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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 976, 2022 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) from tuberculosis (TB) treatment and care is a major public health problem as patients can be infectious and also may develop a multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The study aimed to assess whether LTFU differs by the distance TB patients travelled to receive care from the nearest health facility. METHODS: A total of 402 patient cards of TB patients who received care were reviewed from March 1-30, 2020. The Kaplan-Meir curve with the Log-rank test was used to compare differences in LTFU by the distance travelled to reach to the nearest health facility for TB care. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify predictors. All statistical tests are declared significant at a p-value< 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were LTFU with the incidence rate of 11.26 per 1000 person-months of observations (PMOs) (95% CI: 8.15-15.53). The incidence rate ratio was 12.19 (95% CI: 5.01-35.73) among the groups compared (those who travelled 10 km or more versus those who travelled less than 10 km). Age ≥ 45 years (aHR = 7.71, 95% CI: 1.72, 34.50), educational status (primary schooling, aHR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.49, 8.40; secondary schooling, aHR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.08, 7.03), lack of family support (aHR = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.27, 6.19), nutritional support (aHR = 3.40, 95% CI:1.68, 6.89), ≥ 10 km distance to travel to a health facility (aHR = 6.06, 95% CI: 2.33, 15.81) had significantly predicted LTFU from TB treatment and care. CONCLUSIONS: LTFU from adult TB care and treatment was 12 times higher among those who travelled ≥10 km to reach a health facility compared to those who travelled less. To retain adult TB patients in care and ensure appropriate treatment, health professionals and other stakeholders should give due attention to the factors that drive LTFU. We suggest identifying concerns of older patients at admission and those who travel long distance and establish social support platforms that could help people to complete TB treatment.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Adult , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Lost to Follow-Up , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
2.
J Med Chem ; 65(11): 7489-7531, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864721

ABSTRACT

Over the past 2000 years, tuberculosis (TB) has claimed more lives than any other infectious disease. In 2020 alone, TB was responsible for 1.5 million deaths worldwide, comparable to the 1.8 million deaths caused by COVID-19. The World Health Organization has stated that new TB drugs must be developed to end this pandemic. After decades of neglect in this field, a renaissance era of TB drug discovery has arrived, in which many novel candidates have entered clinical trials. However, while hundreds of molecules are reported annually as promising anti-TB agents, very few successfully progress to clinical development. In this Perspective, we critically review those anti-TB compounds published in the last 6 years that demonstrate good in vivo efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, we highlight the main challenges and strategies for developing new TB drugs and the current global pipeline of drug candidates in clinical studies to foment fresh research perspectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 570-579, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore changes over time in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Denmark in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based cohort study we included all adult PLWH from the Danish HIV Cohort Study (1995-2017) without previous TB. We estimated TB incidence rate (IR), all-cause mortality rate (MR), associated risk and prognostic factors using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 6982 PLWH (73 596 person-years (PY)), we observed 217 TB events (IR 2.9/1000 PY, 95% CI 2.6-3.4: IR 6.7, 95% CI 5.7-7.9 among migrants and IR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7 among Danish-born individuals; p < 0.001). The IR of concomitant HIV/TB remained high and unchanged over time. The IR of TB diagnosed >3 months after HIV diagnosis declined with calendar time, longer time from HIV diagnosis, and CD4 cell recovery. Independent TB risk factors were African/Asian/Greenland origin (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 5.2, 95% CI 3.5-7.6, aIRR 6.5, 95% CI 4.2-10.0, aIRR 7.0, 95% CI 3.4-14.6, respectively), illicit drug use (aIRR 6.9, 95% CI 4.2-11.2), CD4 <200 cells/µL (aIRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.6) and not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aIRR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.3). Fifty-five patients died (MR 27.9/1000 PY, 95% CI 21.4-36.3), with no improvement in mortality over time. Mortality prognostic factors were Danish-origin (adjusted mortality rate ratio (aMRR) 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), social burden (aMRR 3.9, 95% CI 2.2-7.0), CD4 <100 cells/µL at TB diagnosis (aMRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9), TB diagnosed >3 months after HIV versus concomitant diagnosis (aMRR 4.3, 95% CI 2.2-8.7) and disseminated TB (aMRR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.9). CONCLUSION: Late HIV presentation with concomitant TB remains a challenge. Declining TB rates in PLWH were observed over time and with CD4 recovery, highlighting the importance of early and successful antiretroviral therapy. However, MR remained high. Our findings highlight the importance of HIV and TB screening strategies and treatment of latent TB in high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
West Afr J Med ; Vol. 38(10): 958-962, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1824530

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Contingency measures taken by governments with movement restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic may create difficulties in conducting some field activities for TB control especially the supervision of Basic Management Units (BMUs). We described in this paper an innovative initiative to conduct remote supervision (Esupervision) using Information and Communication Technology tools. SETTING AND METHOD: This initiative was conducted in Benin Republic. To carry out the activity, we used smartphone, WhatsApp® for messaging, CamScanner for scanning (both free applications); and internet connection. BMUs were asked to scan their reports and all necessary documents and sent them by WhatsApp® after scanning. On the day planned for the supervision, the supervisors of each section (clinic, laboratory, food delivery supervision) calls the BMUs health professionals via WhatsApp® video to conduct the activity according to the National Tuberculosis Programme guidelines. RESULTS: Overall, all the main objectives of a supervision were achieved despite some difficulties mainly related to the quality of internet connection. The reports from the different sections were validated for each BMU. For the laboratory activities, general aspects as well as the stock of reagents were evaluated; microcopy fields with an ordinary microscope were visualized. The management of tuberculosis patients was assessed by visualizing the results of bacteriological exams, treatment records, and stocks of medicines. CONCLUSION: Even though, this activity will probably not replace the traditional face-to-face supervision, it could be used in settings where movements are restricted for several reasons including COVID-19 pandemic, conflicts and natural disasters.


INTRODUCTION: Les mesures d'urgence prises par les gouvernements avec des restrictions de mouvements dans le cadre de la pandémie du COVID-19 peuvent créer des difficultés dans la conduite de certaines activités de terrain pour le contrôle de la tuberculose, en particulier la supervision des centres de dépistage et de traitement de la tuberculose (CDT). Nous avons décrit dans cet article, une initiative novatrice pour effectuer la supervision à distance (E-supervision) en utilisant les outils des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication au Bénin. CADRE ET MÉTHODE: Cette initiative a été conduite en République du Bénin. Pour mener à bien cette activité, nous avons utilisé : smartphone, WhatsApp pour la messagerie et CamScanner ® pour le scannage (deux applications gratuites) ; et la connexion internet. Les agents des CDT ont été invités à envoyer tous les documents aux équipes de supervision via WhatsApp ® après les avoir scannés. Le jour prévu pour la supervision, les superviseurs de chaque section (clinique, laboratoire, gestion des vivres) ont appelé par WhatsApp ® video les acteurs des CDT pour dérouler les différentes séquences de la supervision selon les recommandations du Programme. RÉSULTATS: Dans l'ensemble, tous les principaux objectifs d'une supervision ont été atteints malgré quelques difficultés liées principalement à la qualité de la connexion internet. Les rapports des différentes sections (clinique, laboratoire et gestion des aliments) ont été validés pour chaque CDT. Pour les activités de laboratoire, l'aspect général ainsi que le stock de réactifs ont été évalués ; les champs de microcopie avec un microscope ordinaire ont été visualisés. La gestion des patients tuberculeux a été évaluée en visualisant les résultats des examens bactériologiques, les dossiers de traitement, les stocks de médicaments. CONCLUSION: Bien que cette activité ne remplacera probablement pas la supervision traditionnelle en face à face, elle pourrait être utilisée dans des contextes où les mouvements sont limités pour plusieurs raisons, notamment la pandémie COVID-19, les conflits, les catastrophes naturelles. MOTS CLÉS: Lutte contre la tuberculose, COVID-19, supervision, centres antituberculeux.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Benin , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
5.
Immunobiology ; 227(3): 152224, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819510

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has set back progress made on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Without urgent re-focus, we risk slowing down drug discovery and providing treatment for drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unique in its immune evasion, dormancy and resuscitation, the causal pathogens of tuberculosis (TB) have demonstrated resistance to antibiotics with efflux pumps and the ability to form biofilms. Repurposing drugs is a prospective avenue for finding new anti-TB drugs. There are many advantages to discovering novel targets of an existing drug, as the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties have already been established, they are cost-efficient and can be commercially accelerated for the new development. One such group of drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are originally known for their ability to supress the host proinflammatory responses. In addition to their anti-inflammatory properties, some NSAIDs have been discovered to have antimicrobial modes of action. Of particular interest is Carprofen, identified to inhibit the efflux mechanism and disrupt biofilm formation in mycobacteria. Due to the complexities of host-pathogens interactions in the lung microbiome, inflammatory responses must carefully be controlled alongside the in vivo actions of the prospective anti-infectives. This critical review explores the potential dual role of a selection of NSAIDs, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tubercular adjunct to reverse the tide of antimicrobial resistance in existing treatments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
6.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810041

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis remains a global health problem that affects millions of people around the world. Despite recent efforts in drug development, new alternatives are required. Herein, a series of 27 N-(4-(benzyloxy)benzyl)-4-aminoquinolines were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Two of these compounds exhibited minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) similar to the first-line drug isoniazid. In addition, these hit compounds were selective for the bacillus with no significant change in viability of Vero and HepG2 cells. Finally, chemical stability, permeability and metabolic stability were also evaluated. The obtained data show that the molecular hits can be optimized aiming at the development of drug candidates for tuberculosis treatment.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/chemistry , Humans , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
7.
J Infect Dis ; 225(8): 1317-1320, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795259

ABSTRACT

We assessed the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on treatment of latent tuberculosis, and of active tuberculosis, at 3 centers in Montreal and Toronto, using data from 10 833 patients (8685 with latent tuberculosis infection, 2148 with active tuberculosis). Observation periods prior to declarations of COVID-19 public health emergencies ranged from 219 to 744 weeks, and after declarations, from 28 to 33 weeks. In the latter period, reductions in latent tuberculosis infection treatment initiation rates ranged from 30% to 66%. At 2 centers, active tuberculosis treatment rates fell by 16% and 29%. In Canada, cornerstone measures for tuberculosis elimination weakened during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
8.
Tuberk Toraks ; 70(1): 8-14, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789611

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and tuberculosis are serious and mortal diseases worldwide. There are few studies about the association between tuberculosis and COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed to describe the characteristics of tuberculosis and COVID-19 co-infection cases in light of the literature. Materials and Methods: Tuberculosis patients who applied to the tuberculosis outpatient clinic between September 1-September 30, 2020, and patients hospitalized in the COVID-19 service between June 1- September 30, 2020, were retrospectively screened. Patients with tuberculosis and COVID-19 co-infection were recorded. Clinical, radiological, laboratory data, and treatments were recorded and analyzed. For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, sputum acid-resistant bacillus (ARB) smear or culture positivity or pathological diagnosis were used. For the diagnosis of COVID-19, positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and/or typical radiological findings were sought. Result: Seven hundred and fifty-one patients' data at the tuberculosis outpatient clinic, 229 patients' data at the COVID-19 clinic were screened. Sixteen patients meet the criteria. COVID-19 infection rate in tuberculosis patients was 2.1%. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had received COVID-19 disease during diagnosis or initial tuberculosis treatment phase. There were no drugdrug interactions between anti-tuberculosis drugs and COVID-19 treatment. During the COVID-19 treatment, one patient (6%) died, 15 (94%) patients completed the treatment. Conclusions: : In our study, no effect of the coexistence of TB and COVID-19 on morbidity or mortality was observed. Although the number of patients is small, it can be said that patients with early TB disease and with widespread involvement may be riskier for COVID-19 infection. Frequent hospital visits by TB patients may be a risk for COVID-19. It may be beneficial to carry out the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients by tuberculosis dispensaries as in our country or authorized units to reduce the risk of hospital admissions and COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Turkey/epidemiology
9.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(164)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789101

ABSTRACT

Prior to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), tuberculosis (TB) was the worst killer among infectious diseases. The union of these two obnoxious respiratory diseases can be devastating, with severe public health implications. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all TB-elimination programmes due to the severe burden on healthcare systems and the diversion of funds and attention towards controlling the pandemic. The emerging data show that the COVID-19 pandemic caused a marked decrease in case notifications and bacille Calmette-Guérin immunisations, ultimately promoting disease transmission and increasing the susceptible population. The similarity between the clinical characteristics of TB and COVID-19 adds to the public health complications, with evidence of immune dysregulation in both cases leading to severe consequences. Clinical evidence suggests that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection predisposes patients to TB infection or may lead to reactivation of latent disease. Similarly, underlying TB disease can worsen COVID-19. Treatment options are limited in COVID-19; therefore, using immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory regimens that can modulate the concomitant bacterial infection and interaction with anti-TB drugs requires caution. Thus, considering the synergistic impact of these two respiratory diseases, it is crucial to manage both diseases to combat the syndemic of TB and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(3): 478-483, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786135

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 cases are still rising globally in the middle of the tuberculosis epidemic. Several countries have reported TB-COVID-19 coinfection that could pose a double burden in the health care facilities in developing countries. We reported two pulmonary tuberculosis patients coinfected with COVID-19 with an overlapping clinical manifestation of tuberculosis and COVID-19 with a good prognosis at the end of COVID-19 treatment. This paper aims to discuss TB patients' susceptibility against SARS-COV-2 infection, the clinical profile of TB-COVID-19 coinfection, and the disease's prognosis. The clinician should be aware of both common disease symptoms that appear in a patient and should be confirmed and treat promptly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 201, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is one of 30 countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, and poor adherence to TB treatment is one of the biggest challenges for TB control. We aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators of treatment adherence among drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) patients under the "Integrated model" in Western China, to provide evidence-based treatment and control regimens for DS-TB patients to improve adherence behaviours. METHODS: Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to explore the factors associated with self-reported adherence (SRA) behaviours. Questionnaire surveys with DS-TB patients and in-depth interviews with leaders from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and community health sectors (CHCs), healthcare workers (HCWs) from CHCs, and DS-TB patients were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 459 eligible patients were included in the quantitative survey, and two patients and 13 healthcare providers were included in the in-depth interviews. The percentage of patients who experienced a missed dose, lack of follow-up sputum examination, and interrupted treatment were 19.0%, 11.3%, and 9.2%, respectively. Patients aged 20-39 had a higher risk of missed dose [OR (95% CI): 2.302 (1.001-5.305)] and a lower risk of interrupted treatment [OR (95% CI): 0.278 (0.077-0.982)] than patients more than 60 years. Patients who were of Han ethnicity (OR [95% CI]: 0.524 [0.301-0.912]) received psychological support (OR [95% CI]: 0.379 [0.144-0.998]) from their family and had a lower risk of missed doses. Patients who had drug side effects had a higher risk of interrupted treatment (OR [95% CI]: 2.587 [1.237-5.412]). Patients who possessed higher knowledge had a lower risk of lack of follow-up sputum examination [OR (95% CI): 0.817 (0.673-0.991)]. The results of the qualitative study also reported that patients' poor TB knowledge was the main reason for their non-SRA behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-centred strategies should be implemented to improve health literacy and strengthen psychological support. More effective case management should be designed and implemented based on different patient characteristics to improve adherence behaviours in further studies.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Tuberculosis , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , China , Humans , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Young Adult
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(4): e543-e554, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global health emergency. We aimed to evaluate treatment outcomes among people with MDR-TB in Sierra Leone and investigate social and health factors associated with adverse treatment outcomes. METHODS: This national, retrospective cohort study recruited all people notified with MDR-TB to the Sierra Leone National TB Programme, admitted to Lakka hospital (Lakka, Western Area Rural District, Freetown, Sierra Leone) between April, 2017, and September, 2019. Participants were followed up to May, 2021. People who were eligible but had no social or health data available, or were subsequently found to have been misdiagnosed, were excluded from participation. MDR-TB treatment was with the 2017 WHO-recommended short (9-11 month) or long (18-24 month) aminoglycoside-containing regimens. Multivariable logistic regression models examined associations of programmatic social and health data with WHO-defined adverse treatment outcomes (death, treatment failure, loss to follow-up). FINDINGS: Of 370 notified MDR-TB cases, 365 (99%) were eligible for study participation (five participants were excluded due to lack of social or health data or misdiagnosis). Treatment was started by 341 (93%) of 365 participants (317 received the short regimen, 24 received the long regimen, and 24 received no treatment). Median age was 35 years (IQR 26-45), 263 (72%) of 365 were male and 102 (28%) were female, 71 (19%) were HIV-positive, and 127 (35%) were severely underweight (body-mass index <16·5 kg/m2). Overall, 267 (73%) of 365 participants had treatment success, 95 (26%) had an adverse outcome, and three (1%) were still on treatment in May, 2021. Age 45-64 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·4, 95% CI 1·2-5·0), severe underweight (aOR 4·2, 1·9-9·3), untreated HIV (aOR 10, 2·6-40·0), chronic lung disease (aOR 2·0, 1·0-4·2), previously unsuccessful drug-sensitive tuberculosis retreatment (aOR 4·3, 1·0-19), and a long regimen (aOR 6·5, 2·3-18·0) were associated with adverse outcomes. A sensitivity analysis showed that prothionamide resistance (aOR 3·1, 95% CI 1·5-10·0) and aminoglycoside-related complete deafness (aOR 6·6, 1·3-35) were independently associated with adverse outcomes. INTERPRETATION: MDR-TB treatment success in Sierra Leone approached WHO targets and the short regimen was associated with higher success. The social and health factors associated with adverse outcomes in this study suggest a role for integrated tuberculosis, HIV, and non-communicable disease services alongside nutritional and socioeconomic support for people with MDR-TB and emphasise the urgent need to scale up coverage of all-oral aminoglycoside-sparing regimens. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Joint Global Health Trials.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Adult , Aminoglycosides , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Thinness , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology
13.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(1): 38-44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776448

ABSTRACT

Background: Available evidence shows that India's ongoing COVID-19 pandemic response has adversely affected the national tuberculosis elimination program. Objectives: The study attempted to understand the barriers to successful treatment adherence for female tuberculosis (TB) patients due to disruptions caused by the pandemic. Methods: The study draws on qualitative in-depth interviews conducted with patients and TB health visitors from Bengaluru city before and during the pandemic period using a grounded theory approach. Results: While TB has the potential to push female patients who worked in informal arrangements to joblessness and poverty, the pandemic situation has exacerbated these vulnerabilities. The pandemic situation slowed down or suspended vital frontline interventions such as active case finding, distribution of medicine, follow-up of sputum examination, monitoring of medicine intake, and patient support measures. Conclusion: The pandemic-induced barriers to treatment adherence for the vulnerable TB patients can lead to adverse treatment outcomes including disease relapse and drug resistance. It is hence suggested that there is an urgent need for recasting the frontline TB interventions in India in the context of the pandemic in order to achieve the goal of TB elimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776235

ABSTRACT

A significant drop in tuberculosis (TB) case-finding has been widely reported during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. To address a decrease in TB notification, Belarus introduced laboratory TB testing in patients with the laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a secondary analysis of health records among 844 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis who were admitted to repurposed departments at TB hospitals and who were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in five Belarus regions between April and October 2021. Quantitative analysis followed by 13 individual interviews with health managers, physicians, and nurses participating in the intervention. Most patients were male (64%) and mean age was 43.5 ± 16 years. One in twenty (n = 47, 5.6%) patients were co-infected with active pulmonary TB, and over one-third of them (n = 18) had rifampicin resistance. In-hospital mortality was comparable in patients with and without TB co-infection (2.1% and 2.3% respectively, p > 0.99). Laboratory TB testing among patients with COVID-19 at repurposed departments of TB hospitals is feasible in Belarus and may improve TB case-finding.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Latent Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Republic of Belarus/epidemiology , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 820-827, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760183

ABSTRACT

We analyzed a pharmacy dataset to assess the 20% decline in tuberculosis (TB) cases reported to the US National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS) during the coronavirus disease pandemic in 2020 compared with the 2016-2019 average. We examined the correlation between TB medication dispensing data to TB case counts in NTSS and used a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model to predict expected 2020 counts. Trends in the TB medication data were correlated with trends in NTSS data during 2006-2019. There were fewer prescriptions and cases in 2020 than would be expected on the basis of previous trends. This decrease was particularly large during April-May 2020. These data are consistent with NTSS data, suggesting that underreporting is not occurring but not ruling out underdiagnosis or actual decline. Understanding the mechanisms behind the 2020 decline in reported TB cases will help TB programs better prepare for postpandemic cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacy , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(2): 127-134, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation, use and cost of a phone-based tuberculosis case finding and case management intervention during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in two regions in the Philippines. METHODS: We implemented this phone-based intervention to maintain tuberculosis treatment support, active case finding and contact investigation efforts in 42 facilities, starting in June 2020. We established a dedicated mobile phone number for each centre and promoted the intervention on different media platforms. We recruited and trained staff members and provided them with tools for screening and patient follow-up. We collected data on tuberculosis screening, diagnosis and treatment initiation for this intervention and three comparator interventions over the same period. We collected data on number and type of calls placed and received. We estimated the additional cost of this intervention compared to the standard of care. FINDINGS: From October 2020 to September 2021, 14 tuberculosis contact centres, for which complete data were available, identified 43.5% (827/1901) of patients with bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis enrolled in treatment among all comparator interventions. These centres managed 6187 calls over the same period. The additional cost of implementing and running the centre for 12 months was 398 United States dollars per facility. CONCLUSION: The tuberculosis contact centre is a low-technology telehealth intervention which contributed to overall treatment initiation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional work should assess the extent to which the contact centre identifies tuberculosis patients previously missed by the health system, regardless of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Pandemics , Philippines/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 232: 114173, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757297

ABSTRACT

Today, tuberculosis (TB) caused by the acid-fast bacilli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the most infectious killer disease globally with high morbidity and mortality rates. The rapid development of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains via intrinsic (efflux pumps) and acquired (biological mutations) mechanisms reduce the efficacy of applied anti-TB regimens. Nevertheless, only bedaquiline (BDQ) and pretomanid (PMD) were added to anti-TB therapy in the last decade. The existing anti-TB drugs also exhibited cytotoxicity and hepatotoxicity from long-term treatment. Thus, exploring or developing potential and less toxic anti-TB candidates, preferably natural-based candidates, is the call of the day. At present, 'quinoline' could be considered one of the versatile scaffolds presented in most mainstream medicines from comprehensive drug reports. Notably, BDQ with two clinically evaluating anti-TB candidates, TBJA-587 and DC-159a was motivated for utilizing quinoline heterocycles. Accordingly, we have selected 65 natural quinoline heterocycles bearing potential anti-TB agents (40 plant-derived and 25 marine-derived) within MIC value ≤ 50 µg/mL from an extensive literature search. Briefly, source, drug chemistry, structural activity relationship, prior pharmacokinetics profiles with drug-ability, toxicity, and hierarchical clustering analysis using various computational tools to identify the most 'drug-able lead' candidate is the uniqueness of the review. From extensive drug analysis, tetrandrine, 2'-nortiliacorinine, tiliacorine, globospiramine, evocarpine, allocuspareine from plant sources, and ecteinascidin 770, 6-hydroxymanzamine E, (-)-8-hydroxymanzamine A, ecteinascidin 786, manzamine F from marine sources are the most potential-cum-drug-able anti-TB candidates. We hope the systematic and critical drug analyses on quinoline-bearing natural anti-TB candidates are helpful to design potential-cum-less toxic anti-TB drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents/chemistry , Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 318, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem with treatment initiation failure rates varying between 14.9 and 25%. Lack of proper provider/patient communication on next steps after testing, not being aware that results are ready; and other competing priorities are some of the reasons for this failure. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of Short Message Service (SMS) technology and ward-based outreach teams (WBOTs) in improving TB treatment initiation. A 3-arm randomized controlled trial (Standard of care-SOC, SMS technology or WBOTs) was conducted between September 2018 and April 2020. Newly diagnosed TB patients randomly allocated to SMS and WBOTs groups were sent reminder messages (text message or paper slip respectively) that results were ready. Due to unforeseen challenges (financial and impact of the COVID 19 pandemic), implementation was only in two of the eight clinics planned. RESULTS: 314 TB patients were assigned to one of three groups (SOC = 104, WBOTs = 105, and SMS = 105). Chi-square tests were used to compare proportions starting treatment (primary outcome). More patients in the SMS group (92/105; 88%) initiated treatment than in the SOC group (81/104; 78%), although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.062). The time to treatment initiation was significantly shorter in the SMS group than in the SOC group (P < 0.001). The proportions of patients initiated on treatment in the WBOTs group (45/62; 73%) and in the SOC group (44/61; 72%) were similar (P = 0.956). The times to treatment initiation for these two groups were also similar. The 3 group analysis yielded similar proportions initiated on treatment (P = 0.048 for SMS/SOC comparison and P = 0.956 for WBOTs/SOC comparison) but analysis of times to treatment initiation yielded some variations. CONCLUSION: Reminder SMS messages sent to newly diagnosed TB patients improved the time to treatment initiation. Further research is required to show effect of the WBOTs intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry ( PACTR202101914895981 ). The trial was registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry on 25 January, 2021 (ref: PACTR202101914895981 ; https://pactr.samrc.ac.za ). The registration was retrospective due to an oversight. Nevertheless, the protocol details outlined in our ethics application were strictly adhered to.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Tuberculosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
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