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2.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(1): 4-5, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598516
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1260, 2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the temporal trend of tuberculosis cases according to sex and age group and evidence the level of disease before the Covid-19 pandemic in a TB high endemic city. METHODS: This was a time series study carried out in a city in northeast Brazil. The population was composed of cases of tuberculosis, excluding those with HIV-positive status, reported between the years 2002 and 2018. An exploratory analysis of the monthly rates of tuberculosis detection, smoothed according to sex and age group, was performed. Subsequently, the progression of the trend and prediction of the disease were also characterized according to these aspects. For the trends forecast, the seasonal autoregressive linear integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and the usual Box-Jenkins method were used to choose the most appropriate models. RESULTS: A total of 1620 cases of tuberculosis were reported, with an incidence of 49.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in men and 34.0 per 100,000 in women. Regarding the incidence for both sexes, there was a decreasing trend, which was similar for age. Evidence resulting from the application of the time series shows a decreasing trend in the years 2002-2018, with a trend of stability. CONCLUSIONS: The study evidenced a decreasing trend in tuberculosis, even before the Covid-19 pandemic, for both sex and age; however, in a step really slow from that recommended by the World Health Organization. According to the results, the disease would have achieved a level of stability in the city next years, however it might have been aggravated by the pandemic. These findings are relevant to evidence the serious behavior and trends of TB in a high endemic scenario considering a context prior to the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
5.
S Afr Med J ; 111(12): 1181-1189, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, many countries instituted lockdown measures. As the virus was initially slow to spread to rural areas in South Africa, Mopani district in Limpopo Province did not experience a high incidence of COVID-19 until the second wave in December 2020. Until then, lockdown measures were more likely than SARS-CoV-2 infections to have an adverse impact on health services. OBJECTIVES: To analyse HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) indicator trends in Mopani during the COVID-19 lockdown and two COVID-19 waves. METHODS: Using monthly data from the District Health Information System from February 2019 to December 2020, we conducted a retrospective review of data elements and indicators that fall into the following domains: primary healthcare head count (HC), HIV, antiretroviral treatment (ART), PMTCT and TB. Aggregated data were analysed, and an interrupted time series analysis was conducted. We assessed percentage changes between the January - March 2020 and April - June 2020 periods, and differences in means for the period April - December 2019 v. the period April - December 2020 were assessed for statistical significance. RESULTS: At the start of the first wave in April 2020, a statistically significant decline of 10% was recorded for total HC utilisation rates (p=0.1). We also found declines of 665 HIV tests (from 1 608 to 942) and 22 positive HIV tests (from 27 to 4) for children between the ages of 18 months and 14 years (p=0.05), with no recovery. Significant declines were also recorded for children aged <15 years starting (change from 35 to 21) and remaining (change from 4 032 to 3 986) on ART, as well as for adults starting ART (change from 855 to 610) at the onset of the first wave (p=0.01). No significant change was detected in PMTCT and TB indicators during the first wave. Pronounced decreases in HC were recorded in December, during the country's second wave (change from 237 965 to 227 834). CONCLUSION: Declines were recorded for most indicators in Mopani, with HC being affected the most at the start of the first wave and not showing any significant recovery between waves. Strategies are required to mitigate the effects of future COVID-19 waves and encourage positive health-seeking behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2686, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513541
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Of the estimated 10 million people affected by (TB) each year, one-third are never diagnosed. Delayed case detection within the private healthcare sector has been identified as a particular problem in some settings, leading to considerable morbidity, mortality and community transmission. Using unannounced standardised patient (SP) visits to the pharmacies, we aimed to evaluate the performance of private pharmacies in the detection and treatment of TB. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken at randomly selected private pharmacies within 40 districts of Vietnam. Trained actors implemented two standardised clinical scenarios of presumptive TB and presumptive multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Outcomes were the proportion of SPs referred for medical assessment and the proportion inappropriately receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. Logistic regression evaluated predictors of SPs' referral. RESULTS: In total, 638 SP encounters were conducted, of which only 155 (24.3%) were referred for medical assessment; 511 (80·1%) were inappropriately offered antibiotics. A higher proportion of SPs were referred without having been given antibiotics if they had presumptive MDR-TB (68/320, 21.3%) versus presumptive TB (17/318, 5.3%; adjusted OR=4.8, 95% CI 2.9 to 7.8). Pharmacies offered antibiotics without a prescription to 89.9% of SPs with presumptive TB and 70.3% with presumptive MDR-TB, with no clear follow-up plan. CONCLUSIONS: Few SPs with presumptive TB were appropriately referred for medical assessment by private pharmacies. Interventions to improve appropriate TB referral within the private pharmacy sector are urgently required to reduce the number of undiagnosed TB cases in Vietnam and similar high-prevalence settings.


Subject(s)
Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Tuberculosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
8.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(5): 382-387, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502726

ABSTRACT

In September 2018, all countries made a commitment at the first ever United Nations High-Level Meeting (UNHLM) on TB, to provide TB preventive treatment (TPT) to at least 30 million people at high-risk of TB disease between 2018 and 2022. In the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEA Region), which accounts for 44% of the global TB burden, only 1.2 million high-risk individuals (household contacts and people living with HIV) were provided TPT (11% of the 10.8 million regional UNHLM TPT target) in 2018 and 2019. By 2020, almost all 11 countries of the SEA Region had revised their policies on TPT target groups and criteria to assess TPT eligibility, and had adopted at least one shorter TPT regimen recommended in the latest WHO TPT guidelines. The major challenges for TPT scale-up in the SEA Region are resource shortages, knowledge and service delivery/uptake gaps among providers and service recipients, and the lack of adequate quantities of rifapentine for use in shorter TPT regimens. There are several regional opportunities to address these gaps and countries of the SEA Region must make use of these opportunities to scale up TPT services rapidly to reduce the TB burden in the SEA Region.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Far East , Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , United Nations , World Health Organization
9.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 33(3): 41-51, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484890

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious cause of death globally. Of the estimated 10 million people who developed active TB in 2019, 1.8 million (18%) were adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years. Adolescents have poorer rates of TB screening, treatment initiation and completion compared to adults. Unfortunately, there is relatively less programme, research and policy focus on TB for adolescents aged 10-19 years. This article reviews the scope of health services and the relevant policy landscape for TB case notification and care/treatment, TB/HIV management, and latent TB infection for adolescents in Nigeria. Additionally, it discusses considerations for TB vaccines in this population. CONTENT: All Nigeria Federal Ministry of Health policy documents relevant to adolescent health services and TB, and published between 2000 and 2020 underwent narrative review. Findings were reported according to the service areas outlined in the Objectives. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK: Nine policy documents were identified and reviewed. While multiple policies acknowledge the needs of adolescents in public health and specifically in TB programming, these needs are often not addressed in policy, nor in program integration and implementation. The lack of age-specific epidemiologic and clinical outcomes data for adolescents contributes to these policy gaps. Poor outcomes are driven by factors such as HIV co-infection, lack of youth-friendly health services, and stigma and discrimination. Policy guidelines and innovations should include adaptations tailored to adolescent needs. However, these adaptations cannot be developed without robust epidemiological data on adolescents at risk of, and living with TB. Gaps in TB care integration into primary reproductive, maternal-child health and nutrition services should be addressed across multiple policies, and mechanisms for supervision, and monitoring and evaluation of integration be developed to guide comprehensive implementation. Youth-friendly TB services are recommended to improve access to quality care delivered in a patient-centered approach.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Public Health , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coinfection/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463655

ABSTRACT

Despite the implementation of global plans to end tuberculosis (TB), this disease remains a major cause of ill-health and is the second leading cause of death. In 2019, globally, an estimated 10.0 million people fell ill and about 1.4 million died of TB. During the same year, South Africa was among the eight countries with the highest tuberculosis burden, contributing to two-thirds of the world's total. Due to the high burden of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, TB in South Africa is a major public health problem. Limpopo is amongst the provinces that are hardest hit by TB and HIV in South Africa. Therefore, using a quantitative descriptive design, this study assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions of TB and TB treatment amongst TB patients in the Limpopo Province. A systematic random sampling method was used to sample 207 TB patients who agreed in writing to be part of the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, however, about 3.9% of participants who could not read were assisted by the main researcher and health professional. About 33% of the participants with primary education were also assisted to clarify any questions that were not clear to them. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences® version 26.0. Validity and reliability of the instrument was ensured, and ethical considerations were observed in this study. The research findings revealed that about 93.25% respondents only came to know they had TB after diagnosis. About 75% indicated that they had visited faith healers and only 2% acknowledged that they had visited traditional healers after diagnosis. A total of 76% of the respondents stated that they strongly believed in their culture and religion. These findings highlight the need for health education efforts to strengthen accurate information to improve TB knowledge and correct misconceptions about TB among patients within the community.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , Perception , Reproducibility of Results , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463639

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to detect airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at nine public health facilities in three provinces of South Africa and determine possible risk factors that may contribute to airborne transmission. Personal samples (n = 264) and stationary samples (n = 327) were collected from perceived high-risk areas in district, primary health clinics (PHCs) and TB facilities. Quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for TB analysis. Walkabout observations and work practices through the infection prevention and control (IPC) questionnaire were documented. Statistical analysis was carried out using Stata version 15.2 software. Airborne MTB was detected in 2.2% of samples (13/572), and 97.8% were negative. District hospitals and Western Cape province had the most TB-positive samples and identified risk areas included medical wards, casualty, and TB wards. MTB-positive samples were not detected in PHCs and during the summer season. All facilities reported training healthcare workers (HCWs) on TB IPC. The risk factors for airborne MTB included province, type of facility, area or section, season, lack of UVGI, and ineffective ventilation. Environmental monitoring, PCR, IPC questionnaire, and walkabout observations can estimate the risk of TB transmission in various settings. These findings can be used to inform management and staff to improve the TB IPC programmes.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Occupational Exposure , Tuberculosis , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Occupational Exposure/analysis , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438683

ABSTRACT

The body of knowledge on alcohol use and communicable diseases has been growing in recent years. Using a narrative review approach, this paper discusses alcohol's role in the acquisition of and treatment outcomes from four different communicable diseases: these include three conditions included in comparative risk assessments to date-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and lower respiratory infections/pneumonia-as well as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of its recent and rapid ascension as a global health concern. Alcohol-attributable TB, HIV, and pneumonia combined were responsible for approximately 360,000 deaths and 13 million disability-adjusted life years lost (DALYs) in 2016, with alcohol-attributable TB deaths and DALYs predominating. There is strong evidence that alcohol is associated with increased incidence of and poorer treatment outcomes from HIV, TB, and pneumonia, via both behavioral and biological mechanisms. Preliminary studies suggest that heavy drinkers and those with alcohol use disorders are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Aside from HIV research, limited research exists that can guide interventions for addressing alcohol-attributable TB and pneumonia or COVID-19. Implementation of effective individual-level interventions and alcohol control policies as a means of reducing the burden of communicable diseases is recommended.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): e318-e325, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433934

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of deaths from an infectious disease worldwide. WHO's End TB Strategy is falling short of several 2020 targets. Undernutrition is the leading population-level risk factor for tuberculosis. Studies have consistently found that undernutrition is associated with increased tuberculosis incidence, increased severity, worse treatment outcomes, and increased mortality. Modelling studies support implementing nutritional interventions for people living with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis disease to ensure the success of the End TB Strategy. In this Personal View, we highlight nutrition-related immunocompromisation, implications of undernutrition for tuberculosis treatment and prevention, the role of nutritional supplementation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimycobacterial medications in undernourished people with tuberculosis, and the role of social protection interventions in addressing undernutrition as a tuberculosis risk factor. To catalyse action on this insufficiently addressed accelerant of the global tuberculosis epidemic, research should be prioritised to understand the immunological pathways that are impaired by nutrient deficiencies, develop tools to diagnose clinical and subclinical tuberculosis in people who are undernourished, and understand how nutritional status affects the efficacy of tuberculosis vaccine and therapy. Through primary research, modelling, and implementation research, policy change should also be accelerated, particularly in countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Status , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/physiopathology
16.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 203, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sustainable development goals aim to improve health for all by 2030. They incorporate ambitious goals regarding tuberculosis (TB), which may be a significant cause of disability, yet to be quantified. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the prevalence and types of TB-related disabilities. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of TB-related disabilities. The pooled prevalence of disabilities was calculated using the inverse variance heterogeneity model. The maps of the proportions of common types of disabilities by country income level were created. RESULTS: We included a total of 131 studies (217,475 patients) that were conducted in 49 countries. The most common type of disabilities were mental health disorders (23.1%), respiratory impairment (20.7%), musculoskeletal impairment (17.1%), hearing impairment (14.5%), visual impairment (9.8%), renal impairment (5.7%), and neurological impairment (1.6%). The prevalence of respiratory impairment (61.2%) and mental health disorders (42.0%) was highest in low-income countries while neurological impairment was highest in lower middle-income countries (25.6%). Drug-resistant TB was associated with respiratory (58.7%), neurological (37.2%), and hearing impairments (25.0%) and mental health disorders (26.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TB-related disabilities were frequently reported. More uniform reporting tools for TB-related disability and further research to better quantify and mitigate it are urgently needed. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019147488.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Mental Disorders , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Humans , Prevalence , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 935, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systematic screening for active tuberculosis (TB) is a strategy which requires the health system to seek out individuals, rather than waiting for individuals to self-present with symptoms (i.e., passive case finding). Our review aimed to summarize the current economic evidence and understand the costs and cost-effectiveness of systematic screening approaches among high-risk groups and settings. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on economic evaluations of screening for TB disease targeting persons with clinical and/or structural risk factors, such as persons living with HIV (PLHIV) or persons experiencing homelessness. We searched three databases for studies published between January 1, 2010 and February 1, 2020. Studies were included if they reported cost and a key outcome measure. Owing to considerable heterogeneity in settings and type of screening strategy, we synthesized data descriptively. RESULTS: A total of 27 articles were included in our review; 19/27 (70%) took place in high TB burden countries. Seventeen studies took place among persons with clinical risk factors, including 14 among PLHIV, while 13 studies were among persons with structural risk factors. Nine studies reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) ranging from US$51 to $1980 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Screening was most cost-effective among PLHIV. Among persons with clinical and structural risk factors there was limited evidence, but screening was generally not shown to be cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Studies showed that screening is most likely to be cost-effective in a high TB prevalence population. Our review highlights that to reach the "missing millions" TB programmes should focus on simple, cheaper initial screening tools (i.e., symptom screen and CXR) followed by molecular diagnostic tools (i.e., Xpert®) among the highest risk groups in the local setting (i.e., PLHIV, urban slums). Programmatic costs greatly impact cost-effectiveness thus future research should provide both fixed and variable costs of screening interventions to improve comparability.


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Tuberculosis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
18.
Can J Public Health ; 112(5): 872-876, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405565

ABSTRACT

The greatest human cost of the rapidly moving pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 may be due to its impact on the response to other diseases. One such other disease is tuberculosis (TB). All indications suggest that COVID-19-related diversions of healthcare resources and disruptions to public health programming will exacerbate the slower moving pandemic of TB. This is expected to set back TB elimination efforts by years. This is a prediction that is especially relevant to Canada, which has repeatedly failed to meet pre-set targets for the elimination of TB even before the COVID-19 pandemic began. A collaborative approach to achieve TB elimination, one that engages all care providers, has recently been emphasized by the STOP-TB Partnership. Among TB elimination strategies, frontline providers (e.g., family physicians, emergency room physicians, and others) are well positioned to identify candidates for the treatment of latent TB infection, and make the diagnosis of infection-spreading cases of TB in a timely manner, thereby interrupting forward-moving chains of transmission. Electronic medical records offer the promise of automating these processes. In this commentary, we promote broader engagement of the workforce across multiple sectors of medicine to reduce TB associated morbidity and mortality, interrupt transmission, and shrink the reservoir of latent TB infection.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Health Personnel , Tuberculosis , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Developed Countries , Disease Eradication/methods , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
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