tuberculosis , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260389, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recent non-pandemic periods, tuberculosis (TB) has been the leading killer worldwide from a single infectious disease. Patients with DM are three times more likely to develop active TB and poor treatment outcomes. Single glycemic measurements at TB diagnosis may inaccurately diagnose or mischaracterize DM severity. Data are limited regarding glycemic dynamics from TB diagnosis through treatment. METHODS: Prospective study of glycemia dynamics in response to TB treatment measured glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients presenting to TB screening centres in Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hyperglycemia before and at TB treatment completion. RESULTS: 429 adults with active TB disease were enrolled and divided into groups based on history of DM and initial HbA1c range: normoglycemia, prediabetes, and DM. DM was diagnosed in 37%. At treatment completion,14(6%) patients from the normoglycemia and prediabetes groups had HbA1c>6.5%, thus increasing the prevalence of DM to 39%. The number needed to screen to diagnose one new case of DM at TB diagnosis was 5.7 and 16 at treatment completion in the groups without DM. Weight gain>5% at treatment completion significantly increased the risk of hyperglycemia in the groups without DM at TB diagnosis (95% CI 1.23-26.04, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: HbA1c testing prior to and at TB treatment completion found a high prevalence of prediabetes and DM, including a proportion found at treatment completion and commonly in people with a higher percentage of weight gain. Further longitudinal research is needed to understand the effects of TB disease and treatment on insulin resistance and DM complications.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Management , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/blood , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/therapy , Young Adult
10.
Eur Respir J ; 59(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on tuberculosis (TB) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still limited. The aim of this study was to describe the features of the TB/COVID-19 co-infected individuals from a prospective, anonymised, multicountry register-based cohort with special focus on the determinants of mortality and other outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled all patients of any age with either active TB or previous TB and COVID-19. 172 centres from 34 countries provided individual data on 767 TB-COVID-19 co-infected patients, (>50% population-based). RESULTS: Of 767 patients, 553 (74.0%) out of 747 had TB before COVID-19 (including 234 out of 747 with previous TB), 71 (9.5%) out of 747 had COVID-19 first and 123 (16.5%) out of 747 had both diseases diagnosed within the same week (n=35 (4.6%) on the same day). 85 (11.08%) out of 767 patients died (41 (14.2%) out of 289 in Europe and 44 (9.2%) out of 478 outside Europe; p=0.03): 42 (49.4%) from COVID-19, 31 (36.5%) from COVID-19 and TB, one (1.2%) from TB and 11 from other causes. In the univariate analysis on mortality the following variables reached statistical significance: age, male gender, having more than one comorbidity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, chronic renal disease, presence of key symptoms, invasive ventilation and hospitalisation due to COVID-19. The final multivariable logistic regression model included age, male gender and invasive ventilation as independent contributors to mortality. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that TB and COVID-19 are a "cursed duet" and need immediate attention. TB should be considered a risk factor for severe COVID disease and patients with TB should be prioritised for COVID-19 preventative efforts, including vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2686, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513541
12.
J Mother Child ; 25(2): 127-134, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498444

ABSTRACT

Various guidelines are in place for management for COVID-19 and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in pregnancy. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no significant guidelines for the management of COVID-19 and PTB co-infection in pregnancy. Pregnancy being an altered physiological state, the use of various drugs and their outcomes are altered. Here we present two cases of COVID-19 and PTB co-infection in pregnancy which were managed successfully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Latent Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 203, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) have been combined as sequential MV in the treatment of respiratory failure. However, the effectiveness remains unclear. Here, we performed a randomized controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of sequential MV in the treatment of tuberculosis with respiratory failure. METHODS: Forty-four tuberculosis patients diagnosed with respiratory failure were randomly divided into sequential MV group (n = 24) and conventional MV group (n = 20). Initially, the patients in both groups received invasive positive pressure ventilation. When the patients' conditions were relieved, the ventilation modality in sequential MV group was switched to oronasal face mask continuous positive airway pressure until weaning. RESULTS: After treatment, the patients in sequential MV group had similar respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygenation index, alveolo-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2), blood pH, PaCO2 to those in conventional MV group (all P value > 0.05). There was no significant difference in ventilation time and ICU stay between the two groups (P > 0.05), but sequential MV group significantly reduced the time of invasive ventilation (mean difference (MD): - 36.2 h, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 53.6, - 18.8 h, P < 0.001). Sequential MV group also reduced the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; relative risk (RR): 0.44, 95% CI 0.24, 0.83, P = 0.006) and atelectasis (RR:0.49, 95% CI 0.24,1.00, P = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Sequential MV was effective in treating tuberculosis with respiratory failure. It showed advantages in reducing invasive ventilation time and ventilator-associated adverse events. REGISTRATION NUMBER FOR CLINICAL TRIAL: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000032311, April 21st, 2020.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tuberculosis/complications , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
19.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(6): 288-293, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246083

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious mortality in the world, affecting mainly developing countries (DC), while diabetes (DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. This review analyzes the fact that diabetes is currently an important risk factor for developing TB, also presenting more complicated TB, more relapses and higher mortality. The DCs and the fourth world of the large cities are those with the highest incidence of TB and an increase in DM, which will make it difficult to control tuberculosis disease. At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic is complicating the management of both diseases due to the difficulty of access to control and treatment and the worsening of socioeconomic inequalities. It is necessary to establish a bidirectional screening for TB and DM and promote recommendations for the joint management of both diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Tuberculosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
20.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234832

ABSTRACT

By the middle of 2021, we are still immersed in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The concurrence of this new pandemic in regions where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections possess the same epidemiological consideration, has arisen concerns about the prognosis, clinical management, symptomatology, and treatment of patients with triple infection. At the same time, healthcare services previously devoted to diagnosis and treatment of TB and HIV are being jeopardized by the urgent need of resources and attention for COVID-19 patients. The aim of this review was to collect any article considering the three conditions (HIV, TB, and SARS-CoV-2), included in PubMed/Medline and published in the English language since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We focused on detailed descriptions of the unusual cases describing the three co-infections. Eighty-four out of 184 publications retrieved met our inclusion criteria, but only three of them reported cases (five in total) with the three concomitant infections. The clinical evolution, management, and therapy of all of them were not different from mild/severe cases with exclusive COVID-19; the outcome was not worse either, with recovery for the five patients. Cases of patients with COVID-19 besides HIV and TB infections are scarce in literature, but studies deliberately embracing the triple infection as a priori inclusion criterion should be carried out in order to provide a complete understanding of joint influence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
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