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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7151-7161, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of colchicine, compared with standard of care, for reducing mortality, admission to intensive care, and use of mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis, and sequential trial analysis. The terms (SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR coronavirus) AND (colchicine) were searched in MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and preprint repositories (February 2020 to April 2021, extended to June 2021). Risk of bias for randomised controlled trials and observational studies were assessed using the tools RoB 2.0 and ROBINS-I, respectively. We performed subgroup analyses based on study design and sensitivity analyses based on time of colchicine administration. RESULTS: We included six observational studies (1329 patients) and five clinical trials (16,048 patients). All studies but one were conducted in the hospital setting. Colchicine treatment was not associated with a significant decrease in mortality (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 1; p=0.06, I2=72%) with a significant subgroup effect (p<0.001) depending on the design of the studies. The drug was effective in observational studies (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.70, p<0.001, I2=50%) but not in clinical trials (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07, p=0.89, I2=21%). The effect of colchicine on intensive care admissions and the need for mechanical ventilation could not be confirmed. Trial sequential boundaries for cumulative meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials suggested no significant effect on mortality (p=0.182) beyond the optimal information size (13,107 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that colchicine treatment has no effect on mortality in hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that no further confirmatory clinical trials are needed owing to futility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Trials as Topic , Colchicine/administration & dosage , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Observational Studies as Topic , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Tubulin Modulators/administration & dosage
2.
Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 17(7): 371-375, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322338

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a newly emerged disease that has become a global public health challenge. Due to a lack of knowledge about the virus, a significant number of potential targets for using a particular drug have been proposed. Five cases with a clinical history of biopolymers in the gluteal region that developed iatrogenic allogenosis (IA) are presented here. The 5 cases were put under colchicine treatment for IA crisis and had non-specific symptoms (headache, cough without dyspnea, and arthralgias) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Their close contacts had mild to severe symptoms and three of them died. In the SARS-CoV-2 infection different inflammatory pathways are altered where colchicine reduces cytokine levels as well as the activation of macrophages, neutrophils, and the inflammasome. The possible mechanisms that colchicine may use to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with COVID-19 infection are also reviewed in this article.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(9): e13645, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colchicine was recently repurposed for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This rapid review and meta-analysis aimed to assess colchicine's impact on mortality outcomes in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar since their inception till 25/03/2021 for observational or controlled studies that reported mortality as an outcome. The mortality odd ratios were generated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals utilizing the random-effects model. RESULTS: Nine studies comprising 5522 patients met our inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis revealed significantly lower mortality in the colchicine group (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25-0.48, I2 0%) compared with controls. A subgroup analysis limited to hospitalized patients (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25-0.50, I2 0%) revealed similarly lower mortality in the colchicine group. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests a mortality benefit with colchicine when used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The majority of included studies were observational; thus, the findings of this review need to be further supported by the results of ongoing trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) and other mechanisms of nonthrombotic myocardial injury have an unmet therapeutic need. Eligibility for novel medical therapy is generally uncertain. METHODS: We predefined colchicine, eplerenone and ticagrelor as candidates for repurposing towards novel therapy for T2MI or myocardial injury. Considering eligibility for randomisation in a clinical trial, each drug was classified according to indications and contraindications for therapy and survival for at least 24 hours following admission. Eligibility criteria for prescription were evaluated against the Summary of Medical Product Characteristics. Consecutive hospital admissions were screened to identify patients with ≥1 high-sensitivity troponin-I value >99th percentile. Endotypes of myocardial injury were adjudicated according to the Fourth Universal Definition of MI. Patients' characteristics and medication were prospectively evaluated. RESULTS: During 1 March to 15 April 2020, 390 patients had a troponin I>URL. Reasons for exclusion: type 1 MI n=115, indeterminate diagnosis n=42, lack of capacity n=14, death <24 hours n=7, duplicates n=2. Therefore, 210 patients with T2MI/myocardial injury and 174 (82.8%) who survived to discharge were adjudicated for treatment eligibility. Patients who fulfilled eligibility criteria initially on admission and then at discharge were colchicine 25/210 (11.9%) and 23/174 (13.2%); eplerenone 57/210 (27.1%) and 45/174 (25.9%); ticagrelor 122/210 (58.1%) and 98/174 (56.3%). Forty-six (21.9%) and 38 (21.8%) patients were potentially eligible for all three drugs on admission and discharge, respectively. CONCLUSION: A reasonably high proportion of patients may be considered eligible for repurposing novel medical therapy in secondary prevention trials of type 2 MI/myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Eplerenone/therapeutic use , Myocardium/metabolism , Patient Selection , Ticagrelor/therapeutic use , Troponin I/blood , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/blood , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use
5.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 48(6): 823-830, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132807

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is no widely acceptable and proven effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Colchicine has been shown to offer a benefit in reducing the inflammation in several inflammatory diseases. This study aims to analyze the efficacy of colchicine administration and outcomes of COVID-19. We systematically searched the PubMed and Europe PMC database using specific keywords related to our aims until January 29, 2021. All articles published on COVID-19 and colchicine treatment were retrieved. The quality of the study was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tool for observational studies and Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2) for clinical trial studies. Statistical analysis was done using Review Manager 5.4 software. A total of eight studies with 5778 COVID-19 patients were included in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed that the administration of colchicine was associated with improvement of outcomes of COVID-19 [OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.34-0.55), p < 0.00001, I2  = 0%, fixed-effect modelling] and its subgroup which comprised of reduction from severe COVID-19 [OR 0.44 (95% CI 0.31-0.63), p < 0.00001, I2  = 0%, fixed-effect modelling] and reduction of mortality rate from COVID-19 [OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.32-0.58), p < 0.00001, I2  = 0%, fixed-effect modelling]. Our study suggests the routine use of colchicine for treatment modalities of COVID-19 patients. More randomized clinical trial studies are still needed to confirm the results from this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , COVID-19/mortality , Colchicine/pharmacology , Humans , Mortality/trends , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Tubulin Modulators/pharmacology , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use
6.
Respir Med ; 178: 106322, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060802

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic is currently underway. In December 2020, the European Agency of Medicine (EMA) licensed the first Sars-CoV-2 vaccine. Therapeutic management of the COVID-19 positive patient should primarily aim to avoid the severe complications and organ injury caused by generalized inflammation caused by a cytokine storm and occurring in the most severe stages of viral infection. Current knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms of SARS- CoV-2 suggests a central role for exaggerated activation of the innate immune system as an important contributor to the adverse outcomes of COVID-19. Several studies have shown that blocking the cytokine storm or acting early with prevention of it can be effective; studies are underway to evaluate agents that may be able to reduce this hyperinflammatory state. The search for effective management strategies for COVID-19 continues to evolve. The actions of colchicine, one of the oldest anti-inflammatory therapies, target multiple targets associated with excessive COVID-19 inflammation. Colchicine is easily administered, generally well tolerated, and inexpensive. This article reports the scientific and molecular rationale for the use of colchicine as monotherapy or in combination in the various stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection to modulate and control the inflammatory state. Low-dose colchicine may be considered safe and effective for the treatment and prevention of cytokine storm in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly as an adjunctive remedy to other therapeutic agents. Well-organized clinical studies are needed in this direction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans
7.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(9): 1423-1431, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641082

ABSTRACT

Concerns regarding the comorbidity as a significant risk factor for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), gave rise to an urgent need for studies evaluating patients with chronic conditions such as autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs). We prepared a web-based survey investigating the clinical findings and contact histories among pediatric patients with AIDs. Confirmed COVID-19 cases, patients with contact history and those with symptoms which were highly suggestive of COVID-19 were called via phone or recruited to a video or face to face appointment. Data of AIDs were obtained from their medical records, retrospectively. Laboratory and screening findings were confirmed by our national health registry website. There were 404 patients (217 female) eligible for the enrollment. During pandemic, 375 (93%) were on colchicine treatment and 48 (11.8%) were receiving biologic treatment. Twenty-four out of 404 patients were admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 suspicion. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) was identified through rhinopharyngeal swabs in seven patients, six of whom were only on colchicine treatment. Only one patient with no finding of any severe respiratory complications was hospitalized. All of seven patients recovered completely. Among patients on biologic drugs, neither a symptom nor a positive polymerase chain reaction test for COVID 19 was detected. In conclusion, pediatric patients with AIDs, those receiving biologic treatment and/or colchicine, may not be at increased risk for neither being infected nor the severe disease course.


Subject(s)
Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes/complications , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes/drug therapy , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Familial Mediterranean Fever/complications , Familial Mediterranean Fever/drug therapy , Female , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/complications , Humans , Infant , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2013136, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614050

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection has evolved into a global pandemic. Low-dose colchicine combines anti-inflammatory action with a favorable safety profile. Objective: To evaluate the effect of treatment with colchicine on cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial (the Greek Study in the Effects of Colchicine in COVID-19 Complications Prevention), 105 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were randomized in a 1:1 allocation from April 3 to April 27, 2020, to either standard medical treatment or colchicine with standard medical treatment. The study took place in 16 tertiary hospitals in Greece. Intervention: Colchicine administration (1.5-mg loading dose followed by 0.5 mg after 60 min and maintenance doses of 0.5 mg twice daily) with standard medical treatment for as long as 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end points were (1) maximum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin level; (2) time for C-reactive protein to reach more than 3 times the upper reference limit; and (3) time to deterioration by 2 points on a 7-grade clinical status scale, ranging from able to resume normal activities to death. Secondary end points were (1) the percentage of participants requiring mechanical ventilation, (2) all-cause mortality, and (3) number, type, severity, and seriousness of adverse events. The primary efficacy analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: A total of 105 patients were evaluated (61 [58.1%] men; median [interquartile range] age, 64 [54-76] years) with 50 (47.6%) randomized to the control group and 55 (52.4%) to the colchicine group. Median (interquartile range) peak high-sensitivity cardiac troponin values were 0.0112 (0.0043-0.0093) ng/mL in the control group and 0.008 (0.004-0.0135) ng/mL in the colchicine group (P = .34). Median (interquartile range) maximum C-reactive protein levels were 4.5 (1.4-8.9) mg/dL vs 3.1 (0.8-9.8) mg/dL (P = .73), respectively. The clinical primary end point rate was 14.0% in the control group (7 of 50 patients) and 1.8% in the colchicine group (1 of 55 patients) (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.01-0.96; P = .02). Mean (SD) event-free survival time was 18.6 (0.83) days the in the control group vs 20.7 (0.31) in the colchicine group (log rank P = .03). Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, except for diarrhea, which was more frequent with colchicine group than the control group (25 patients [45.5%] vs 9 patients [18.0%]; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, participants who received colchicine had statistically significantly improved time to clinical deterioration. There were no significant differences in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin or C-reactive protein levels. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04326790.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Troponin/metabolism , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Disease Progression , Female , Greece , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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