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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e065878, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of video-based anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence support in patients with TB (PwTB) in South India. DESIGN: An exploratory cohort. SETTING: Participants were recruited at the TB treatment centre (direct observed treatment short centre) of a tertiary-level teaching facility in Bangalore, Karnataka, South India. PARTICIPANTS: The study enrolled 25 PwTB, with replacement. Adult PwTB who were on drug-sensitive treatment regimens were included, while those who had drug resistant TB were excluded from the study. INTERVENTION: Participants received scheduled adherence reminders and were trained to videorecord themselves swallowing their medication via a mobile application. The application was automated to submit these videos for evaluation. Participants were followed up monthly till treatment completion or withdrawal. OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence rate and acceptability of video-based directly observed treatment (vDOT). RESULTS: The mean±SD age of the participants was 33±14 years, majority were females (16, 64%), residing in urban areas (24,96%), married (17, 68%) and had access to smart phones (23,92%). A total of 3193 person days of follow-up was completed; of the videos submitted within the first 6 months of enrollment (2501), 94% (2354/2501) were considered 'acceptable' and 16 (64%) participants were optimally adherent (ie, ≥80%). Participant videos improved in quality and a higher proportion met acceptability criteria over time. Twenty-one (84%) participants stated that they found the application easy to learn; 13 (52%) preferred vDOT over DOT. Mixed model logistic regression showed that those who are married are more likely have daily adherence to anti-TB treatment. CONCLUSION: Video-based mobile phone interventions are acceptable to PwTB and the ease of using the application increases with time. To provide patient-centred care, vDOT is a promising option that can be offered to patients for treatment support and adherence monitoring.


Subject(s)
Medication Adherence , Tuberculosis , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Cohort Studies , Directly Observed Therapy , Feasibility Studies , India , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
3.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 27(6): 432-437, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240721

ABSTRACT

Poor adherence to TB treatment leads to adverse clinical outcomes. A range of digital technologies to support adherence have been developed and the COVID-19 pandemic considerably accelerated the implementation of digital interventions. Here, we review the current evidence on digital adherence support tools and update the findings of a previous review, with evidence published from 2018 to date. Interventional and observational studies, as well as primary and secondary analyses were included, and we summarised available evidence on effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability. The studies were heterogenous and varied in outcome measures and approaches used. Overall, our findings show that digital approaches, such as digital pillboxes and asynchronous video-observed treatment, are acceptable and have the potential to improve adherence and be cost-effective over time if implemented at scale. Digital tools should be part of multiple strategies to support adherence. Further research to integrate behavioural data on reasons for non-adherence will help to determine how to best implement these technologies in different settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Follow-Up Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control
5.
PLoS Med ; 20(5): e1004237, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends systematic symptom screening for tuberculosis (TB). However, TB prevalence surveys suggest that this strategy does not identify millions of TB patients, globally. Undiagnosed or delayed diagnosis of TB contribute to TB transmission and exacerbate morbidity and mortality. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of large urban and rural primary healthcare clinics in 3 provinces of South Africa to evaluate whether a novel intervention of targeted universal testing for TB (TUTT) in high-risk groups diagnosed more patients with TB per month compared to current standard of care (SoC) symptom-directed TB testing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixty-two clinics were randomized; with initiation of the intervention clinics over 6 months from March 2019. The study was prematurely stopped in March 2020 due to clinics restricting access to patients, and then a week later due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) national lockdown; by then, we had accrued a similar number of TB diagnoses to that of the power estimates and permanently stopped the trial. In intervention clinics, attendees living with HIV, those self-reporting a recent close contact with TB, or a prior episode of TB were all offered a sputum test for TB, irrespective of whether they reported symptoms of TB. We analyzed data abstracted from the national public sector laboratory database using Poisson regression models and compared the mean number of TB patients diagnosed per clinic per month between the study arms. Intervention clinics diagnosed 6,777 patients with TB, 20.7 patients with TB per clinic month (95% CI 16.7, 24.8) versus 6,750, 18.8 patients with TB per clinic month (95% CI 15.3, 22.2) in control clinics during study months. A direct comparison, adjusting for province and clinic TB case volume strata, did not show a significant difference in the number of TB cases between the 2 arms, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.14 (95% CI 0.94, 1.38, p = 0.46). However, prespecified difference-in-differences analyses showed that while the rate of TB diagnoses in control clinics decreased over time, intervention clinics had a 17% relative increase in TB patients diagnosed per month compared to the prior year, interaction IRR 1.17 (95% CI 1.14, 1.19, p < 0.001). Trial limitations were the premature stop due to COVID-19 lockdowns and the absence of between-arm comparisons of initiation and outcomes of TB treatment in those diagnosed with TB. CONCLUSIONS: Our trial suggests that the implementation of TUTT in these 3 groups at extreme risk of TB identified more TB patients than SoC and could assist in reducing undiagnosed TB patients in settings of high TB prevalence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: South African National Clinical Trials Registry DOH-27-092021-4901.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Primary Health Care , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(6)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323928

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains the leading cause of mortality due to infectious diseases, only surpassed in 2020 by COVID-19. Despite the development in diagnostics, therapeutics, and evaluation of new vaccines for TB, this infectious disease remains uncontrollable due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) TB, among other factors. The development in transcriptomics (RNomics) has enabled the study of gene expression in TB. It is considered that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) from host [microRNAs (miRNAs)] and Mtb [small RNAs (sRNAs)] are important elements in TB pathogenesis, immune resistance, and susceptibility. Many studies have shown the importance of host miRNAs in regulating immune response against Mtb via in vitro and in vivo mice models. The bacterial sRNAs play a major role in survival, adaptation, and virulence. Here, we review the characterization and function of host and bacteria ncRNAs in TB and their potential use in clinical applications as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Animals , Mice , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
7.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 31(2): 157-163, 2023 Mar.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313284

ABSTRACT

In pandemic conditions, situation of active and uncontrolled use by population of antimicrobial preparations treating COVID-19 occurs. So, new risks of development of medication resistance among patients with various infectious diseases, tuberculosis included, appear. The purpose of the study is to characterize prevalence of antimicrobial preparations use by population in relationship with development of medication resistance in patients with tuberculosis during COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods. The analysis of sales of antimicrobial medicines was implemented on the basis of published official data from the joint-stock company DSM Group presenting monthly audit of the Russian pharmaceutical market. The determination of primary antibiotic resistance was carried out in 2018-2020 on 3312 patients with tuberculosis. The modified method of proportions on liquid nutrient medium in system with automated accounting of microorganisms growth, the method of absolute concentrations and the method of polymerase chain reaction with real-time detection were applied. The results of the study. It was established that the most demanding antimicrobial medications among population were ceftriaxone, azithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, azithromycin. At the same time, the maximum increase in sales in 2020 up to 150% as compared with of 2019 was determined in medications derived from quinolone moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, which began to be used in treatment of coronavirus infection. At the same time, these medications are traditionally used in tuberculosis treatment. But in 2020, alarming trend was established that limits treatment of tuberculosis patients. The primary resistance of mycobacteria was also established in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients, also for the same antimicrobial medications of quinolone derivatives, and increasing in proportion of patients with primary medication resistance to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin in 2020 as compared to 2018 was 189-480%. At the same time, increasing of resistance to other antibiotics made up to 60.8% on average. Conclusion. The study results imply alarming scenario of medication resistance shifts towards very virulent and highly medication-resistant genotypes. This trend can result in conditions of successful transmission of deadly medication-resistant mutants that can seriously undermine effectiveness of implemented programs of struggle with tuberculosis worldwide.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Quinolones , Tuberculosis , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Pandemics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Quinolones/therapeutic use
8.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285774, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lesotho is one of the 30 countries with the highest tuberculosis incidence rates in the world, estimated at 650 per 100,000 population. Tuberculosis case detection is extremely low, particularly with the rapid spread of COVID-19, dropping from an estimated 51% in 2020 to 33% in 2021. The aim of this study is to understand the barriers to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment completion. METHODS: We used a convergent mixed methods study design. We collected data on the number of clients reporting symptoms upon tuberculosis screening, their sputum test results, the number of clients diagnosed, and the number of clients who started treatment from one district hospital and one health center in Berea district, Lesotho. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 53 health workers and patients. We used a content analysis approach to analyze qualitative data and integrated quantitative and qualitative findings in a joint display. FINDINGS: During March-August, 2019, 218 clients at the hospital and 292 clients at the health center reported tuberculosis symptoms. The full diagnostic testing process was completed for 66% of clients at the hospital and 68% at the health center. Among clients who initiated tuberculosis treatment, 68% (61/90) at the hospital and 74% (32/43) at the health center completed treatment. The main barriers to testing and treatment completion were challenges at sample collection, lack of decentralized diagnostic services, and socioeconomic factors such as food insecurity and high patient movement to search for jobs. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis diagnosis could be improved through the effective decentralization of laboratory services at the health facility level, and treatment completion could be improved by providing food and other forms of social support to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Lesotho/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Focus Groups , Mass Screening/methods , COVID-19 Testing
9.
Trials ; 23(1): 635, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 7% of all reported tuberculosis (TB) cases each year are recurrent, occurring among people who have had TB in the recent or distant past. TB recurrence is particularly common in India, which has the largest TB burden worldwide. Although patients recently treated for TB are at high risk of developing TB again, evidence around effective active case finding (ACF) strategies in this population is scarce. We will conduct a hybrid type I effectiveness-implementation non-inferiority randomized trial to compare the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of two ACF strategies among individuals who have completed TB treatment and their household contacts (HHCs). METHODS: We will enroll 1076 adults (≥ 18 years) who have completed TB treatment at a public TB unit (TU) in Pune, India, along with their HHCs (averaging two per patient, n = 2152). Participants will undergo symptom-based ACF by existing healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals and will be randomized to either home-based ACF (HACF) or telephonic ACF (TACF). Symptomatic participants will undergo microbiologic testing through the program. Asymptomatic HHCs will be referred for TB preventive treatment (TPT) per national guidelines. The primary outcome is rate per 100 person-years of people diagnosed with new or recurrent TB by study arm, within 12 months following treatment completion. The secondary outcome is proportion of HHCs < 6 years, by study arm, initiated on TPT after ruling out TB disease. Study staff will collect socio-demographic and clinical data to identify risk factors for TB recurrence and will measure post-TB lung impairment. In both arms, an 18-month "mop-up" visit will be conducted to ascertain outcomes. We will use the RE-AIM framework to characterize implementation processes and explore acceptability through in-depth interviews with index patients, HHCs and HCWs (n = 100). Cost-effectiveness will be assessed by calculating the incremental cost per TB case detected within 12 months and projected for disability-adjusted life years averted based on modeled estimates of morbidity, mortality, and time with infectious TB. DISCUSSION: This novel trial will guide India's scale-up of post-treatment ACF and provide an evidence base for designing strategies to detect recurrent and new TB in other high burden settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04333485 , registered April 3, 2020. CTRI/2020/05/025059 [Clinical Trials Registry of India], registered May 6 2020.


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Tuberculosis , Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Mass Screening/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
10.
Nat Med ; 29(4): 1009-1016, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308366

ABSTRACT

Two in every five patients with active tuberculosis (TB) remain undiagnosed or unreported. Therefore community-based, active case-finding strategies require urgent implementation. However, whether point-of-care (POC), portable battery-operated, molecular diagnostic tools deployed at a community level, compared with conventionally used POC smear microscopy, can shorten time-to-treatment initiation, thus potentially curtailing transmission, remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we performed an open-label, randomized controlled trial in periurban informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa, where we TB symptom screened 5,274 individuals using a community-based scalable mobile clinic. Some 584 individuals with HIV infection or symptoms of TB underwent targeted diagnostic screening and were randomized (1:1) to same-day smear microscopy (n = 296) or on-site DNA-based molecular diagnosis (n = 288; GeneXpert). The primary aim was to compare time to TB treatment initiation between the arms. Secondary aims included feasibility and detection of probably infectious people. Of participants who underwent targeted screening, 9.9% (58 of 584) had culture-confirmed TB. Time-to-treatment initiation occurred significantly earlier in the Xpert versus the smear-microscopy arm (8 versus 41 d, P = 0.002). However, overall, Xpert detected only 52% of individuals with culture-positive TB. Notably, Xpert detected almost all of the probably infectious patients compared with smear microscopy (94.1% versus 23.5%, P = <0.001). Xpert was associated with a shorter median time to treatment of probably infectious patients (7 versus 24 d, P = 0.02) and a greater proportion of infectious patients were on treatment at 60 d compared with the probably noninfectious patients (76.5% versus 38.2%, P < 0.01). Overall, a greater proportion of POC Xpert-positive participants were on treatment at 60 d compared with all culture-positive participants (100% versus 46.5%, P < 0.01). These findings challenge the traditional paradigm of a passive case-finding, public health strategy and argues for the implementation of portable DNA-based diagnosis with linkage to care as a community-oriented, transmission-interruption strategy. The study was registered with the South African National Clinical Trials Registry (application ID 4367; DOH-27-0317-5367) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03168945).


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , South Africa/epidemiology , Sputum , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
11.
Int J Pharm ; 640: 123018, 2023 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307575

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is a major health issue globally and a leading cause of death due to the infective microorganism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treatment of drug resistance tuberculosis requires longer treatment with multiple daily doses of drugs. Unfortunately, these drugs are often associated with poor patient compliance. In this situation, a need has been felt for the less toxic, shorter, and more effective treatment of the infected tuberculosis patients. Current research to develop novel anti-tubercular drugs shows hope for better management of the disease. Research on drug targeting and precise delivery of the old anti-tubercular drugs with the help of nanotechnology is promising for effective treatment. This review has discussed the status currently available treatments for tuberculosis patients infected with Mycobacterium alone or in comorbid conditions like diabetes, HIV and cancer. This review also highlighted the challenges in the current treatment and research on the novel anti-tubercular drugs to prevent multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. It presents the research highlights on the targeted delivery of anti-tubercular drugs using different nanocarriers for preventing multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Report has shown the importance and development of the research on nanocarriers mediated anti-tubercular delivery of the drugs to overcome the current challenges in tuberculosis treatment.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems
12.
Trials ; 24(1): 292, 2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a leading infectious cause of death in resource-limited settings. Effective treatment is the cornerstone of tuberculosis control, reducing mortality, recurrence and transmission. Supporting treatment adherence through facility-based observations of medication taking can be costly to providers and patients. Digital adherence technologies (DATs) may facilitate treatment monitoring and differentiated care. The ASCENT-Ethiopia study is a three-arm cluster randomised trial assessing two DATs with differentiated care for supporting tuberculosis treatment adherence in Ethiopia. This study is part of the ASCENT consortium, assessing DATs in South Africa, the Philippines, Ukraine, Tanzania and Ethiopia. The aim of this study is to determine the costs, cost-effectiveness and equity impact of implementing DATs in Ethiopia. METHODS AND DESIGN: A total of 78 health facilities have been randomised (1:1:1) into one of two intervention arms or a standard-of-care arm. Approximately 50 participants from each health facility will be enrolled on the trial. Participants in facilities randomised to the intervention arms are offered a DAT linked to the ASCENT adherence platform for daily adherence monitoring and differentiated response for those who have missed doses. Participants at standard-of-care facilities receive routine care. Treatment outcomes and resource utilisation will be measured for each participant. The primary effectiveness outcome is a composite index of unfavourable end-of-treatment outcomes (lost to follow-up, death or treatment failure) or treatment recurrence within 6 months of end-of-treatment. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, end-of-treatment outcomes will be used to estimate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Provider and patient cost data will be collected from a subsample of 5 health facilities per study arm, 10 participants per facility (n = 150). We will conduct a societal cost-effectiveness analysis using Bayesian hierarchical models that account for the individual-level correlation between costs and outcomes as well as intra-cluster correlation. An equity impact analysis will be conducted to summarise equity efficiency trade-offs. DISCUSSION: Trial enrolment is ongoing. This paper follows the published trial protocol and describes the protocol and analysis plan for the health economics work package of the ASCENT-Ethiopia trial. This analysis will generate economic evidence to inform the implementation of DATs in Ethiopia and globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (PACTR) PACTR202008776694999. Registered on 11 August 2020,  https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=12241 .


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Humans , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Ethiopia , Bayes Theorem , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
Molecules ; 28(8)2023 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294072

ABSTRACT

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) produces the pathologic basis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An increase in the viral load in the body leads to a decline in the number of T lymphocytes, compromising the patient's immune system. Some opportunistic diseases may result, such as tuberculosis (TB), which is the most common in seropositive patients. Long-term treatment is required for HIV-TB coinfection, and cocktails of drugs for both diseases are used concomitantly. The most challenging aspects of treatment are the occurrence of drug interactions, overlapping toxicity, no adherence to treatment and cases of resistance. Recent approaches have involved using molecules that can act synergistically on two or more distinct targets. The development of multitarget molecules could overcome the disadvantages of the therapies used to treat HIV-TB coinfection. This report is the first review on using molecules with activities against HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) for molecular hybridization and multitarget strategies. Here, we discuss the importance and development of multiple targets as a means of improving adherence to therapy in cases of the coexistence of these pathologies. In this context, several studies on the development of structural entities to treat HIV-TB simultaneously are discussed.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , HIV , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 234, 2023 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children under age five years, particularly those living with HIV (CLHIV), are at risk for rapid progression of tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to describe TB clinical presentations, diagnostic pathways and treatment outcomes in CLHIV compared to children without HIV in Cameroon and Kenya. METHODS: This sub-analysis of a cluster-randomized trial evaluating the integration of pediatric TB services from May 2019 to March 2021 enrolled children age < 5 years with TB. We estimated the HIV infection rate with 95% confidence interval (CI). We compared TB clinical presentations, diagnostic pathways and treatment outcomes in CLHIV and children without HIV. Finally, we investigated whether HIV infection was associated with a shorter time to TB diagnosis (≤ 3 months from symptoms onset) after adjusting for covariates. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) presented as measures of the association of covariates with HIV status and with shorter time to TB diagnosis. RESULTS: We enrolled 157 children with TB (mean age was 1.5 years) and 22/157 (14.0% [9.0-20.4%]) were co-infected with HIV. CLHIV were more likely to initially present with acute malnutrition (AOR 3.16 [1.14-8.71], p = 0.027). Most TB diagnoses (140/157, 89%) were made clinically with pulmonary TB being the most common presentation; however, there was weak evidence of more frequent bacteriologic confirmation of TB in CLHIV, 18% vs. 9% (p = 0.067), due to the contribution of lateral-flow urine lipoarabinomannan to the diagnosis. HIV positivity (AOR: 6.10 [1.32-28.17], p = 0.021) was independently associated with a shorter time to TB diagnosis as well as fatigue (AOR: 6.58 [2.28-18.96], p = 0.0005), and existence of a household contact diagnosed with TB (AOR: 5.60 [1.58-19.83], p = 0.0075), whereas older age (AOR: 0.35 [0.15-0.85], p = 0.020 for age 2-5 years), night sweats (AOR: 0.24 [0.10-0.60], p = 0.0022) and acute malnutrition (AOR: 0.36 [0.14-0.92], p = 0.034) were associated with a delayed diagnosis. The case fatality rate was 9% (2/22) in CLHIV and 4% (6/135) in children without HIV, p = 0.31. CONCLUSIONS: These results altogether advocate for better integration of TB services into all pediatric entry points with a special focus on nutrition services, and illustrate the importance of non-sputum-based TB diagnostics especially in CLHIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03862261, first registration 05/03/2019.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Malnutrition , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Malnutrition/complications
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(6): 1240-1243, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301072

ABSTRACT

The clinical features and outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 coinfection are not well established. This short report describes 11 people with TB/COVID-19 coinfection in Uganda. The mean age was 46.9 ± 14.5 years; eight (72.7%) were male and two (18.2%) were coinfected with HIV. All patients presented with cough whose median duration was 71.1 (interquartile range, 33.1, 109) days. Eight (72.7%) had mild COVID-19 whereas two (18.2%) died, including one with advanced HIV disease. All patients were treated with first-line anti-TB drugs and adjunct therapy for COVID-19 using national treatment guidelines. This report presents the possibility of the coexistence of the two diseases and calls for more vigilance, screening, and collective prevention measures for both COVID-19 and TB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Coinfection/complications , Uganda/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
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