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2.
Ter Arkh ; 94(11): 1239-1245, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious medical and social problem that does not lose its importance, despite all the advances in pharmacology and surgery. Diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), as a rule, is delayed due to low index of suspicion to tuberculosis and the absence of pathognomonic symptoms. AIM: Determining the change in the ratio of clinical forms of renal tuberculosis from 1999 to 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort comparative non-interventional study on the spectrum of the incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) was carried out. Among all 13852 extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients which were diagnosed from 1999 to 2020, patients with renal tuberculosis were selected, and the spectrum of their clinical forms in three periods was analyzed: 1st period 1999-2004 (1155 patients), second period 2005-2014 (2657 patients), and the third period 2015-2020 (671 patients). The clinical features of nephrotuberculosis in 88 patients was also estimated. RESULTS: Over the 20 years of the analyzed period, the number of patients with UGTB decreased by 80.6%; for the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, this figure fell by another third. In the first period, destructive complicated forms of nephrotuberculosis prevailed (922 patients - 79.8%), while the so-called "minor forms" were diagnosed in 233 patients (20.2%). In the second period, the situation was statistically significantly more favorable: the proportion of destructive and complicated forms of renal tuberculosis decreased to 43.8% (1124 patients), "small forms" were diagnosed in 1443 patients (56.2%). In the third period, destructive and complicated forms of nephrotuberculosis were diagnosed in 531 patients (77.6%), and the proportion of "small forms" in comparison with the previous period decreased by half, to 22.4%. Analysis of the clinical features of renal tuberculosis, depending on the prevalence of the destruction, showed that an asymptomatic course is possible, and pain, dysuria, intoxication and renal colic are present with different frequencies, and the clinical picture of tuberculosis of the renal parenchyma differs significantly from the clinical picture of tuberculous papillitis, cavernous nephrotuberculosis and symptoms of renal tuberculosis as whole. CONCLUSION: Currently, there is no screening on urogenital tuberculosis at all. Patients are diagnosed by referral, with a long history, after receiving multiple courses of antibacterial treatment; mainly through the pathomorphological examination of the operating material. Thus, a sharp decrease in the proportion of UGTB patients does not mean the disappearance of tuberculosis of this localization, but only states the tragic defects in timely diagnosis and low index of suspicion of medical doctors in relation to UGTB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Renal , Tuberculosis, Urogenital , Tuberculosis , Humans , Tuberculosis, Renal/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Renal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 528-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238115

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in 2020 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of case-based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility in cases notified in 2020, data from Statistics Poland on deaths from tuberculosis in 2019, data from National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute (NIPH NIH - NRI) on HIV-positive subjects for whom TB was an AIDS-defining disease, data from the report "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2022 - 2020 data. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe and Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2022." RESULTS: In 2020, 3,388 TB cases were reported in Poland. The incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 100,000 with large variability between voivodeships from 5.5 to 13.3 per 100,000. A decrease in the incidence was found in 15 voivodeships, the most significant in Slaskie voivodship (63.9%). The number of all pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 3,237 i.e. 8.4 per 100,000. Pulmonary cases represented 95.5% of all TB cases. In 2020, 151 extrapulmonary TB cases were notified (4.5% of all TB cases). Pulmonary tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 2,573 cases (79.5% of all pulmonary TB cases, the incidence rate 6.7 per 100,000). The number of smear-positive pulmonary TB cases was 1,771 i.e. 4.6 per 100,000 (54.7% of all pulmonary TB cases). In 2020, there were 38 cases (15 of foreign origin) with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) representing 1.6% of cases with known drug sensitivity. The incidence rates of tuberculosis were growing along with increasing age from 0.7 per 100,000 among children (0-14 years) to 15.0 per 100,000 among subjects in the age group 45-64 years, the incidence rate in the age group ≥65 years was 12.1 per 100,000. There were 39 cases in children up to 14 years of age (1.2% of the total) and 49 cases in adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age - rates 0.7 and 2.7 per 100,000 respectively. In 2020, there were 2,506 cases of tuberculosis in men and 882 in women. The TB incidence in men - 13.5 per 100,000 was 3.0 times higher than among women - 4.5. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 50-54 years - 26.8 vs. 4.1 and in age group 55 to 59 years - 28.7 vs. 4.8. In 2020, there were 116 patients of foreign origin among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (3.4%). In 2019, TB was the cause of death for 456 people (mortality rate - 1.2 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: TB incidence in Poland in 2020 was 36.7% lower than in 2019. Such significant declines in the incidence have not been observed in the last two decades. As in previous years, there were differences in incidence rates between voivodeships with an unexpectedly sharp decrease in incidence in Silesia (Slaskie voivodeship). The percentage of tuberculosis cases with bacteriological confirmation exceeded 78%, more than in EU/EEA countries (67.3%). The percentage of MDR-TB cases was still lower than the average in EU/EEA countries (1.6% vs. 3.8%). The highest incidence rates were found in Poland in the older age groups (EU/EEAaged 25 to 44). The percentage of children up to 14 years of age among the total number of TB patients was 1.2%, less than the average in EU/EEA countries (3.8%). The incidence of tuberculosis in men was three times higher than in women in Poland, and six times higher in patients aged 50 to 59. The impact of migration on the TB pattern in Poland has not yet become significant in 2020. The percentage of foreigners among TB patients was 3.4% (33% in EU/EEA countries).


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Child , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Poland/epidemiology , Urban Population , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Sex Distribution , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Incidence
4.
Indian J Med Res ; 157(2&3): 131-133, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242298
5.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1175482, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242162

ABSTRACT

Background: Disseminated tuberculosis is frequently associated with delayed diagnosis and a poorer prognosis. Objectives: To describe case series of disseminated TB and diagnosis delay in a low TB burden country during the COVID-19 period. Methodology: We consecutively included all patients with of disseminated TB reported from 2019 to 2021 in the reference hospital of the Northern Crown of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. We collected socio-demographic information, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Results: We included all 30 patients reported during the study period-5, 9, and 16 in 2019, 2020, and 2021 respectively-20 (66.7%) of whom were male and whose mean age was 41 years. Twenty-five (83.3%) were of non-EU origin. The most frequent system involvement was central nervous system (N = 8; 26.7%) followed by visceral (N = 7; 23.3%), gastro-intestinal (N = 6, 20.0%), musculoskeletal (N = 5; 16.7%), and pulmonary (N = 4; 13.3%). Hypoalbuminemia and anemia were highly prevalent (72 and 77%). The median of diagnostic delay was 6.5 months (IQR 1.8-30), which was higher among women (36.0 vs. 3.5 months; p = 0.002). Central nervous system involvement and pulmonary involvement were associated with diagnostic delay among women. We recorded 24 cured patients, two deaths, three patients with post-treatment sequelae, and one lost-to-follow up. We observed a clustering effect of patients in low-income neighborhoods (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a substantial delay in the diagnosis of disseminated TB in our study region, which might impacted the prognosis with women affected more negatively. Our results suggest that an increase in the occurrence of disseminated TB set in motion by diagnosis delay may have been a secondary effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing
10.
PLoS Med ; 20(5): e1004237, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends systematic symptom screening for tuberculosis (TB). However, TB prevalence surveys suggest that this strategy does not identify millions of TB patients, globally. Undiagnosed or delayed diagnosis of TB contribute to TB transmission and exacerbate morbidity and mortality. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of large urban and rural primary healthcare clinics in 3 provinces of South Africa to evaluate whether a novel intervention of targeted universal testing for TB (TUTT) in high-risk groups diagnosed more patients with TB per month compared to current standard of care (SoC) symptom-directed TB testing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixty-two clinics were randomized; with initiation of the intervention clinics over 6 months from March 2019. The study was prematurely stopped in March 2020 due to clinics restricting access to patients, and then a week later due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) national lockdown; by then, we had accrued a similar number of TB diagnoses to that of the power estimates and permanently stopped the trial. In intervention clinics, attendees living with HIV, those self-reporting a recent close contact with TB, or a prior episode of TB were all offered a sputum test for TB, irrespective of whether they reported symptoms of TB. We analyzed data abstracted from the national public sector laboratory database using Poisson regression models and compared the mean number of TB patients diagnosed per clinic per month between the study arms. Intervention clinics diagnosed 6,777 patients with TB, 20.7 patients with TB per clinic month (95% CI 16.7, 24.8) versus 6,750, 18.8 patients with TB per clinic month (95% CI 15.3, 22.2) in control clinics during study months. A direct comparison, adjusting for province and clinic TB case volume strata, did not show a significant difference in the number of TB cases between the 2 arms, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.14 (95% CI 0.94, 1.38, p = 0.46). However, prespecified difference-in-differences analyses showed that while the rate of TB diagnoses in control clinics decreased over time, intervention clinics had a 17% relative increase in TB patients diagnosed per month compared to the prior year, interaction IRR 1.17 (95% CI 1.14, 1.19, p < 0.001). Trial limitations were the premature stop due to COVID-19 lockdowns and the absence of between-arm comparisons of initiation and outcomes of TB treatment in those diagnosed with TB. CONCLUSIONS: Our trial suggests that the implementation of TUTT in these 3 groups at extreme risk of TB identified more TB patients than SoC and could assist in reducing undiagnosed TB patients in settings of high TB prevalence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: South African National Clinical Trials Registry DOH-27-092021-4901.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Primary Health Care , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy
11.
Indian J Tuberc ; 70(2): 147-148, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315953

ABSTRACT

Globally, one quarter of the population is infected with TB; and only a small proportion of those infected will become sick. Tuberculosis along with poverty disproportionately affects the households causing a financial burden and catastrophic costs (if the total costs incurred by a household's exceeds 20% of its annual income), which could be direct or indirect and procuring detrimental effects on the effective strategic plans. Out of all diseases, India accounts for 18% of the catastrophic health expenditure including tuberculosis. Therefore, an utmost need for a national cost survey either separately or combined with other health surveys should be held for the comprehension of the baseline burden of Tuberculosis in the affected households, to identify the predictors of catastrophic costs, and simultaneously, intensive research and appropriate innovations are needed to assess the effectiveness of the measures undertaken for the reduction of the proportionate patients who overlook catastrophic costs.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs , Tuberculosis , Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Income , Health Expenditures , Poverty
12.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 31(2): 157-163, 2023 Mar.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313284

ABSTRACT

In pandemic conditions, situation of active and uncontrolled use by population of antimicrobial preparations treating COVID-19 occurs. So, new risks of development of medication resistance among patients with various infectious diseases, tuberculosis included, appear. The purpose of the study is to characterize prevalence of antimicrobial preparations use by population in relationship with development of medication resistance in patients with tuberculosis during COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods. The analysis of sales of antimicrobial medicines was implemented on the basis of published official data from the joint-stock company DSM Group presenting monthly audit of the Russian pharmaceutical market. The determination of primary antibiotic resistance was carried out in 2018-2020 on 3312 patients with tuberculosis. The modified method of proportions on liquid nutrient medium in system with automated accounting of microorganisms growth, the method of absolute concentrations and the method of polymerase chain reaction with real-time detection were applied. The results of the study. It was established that the most demanding antimicrobial medications among population were ceftriaxone, azithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, azithromycin. At the same time, the maximum increase in sales in 2020 up to 150% as compared with of 2019 was determined in medications derived from quinolone moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, which began to be used in treatment of coronavirus infection. At the same time, these medications are traditionally used in tuberculosis treatment. But in 2020, alarming trend was established that limits treatment of tuberculosis patients. The primary resistance of mycobacteria was also established in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients, also for the same antimicrobial medications of quinolone derivatives, and increasing in proportion of patients with primary medication resistance to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin in 2020 as compared to 2018 was 189-480%. At the same time, increasing of resistance to other antibiotics made up to 60.8% on average. Conclusion. The study results imply alarming scenario of medication resistance shifts towards very virulent and highly medication-resistant genotypes. This trend can result in conditions of successful transmission of deadly medication-resistant mutants that can seriously undermine effectiveness of implemented programs of struggle with tuberculosis worldwide.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Quinolones , Tuberculosis , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Pandemics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Quinolones/therapeutic use
13.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285774, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lesotho is one of the 30 countries with the highest tuberculosis incidence rates in the world, estimated at 650 per 100,000 population. Tuberculosis case detection is extremely low, particularly with the rapid spread of COVID-19, dropping from an estimated 51% in 2020 to 33% in 2021. The aim of this study is to understand the barriers to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment completion. METHODS: We used a convergent mixed methods study design. We collected data on the number of clients reporting symptoms upon tuberculosis screening, their sputum test results, the number of clients diagnosed, and the number of clients who started treatment from one district hospital and one health center in Berea district, Lesotho. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 53 health workers and patients. We used a content analysis approach to analyze qualitative data and integrated quantitative and qualitative findings in a joint display. FINDINGS: During March-August, 2019, 218 clients at the hospital and 292 clients at the health center reported tuberculosis symptoms. The full diagnostic testing process was completed for 66% of clients at the hospital and 68% at the health center. Among clients who initiated tuberculosis treatment, 68% (61/90) at the hospital and 74% (32/43) at the health center completed treatment. The main barriers to testing and treatment completion were challenges at sample collection, lack of decentralized diagnostic services, and socioeconomic factors such as food insecurity and high patient movement to search for jobs. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis diagnosis could be improved through the effective decentralization of laboratory services at the health facility level, and treatment completion could be improved by providing food and other forms of social support to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Lesotho/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Focus Groups , Mass Screening/methods , COVID-19 Testing
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(6): 1240-1243, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301072

ABSTRACT

The clinical features and outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 coinfection are not well established. This short report describes 11 people with TB/COVID-19 coinfection in Uganda. The mean age was 46.9 ± 14.5 years; eight (72.7%) were male and two (18.2%) were coinfected with HIV. All patients presented with cough whose median duration was 71.1 (interquartile range, 33.1, 109) days. Eight (72.7%) had mild COVID-19 whereas two (18.2%) died, including one with advanced HIV disease. All patients were treated with first-line anti-TB drugs and adjunct therapy for COVID-19 using national treatment guidelines. This report presents the possibility of the coexistence of the two diseases and calls for more vigilance, screening, and collective prevention measures for both COVID-19 and TB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Coinfection/complications , Uganda/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 31, 2023 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the 14 countries categorised as having a triple burden of tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), and TB-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections. TB infection prevention and control (TB-IPC) guidelines were introduced in 2011 by the National Health Department of PNG. This study assesses the implementation of this policy in a sample of district hospitals in two regions of PNG. METHODS: The implementation of TB-IPC policy was assessed using a survey method based on the World Health Organization (WHO) IPC assessment framework (IPCAF) to implement the WHO's IPC core components. The study included facility assessment at ten district hospitals and validation observations of TB-IPC practices. RESULTS: Overall, implementation of IPC and TB-IPC guidelines was inadequate in participating facilities. Though 80% of facilities had an IPC program, many needed more clearly defined IPC objectives, budget allocation, and yearly work plans. In addition, they did not include senior facility managers in the IPC committee. 80% (n = 8 of 10) of hospitals had no IPC training and education; 90% had no IPC committee to support the IPC team; 70% had no surveillance protocols to monitor infections, and only 20% used multimodal strategies for IPC activities. Similarly, 70% of facilities had a TB-IPC program without a proper budget and did not include facility managers in the TB-IPC team; 80% indicated that patient flow poses a risk of TB transmission; 70% had poor ventilation systems; 90% had inadequate isolation rooms; and though 80% have personal protective equipment available, frequent shortages were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-recommended TB-IPC policy is not effectively implemented in most of the participating district hospitals. Improvements in implementing and disseminating TB-IPC guidelines, monitoring TB-IPC practices, and systematic healthcare worker training are essential to improve TB-IPC guidelines' operationalisation in health settings to reduce TB prevalence in PNG.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Papua New Guinea/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Hospitals
18.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(6): e452-e460, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Integrated molecular testing could be an opportunity to detect and provide care for both tuberculosis and COVID-19. Many high tuberculosis burden countries, such as Peru, have existing GeneXpert systems for tuberculosis testing with GeneXpert Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra), and a GeneXpert SARS-CoV-2 assay, GeneXpert Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 (Xpert Xpress), is also available. We aimed to assess the feasibility of integrating tuberculosis and COVID-19 testing using one sputum specimen with Xpert Ultra and Xpert Xpress in Lima, Peru. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults presenting with clinical symptoms or suggestive history of tuberculosis or COVID-19, or both. Participants were recruited from a total of 35 primary health facilities in Lima, Peru. Participants provided one nasopharyngeal swab and one sputum sample. For COVID-19, we tested nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum using Xpert Xpress; for tuberculosis, we tested sputum using culture and Xpert Ultra. We compared diagnostic accuracy of sputum testing using Xpert Xpress with nasopharyngeal swab testing using Xpert Xpress. Individuals with positive Xpert Xpress nasopharyngeal swab results were considered COVID-19 positive, and a positive culture indicated tuberculosis. To assess testing integration, the proportion of cases identified in sputum by Xpert Xpress was compared with Xpert Xpress on nasopharyngeal swabs, and sputum by Xpert Ultra was compared with culture. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2021, and April 26, 2022, we recruited 600 participants (312 [52%] women and 288 [48%] men). In-study prevalence of tuberculosis was 13% (80 participants, 95% CI 11-16) and of SARS-CoV-2 was 35% (212 participants, 32-39). Among tuberculosis cases, 13 (2·2%, 1·2-3·7) participants were concurrently positive for SARS-CoV-2. Regarding the diagnostic yield of integrated testing, Xpert Ultra detected 96% (89-99) of culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases (n=77), and Xpert Xpress-sputum detected 67% (60-73) of COVID-19 cases (n=134). All five study staff reported that integrated molecular testing was easy and acceptable. INTERPRETATION: The diagnostic yield of Xpert Xpress on sputum was moderate, but integrated testing for tuberculosis and COVID-19 with GeneXpert was feasible. However, systematic testing for both diseases might not be the ideal approach for everyone presenting with presumptive tuberculosis or COVID-19, as concurrent positive cases were rare during the study period. Further research might help to identify when integrated testing is most worthwhile and its optimal implementation. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research and International Development Research Centre. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Peru/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Canada , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1165160, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305027

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the acute pandemic by SARS-CoV-2 is a setback for the fight against chronic pandemics like tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and HIV/AIDS. In fact, after more than a decade of decreasing fatality numbers, 2020 saw a re-increase in the number of people dying from TB. After COVID-19, TB was the infectious disease with the second-highest fatality rate caused by a single pathogen, with 1.6 million deaths in 2021. It is expected by the WHO that the pandemic years to come and even after the pandemic will continue this trend. More efforts are needed to support TB control structures as an integral part of the strengthening measures of the general health care system.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
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