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4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 106, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317129

ABSTRACT

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of hospital-acquired TB infection due to persistent exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in healthcare settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an international system of infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions to interrupt the cycle of nosocomial TB transmission. The guidelines on TB IPC have proposed a comprehensive hierarchy of three core practices, comprising: administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection. However, the implementation of most recommendations goes beyond minimal physical and organisational requirements and thus cannot be appropriately introduced in resource-constrained settings and areas of high TB incidence. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) the lack of knowledge, expertise and practice on TB IPC is a major barrier to the implementation of essential interventions. HCWs often underestimate the risk of airborne Mtb dissemination during tidal breathing. The lack of required expertise and funding to design, install and maintain the environmental control systems can lead to inadequate dilution of infectious particles in the air, and in turn, increase the risk of TB dissemination. Insufficient supply of particulate respirators and lack of direction on the re-use of respiratory protection is associated with unsafe working practices and increased risk of TB transmission between patients and HCWs. Delayed diagnosis and initiation of treatment are commonly influenced by the effectiveness of healthcare systems to identify TB patients, and the availability of rapid molecular diagnostic tools. Failure to recognise resistance to first-line drugs contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant Mtb strains, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mtb. Future guideline development must consider the social, economic, cultural and climatic conditions to ensure that recommended control measures can be implemented in not only high-income countries, but more importantly low-income, high TB burden settings. Urgent action and more ambitious investments are needed at both regional and national levels to get back on track to reach the global TB targets, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/prevention & control , Incidence , Risk Factors
5.
Microbiologyopen ; 10(3): e1211, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281235

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in humans by a single infectious agent worldwide with approximately two billion humans latently infected with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Currently, the accepted method for controlling the disease is Tuberculosis Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (TB-DOTS). This program is not preventative and individuals may transmit disease before diagnosis, thus better understanding of disease transmission is essential. Using whole-genome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, we analyzed genomes of 145 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from active TB cases from the Rubaga Division of Kampala, Uganda. We established that these isolates grouped into M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) lineages 1, 2, 3, and 4, with the most isolates grouping into lineage 4. Possible transmission pairs containing ≤12 SNPs were identified in lineages 1, 3, and 4 with the prevailing transmission in lineages 3 and 4. Furthermore, investigating DNA codon changes as a result of specific SNPs in prominent virulence genes including plcA and plcB could indicate potentially important modifications in protein function. Incorporating this analysis with corresponding epidemiological data may provide a blueprint for the integration of public health interventions to decrease TB transmission in a region.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genome, Bacterial , Genotype , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/physiology , Phylogeny , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/transmission , Uganda/epidemiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
7.
Indian J Tuberc ; 67(4S): S79-S85, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125905

ABSTRACT

Training is the backbone of any public health program and it is true for a vast program like TB. It is urgent when the program is aiming to End TB. The strategy that is followed in India for capacity building of TB workers is presented in this article. Various types of trainings that are needed are described in detail. Also enlisted are the different trainings undertaken at NTI for the last five years. Recent times the effect of Covid-19 has resulted in the acceleration of the effort of going for digital platforms and onlinetrainings and is described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/transmission
10.
S Afr Med J ; 110(12): 1160-1167, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994150

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and phased nationwide lockdown have impacted negatively on individuals with tuberculosis (TB) and routine TB services. Through a literature review and the perspective of members of a national TB Think Tank task team, we describe the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on TB patients and services as well as the potential long-term setback to TB control in South Africa (SA). Strategies to mitigate risk and impact are explored, together with opportunities to leverage synergies from both diseases to the benefit of the National TB Programme (NTP). With the emergence of COVID-19, activities to address this new pandemic have been prioritised across all sectors. Within the health system, the health workforce and resources have been redirected away from routine services towards the new disease priority. The social determinants of health have deteriorated during the lockdown, potentially increasing progression to TB disease and impacting negatively on people with TB and their households, resulting in additional barriers to accessing TB care, with early reports of a decline in TB testing rates. Fewer TB diagnoses, less attention to adherence and support during TB treatment, poorer treatment outcomes and consequent increased transmission will increase the TB burden and TB-related mortality. People with TB or a history of TB are likely to be vulnerable to COVID-19. Modifications to current treatment practices are suggested to reduce visits to health facilities and minimise the risks of COVID-19 exposure. The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to negatively impact on TB control in TB-endemic settings such as SA. However, there are COVID-19-related health systems-strengthening developments that may help the NTP mitigate the impact of the pandemic on TB control. By integrating TB case finding into the advanced screening, testing, tracing and monitoring systems established for COVID-19, TB case finding and linkage to care could increase, with many more TB patients starting treatment. Similarly, integrating knowledge and awareness of TB into the increased healthcare worker and community education on infectious respiratory diseases, behavioural practices around infection prevention and control, and cough etiquette, including destigmatisation of mask use, may contribute to reducing TB transmission. However, these potential gains could be overwhelmed by the impact of increasing poverty and other social determinants of health on the burden of TB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Contact Tracing , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Masks , Mass Screening , Retention in Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Social Stigma , South Africa , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/transmission , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/transmission
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(49)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972565

ABSTRACT

BackgroundEvidence for face-mask wearing in the community to protect against respiratory disease is unclear.AimTo assess effectiveness of wearing face masks in the community to prevent respiratory disease, and recommend improvements to this evidence base.MethodsWe systematically searched Scopus, Embase and MEDLINE for studies evaluating respiratory disease incidence after face-mask wearing (or not). Narrative synthesis and random-effects meta-analysis of attack rates for primary and secondary prevention were performed, subgrouped by design, setting, face barrier type, and who wore the mask. Preferred outcome was influenza-like illness. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) quality assessment was undertaken and evidence base deficits described.Results33 studies (12 randomised control trials (RCTs)) were included. Mask wearing reduced primary infection by 6% (odds ratio (OR): 0.94; 95% CI: 0.75-1.19 for RCTs) to 61% (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.32-2.27; OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.84 and OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45-0.85 for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies respectively). RCTs suggested lowest secondary attack rates when both well and ill household members wore masks (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.48-1.37). While RCTs might underestimate effects due to poor compliance and controls wearing masks, observational studies likely overestimate effects, as mask wearing might be associated with other risk-averse behaviours. GRADE was low or very low quality.ConclusionWearing face masks may reduce primary respiratory infection risk, probably by 6-15%. It is important to balance evidence from RCTs and observational studies when their conclusions widely differ and both are at risk of significant bias. COVID-19-specific studies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Masks , Picornaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Influenza, Human/transmission , Picornaviridae Infections/transmission , Respiratory Protective Devices , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/transmission
13.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(2): 100487, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885287

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a serious threat to global public health, demanding urgent action and causing unprecedented worldwide change in a short space of time. This disease has devastated economies, infringed on individual freedoms, and taken an unprecedented toll on healthcare systems worldwide. As of 1 April 2020, over a million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in 204 countries and territories, resulting in more than 51,000 deaths. Yet, against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, lies an older, insidious disease with a much greater mortality. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent and remains a potent threat to millions of people around the world. We discuss the differences between the two pandemics at present, consider the potential impact of COVID-19 on TB case management, and explore the opportunities that the COVID-19 response presents for advancing TB prevention and control now and in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Global Health , Health Services Accessibility , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/therapy , Tuberculosis/transmission
14.
J Dent Res ; 99(10): 1192-1198, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733091

ABSTRACT

Dental health care workers are in close contact to their patients and are therefore at higher risk for contracting airborne infectious diseases. The transmission rates of airborne pathogens from patient to dental health care workers are unknown. With the outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as seasonal influenza, occasional outbreaks of measles and tuberculosis, and the current pandemic of the coronavirus disease COVID-19, it is important to estimate the risks for dental health care workers. Therefore, the transmission probability of these airborne infectious diseases was estimated via mathematical modeling. The transmission probability was modeled for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, measles virus, influenza virus, and coronaviruses per a modified version of the Wells-Riley equation. This equation incorporated the indoor air quality by using carbon dioxide as a proxy and added the respiratory protection rate from medical face masks and N95 respirators. Scenario-specific analyses, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity analyses were run to produce probability rates. A high transmission probability was characterized by high patient infectiousness, the absence of respiratory protection, and poor indoor air quality. The highest transmission probabilities were estimated for measles virus (100%), coronaviruses (99.4%), influenza virus (89.4%), and M. tuberculosis (84.0%). The low-risk scenario leads to transmission probabilities of 4.5% for measles virus and 0% for the other pathogens. From the sensitivity analysis, it shows that the transmission probability is strongly driven by indoor air quality, followed by patient infectiousness, and the least by respiratory protection from medical face mask use. Airborne infection transmission of pathogens such as measles virus and coronaviruses is likely to occur in the dental practice. The risk magnitude, however, is highly dependent on specific conditions in each dental clinic. Improved indoor air quality by ventilation, which reduces carbon dioxide, is the most important factor that will either strongly increase or decrease the probability of the transmission of a pathogen.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dental Clinics , Influenza, Human/transmission , Legionnaires' Disease/transmission , Measles/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tuberculosis/transmission , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 26(3): 197-202, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mass gathering events bring people from across all continents increasing the risk of spread of aerosol transmissible respiratory tract infections. Respiratory tract infections for instance in pilgrims attending the world's largest recurring annual pilgrimage, the Hajj are common. We review recent literature on viral and bacterial infectious diseases with special focus on the Hajj. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of bacterial and viral infections continue to increase, because of the acquisition of rhinovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, OC43), influenza A H1N1, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus during Hajj. Whilst MERS-CoV continues to circulate in the Middle East, no cases of MERS-CoV have yet been identified in pilgrims during Hajj. SUMMARY: Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity in pilgrims attending mass gathering events. The management of severe respiratory infections should consider investigation and empirical coverage for the most likely agents based on syndromic surveillance data from hosting country and /or other relevant exposure history during events. Pneumococcal and Pertussis vaccines should be recommended for Hajj pilgrims.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Influenza, Human/transmission , Islam , Measles/transmission , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Travel , Tuberculosis/transmission , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/transmission , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Middle East/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/transmission , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/transmission
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