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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 132(5): 3-13, 2021.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885095

ABSTRACT

This review aims to provide a critical digest of the recent studies that enhance our understanding of Behçet's syndrome by evaluating time trends, differences in disease course between men and women, and between patients with an early and late disease onset, progress in disease assessment, novel findings on immunopathogenesis and genetics, clinical features and differential diagnosis of eye, vascular, nervous system and gastrointestinal system involvement, and new data on treatment modalities including TNF-alpha, IL-17 and IL-6 inhibitors, tofacitinib, and apremilast, as well as surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
Behcet Syndrome , Behcet Syndrome/diagnosis , Behcet Syndrome/drug therapy , Behcet Syndrome/genetics , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
2.
Ann Saudi Med ; 42(3): 155-164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-cytokine treatments are used in the treatment of severe COVID-19. Other studies have shown statistical significance with TNF inhibitors but not with other biological/targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (b/tsDMARD). OBJECTIVES: Compare the rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) infection and the course and incidence of COVID-19 infection in patients who received b/tsDMARD with control patients. DESIGN: Analytical cross-sectional SETTINGS: Tertiary care hospital PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who applied to the rheumatology outpatient clinic between June 2020-March 2021 and received b/tsDMARD were included in the study. All patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and spondyloarthritis who applied to the rheumatology outpatient clinic in the three months before March 2021 and did not receive b/tsDMARD were included as the control group. History of COVID-19 infection and treatments were recorded. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess factors associated with use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and differences between specific biologic drugs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of COVID-19 disease among patients using biological/targeted synthetic therapy and non-biological/targeted synthetic therapy. COVID-19 clinical outcomes (hospitalization, intensive care admission, mechanical ventilation and death). SAMPLE SIZE: 533 in total; 341 received b/tsDMARD, 212 in the control group that did not receive b/tsDMARD. RESULTS: One hundred patients (18%) had been infected with SARS-COV-2. The difference in SARS-COV-2 infection between b/tsDMARD and the control was statistically significant (13, 2% vs. 25, 9%, respectively) (P<.001). The hospital stays were longer in the controls (P<.001). Multinomial regression analysis revealed that COVID-19 negative patients were more likely to use tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (OR: 2, 911; 95% CI: 1.727-4.908; P<.001) compared to COVID-19 positive participants. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that hospitalized patients were more likely to use TNF inhibitors (OR: 11, 006; 95% CI: 3.447-35.138; P<.001) and there was no significant difference between b/tsDMARDs other than TNF inhibitors in frequency of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who were medicated with b/tsDMARD were less likely to be infected with COVID-19 and be hospitalized due to the infection. We have found that this effect was particularly dependent on the use of TNF inhibitors. LIMITATIONS: Conducted in a single center and unable to provide a homogeneous study population. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factors/therapeutic use
3.
JCI Insight ; 7(11)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDLimited information is available on the impact of immunosuppressants on COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID).METHODSThis observational cohort study examined the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriatic disease, with or without maintenance immunosuppressive therapies. Ab and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2, including neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants, were determined before and after 1 and 2 vaccine doses.RESULTSWe prospectively followed 150 subjects, 26 healthy controls, 9 patients with IMID on no treatment, 44 on anti-TNF, 16 on anti-TNF with methotrexate/azathioprine (MTX/AZA), 10 on anti-IL-23, 28 on anti-IL-12/23, 9 on anti-IL-17, and 8 on MTX/AZA. Ab and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were detected in all participants, increasing from dose 1 to dose 2 and declining 3 months later, with greater attrition in patients with IMID compared with healthy controls. Ab levels and neutralization efficacy against variants of concern were substantially lower in anti-TNF-treated patients than in healthy controls and were undetectable against Omicron by 3 months after dose 2.CONCLUSIONSOur findings support the need for a third dose of the mRNA vaccine and for continued monitoring of immunity in these patient groups.FUNDINGFunded by a donation from Juan and Stefania Speck and by Canadian Institutes of Health (CIHR)/COVID-Immunity Task Force (CITF) grants VR-1 172711 and VS1-175545 (to THW and ACG), CIHR FDN-143250 (to THW), GA2-177716 (to VC, ACG, and THW), and GA1-177703 (to ACG) and the CIHR rapid response network to SARS-CoV-2 variants, CoVaRR-Net (to ACG).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(12): 1403-1418, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765220

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Lymphopenia is common in severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19), yet the immune mechanisms are poorly understood. As inflammatory cytokines are increased in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we hypothesized a role in contributing to reduced T-cell numbers. Objectives: We sought to characterize the functional SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses in patients with severe versus recovered, mild COVID-19 to determine whether differences were detectable. Methods: Using flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequence analyses, we assessed SARS-CoV-2-specific responses in our cohort. Measurements and Main Results: In 148 patients with severe COVID-19, we found lymphopenia was associated with worse survival. CD4+ lymphopenia predominated, with lower CD4+/CD8+ ratios in severe COVID-19 compared with patients with mild disease (P < 0.0001). In severe disease, immunodominant CD4+ T-cell responses to Spike-1 (S1) produced increased in vitro TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) but demonstrated impaired S1-specific proliferation and increased susceptibility to activation-induced cell death after antigen exposure. CD4+TNF-α+ T-cell responses inversely correlated with absolute CD4+ counts from patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 76; R = -0.797; P < 0.0001). In vitro TNF-α blockade, including infliximab or anti-TNF receptor 1 antibodies, strikingly rescued S1-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation and abrogated S1-specific activation-induced cell death in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Single-cell RNA sequencing demonstrated marked downregulation of type-1 cytokines and NFκB signaling in S1-stimulated CD4+ cells with infliximab treatment. We also evaluated BAL and lung explant CD4+ T cells recovered from patients with severe COVID-19 and observed that lung T cells produced higher TNF-α compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions: Together, our findings show CD4+ dysfunction in severe COVID-19 is TNF-α/TNF receptor 1-dependent through immune mechanisms that may contribute to lymphopenia. TNF-α blockade may be beneficial in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cytokines , Humans , Infliximab , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1379, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747222

ABSTRACT

Anti tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs increase the risk of serious respiratory infection and impair protective immunity following pneumococcal and influenza vaccination. Here we report SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune responses and breakthrough infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who are treated either with the anti-TNF antibody, infliximab, or with vedolizumab targeting a gut-specific anti-integrin that does not impair systemic immunity. Geometric mean [SD] anti-S RBD antibody concentrations are lower and half-lives shorter in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following two doses of BNT162b2 (566.7 U/mL [6.2] vs 4555.3 U/mL [5.4], p <0.0001; 26.8 days [95% CI 26.2 - 27.5] vs 47.6 days [45.5 - 49.8], p <0.0001); similar results are also observed with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (184.7 U/mL [5.0] vs 784.0 U/mL [3.5], p <0.0001; 35.9 days [34.9 - 36.8] vs 58.0 days [55.0 - 61.3], p value < 0.0001). One fifth of patients fail to mount a T cell response in both treatment groups. Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections are more frequent (5.8% (201/3441) vs 3.9% (66/1682), p = 0.0039) in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, and the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection is predicted by peak anti-S RBD antibody concentration after two vaccine doses. Irrespective of the treatments, higher, more sustained antibody levels are observed in patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination. Our results thus suggest that adapted vaccination schedules may be required to induce immunity in at-risk, anti-TNF-treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
9.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(1): 17-25, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most data on the effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatments on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes have not had non-IBD comparators. Hence, we aimed to describe COVID-19 outcomes in IBD compared to non-IBD patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of registered IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19 from six provinces in Iran from February to April 2020. Proven COVID-19 patients were followed up at four weeks and the frequency of outcomes was assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between demographics, clinical characteristics and COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 2159 IBD patients and 4721 household members were enrolled, with 84 (3.9%) and 49 (1.1%) participants having confirmed COVID-19, respectively. Household spread of COVID-19 was not common in this cohort (1.2%). While hospitalization was significantly more frequent in IBD patients compared with non-IBD household members (27.1% vs. 6.0%, P=0.002), there was no significant difference in the frequency of severe cases. Age and presence of IBD were positively associated with hospitalization in IBD compared with non-IBD household members (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.10; OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 2.02- 16.07, respectively). Age, presence of new gastrointestinal symptoms, and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) use were associated with higher hospitalization rate in IBD patients (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.23; OR: 6.49, 95% CI: 1.87-22.54; OR: 6.22, 95% CI: 1.90-20.36, respectively). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was not associated with more severe outcomes. CONCLUSION: Age, presence of new gastrointestinal symptoms and use of 5-ASA were associated with increased hospitalization rate among IBD patients, while anti-TNF therapy had no statistical association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
10.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(12): 1780-1784, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the safety of Bacille Calmette-Guérin [BCG] vaccination in infants born to mothers receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor [anti-TNF] therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Adverse events of BCG vaccination were evaluated in 90 infants who were last exposed to anti-TNF agents at a median of gestational week 30. RESULTS: After receiving BCG vaccination at a median age of 6 months [range, 0.25-11 months], three infants [3.3%] showed injection site swelling, two of whom also showed axillar lymphadenopathy. The rates of adverse events were similar between infants who were last exposed to anti-TNF agents before the third trimester [n = 35] and those who were last exposed in the third trimester [n = 55] [2.9% vs 3.6%; p = 1.00]. All adverse events were spontaneously resolved and there were no serious adverse events such as active tuberculosis infection or death. CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccination after 6 months of age is of low risk in infants exposed to anti-TNF agents in utero.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 2303-2309, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648443

ABSTRACT

Global vaccination effort and better understanding of treatment strategies provided a ray of hope for improvement in COVID-19 pandemic, however, in many countries, the disease continues to collect its death toll. The major pathogenic mechanism behind severe cases associated with high mortality is the burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-6, IFNγ and others, resulting in multiple organ failure. Although the exact contribution of each cytokine is not clear, we provide an evidence that the central mediator of cytokine storm and its devastating consequences may be TNF. This cytokine is known to be involved in activated blood clotting, lung damage, insulin resistance, heart failure, and other conditions. A number of currently available pharmaceutical agents such as monoclonal antibodies and soluble TNF receptors can effectively prevent TNF from binding to its receptor(s). Other drugs are known to block NFkB, the major signal transducer molecule used in TNF signaling, or to block kinases involved in downstream activation cascades. Some of these medicines have already been selected for clinical trials, but more work is needed. A simple, rapid, and inexpensive method of directly monitoring TNF levels may be a valuable tool for a timely selection of COVID-19 patients for anti-TNF therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Patient Selection , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology
13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(6): e1263-e1282, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have shown decreased response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations in some populations. In addition, it is possible that vaccine-triggered immune activation could trigger immune dysregulation and thus exacerbate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this population-based study we used the epi-Israeli IBD Research Nucleus validated cohort to explore the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in IBD and to assess its effect on disease outcomes. METHODS: We included all IBD patients insured in 2 of the 4 Israeli health maintenance organizations, covering 35% of the population. Patients receiving 2 Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine doses between December 2020 and June 2021 were individually matched to non-IBD controls. To assess IBD outcomes, we matched vaccinated to unvaccinated IBD patients, and response was analyzed per medical treatment. RESULTS: In total, 12,109 IBD patients received 2 vaccine doses, of whom 4946 were matched to non-IBD controls (mean age, 51 ± 16 years; median follow-up, 22 weeks; interquartile range, 4-24). Fifteen patients in each group (0.3%) developed COVID-19 after vaccination (odds ratio, 1; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-2.05; P = 1.0). Patients on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and/or corticosteroids did not have a higher incidence of infection. To explore IBD outcomes, 707 vaccinated IBD patients were compared with unvaccinated IBD patients by stringent matching (median follow-up, 14 weeks; interquartile range, 2.3-20.4). The risk of exacerbation was 29% in the vaccinated patients compared with 26% in unvaccinated patients (P = .3). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in IBD patients is comparable with that in non-IBD controls and is not influenced by treatment with TNF inhibitors or corticosteroids. The IBD exacerbation rate did not differ between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Aged , /therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(3): 462-469, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625333

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although an additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine dose for immunocompromised persons has been recommended in some countries, further data to guide vaccination strategies for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgently needed. We sought to identify factors affecting initial humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines among patients with IBD. METHODS: In this prospective cohort of SARS-CoV-2 immunized patients with IBD, we evaluated associations between participant age, sex, vaccine type, medication use, and the presence of a detectable antireceptor binding domain antibody and quantitative antibody level. RESULTS: In total, 1,909 participants were included (1,123, 692, and 94 received BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S, respectively) of whom 96% achieved a positive antibody response. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with lack of antibody response were older age (P = 0.043), BNT162b2 vs mRNA-1273 (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.9), and combination therapy with anti-TNF and 6MP, azathioprine, or methotrexate (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.3). The use of 5-aminosalicylate or sulfasalazine (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8) and ustekinumab (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05-0.8) was associated with decreased odds of lacking antibody response. DISCUSSION: Most patients with IBD mount an initial response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; however, older patients and those treated with anti-TNF and immunomodulator have blunted responses and may benefit the most from an additional vaccine dose. Patients treated with other classes of immunosuppressive medications have more robust initial immune responses to vaccination. These data should inform key decisions about patient selection for additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine doses in patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
16.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scanty data on the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) on Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi) have been published. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccination patients with PsA on TNFi, comparing immunogenicity with healthy controls. METHODS: Forty patients with classified PsA on TNFi undergoing vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer) were enrolled. Fifteen days after the second shot, serum IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2 (Abbott ARCHITECT i2000SR, positivity cut-off 50 AU/mL) were assayed in all patients. Clinimetrics and treatment data were gathered. TNFi treatment was not discontinued throughout the whole period, whereas methotrexate (MTX) was discontinued for 1 week after each shot in those on combination therapy. Sera from healthcare professionals were considered as healthy controls for 1:1 propensity score matching; any of them was taking medication.Student's t-test and logistic regression were used for investigating differences in immunogenicity between groups and predictors of antibody response. RESULTS: Clinical Disease Activity Index did not change before and after vaccination (7.06±5.23 to 7.10±5.27, p=0.92).Patients with PsA achieved a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level with a mean (±SD) of 13794.44±15 815.42 AU/mL. Although lower, the antibody level was not significantly different from matched controls (19227.4±11.8460.45 AU/mL, p=0.08). In the overall sample, those on MTX (12/80, 15%) had a trend toward lower immune response (p=0.07); glucocorticoid therapy (11/80, 13.8%) predicted lower antibody levels (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Continuing TNFi in patients with PsA throughout the vaccination did not hamper immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
18.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The persistence of the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, partly due to the appearance of highly infectious variants, has made booster vaccinations necessary for vulnerable groups. Questions remain as to which cohorts require SARS-CoV2 boosters. However, there is a critical lack of data on the dynamics of vaccine responses in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) undergoing immunosuppressive/disease modifying anti-rheumatic (DMARD) treatment. Here, we present the first data regarding the decline of the vaccine-induced humoral immune responses in patients with CID. METHODS: 23 patients with CID were monitored clinically and for anti-spike IgG and IgA levels, neutralization efficacy and antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses over the first 6 months after SARS-CoV2 vaccination. 24 healthy individuals were included as controls. RESULTS: While anti-spike IgG-levels declined in CID patients and healthy controls, patients receiving anti-TNF treatment showed significantly greater declines at 6 months post second vaccination in IgG and especially neutralizing antibodies. IgA levels were generally lower in CID patients, particularly during anti-TNF therapy. No differences in SARS-CoV2 spike-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were detected. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term efficacy of SARS-CoV2 vaccination in CID patients undergoing disease-modifying therapy is still not known, the pronounced declines in humoral responses towards SARS-CoV2 6 months after mRNA vaccination in the context of TNF blockade should be considered when formulating booster regimens. These patients should be considered for early booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
19.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(2): 154-167, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a beneficial effective of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors on the outcomes of COVID-19 disease, which, however is not validated by all studies. AIMS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing reports to investigate the impact of anti-TNF treatments on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search at PubMed and SCOPUS databases using specific keywords was performed. All reports of COVID-19 outcomes for patients receiving anti-TNF therapy by September 2021 were included. Pooled effect measures were calculated using a random-effects model. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale for observational studies was used to assess bias. Studies that were not eligible for meta-analysis were described qualitatively. RESULTS: In total, 84 studies were included in the systematic review, and 35 were included in the meta-analysis. Patients receiving anti-TNF treatment, compared to non-anti-TNF, among COVID-19 cases had a lower probability of hospitalisation (eight studies, 2555 patients, pooled OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42-0.67, I2  = 0) and severe disease defined as intensive care unit admission or death (two studies, 1823 patients, pooled OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.96, I2  = 0), after adjustment for validated predictors of adverse disease outcomes. No difference was found for the risk for hospitalisation due to COVID-19 in populations without COVID-19 for patients receiving anti-TNF treatment compared to non-anti-TNF (three studies, 5 994 958 participants, pooled risk ratio = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.68-1.39, I2  = 20) adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: TNF-α inhibitors are associated with a lower probability of hospitalisation and severe COVID-19 when compared to any other treatment for an underlying inflammatory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Comorbidity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Gastroenterology ; 162(2): 454-467, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), specifically those treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α biologics, are at high risk for vaccine-preventable infections. Their ability to mount adequate vaccine responses is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess serologic responses to messenger RNA-Coronavirus Disease 2019 vaccine, and safety profile, in patients with IBD stratified according to therapy, compared with healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Prospective, controlled, multicenter Israeli study. Subjects enrolled received 2 BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) doses. Anti-spike antibody levels and functional activity, anti-TNFα levels and adverse events (AEs) were detected longitudinally. RESULTS: Overall, 258 subjects: 185 IBD (67 treated with anti-TNFα, 118 non-anti-TNFα), and 73 HCs. After the first vaccine dose, all HCs were seropositive, whereas ∼7% of patients with IBD, regardless of treatment, remained seronegative. After the second dose, all subjects were seropositive, however anti-spike levels were significantly lower in anti-TNFα treated compared with non-anti-TNFα treated patients, and HCs (both P < .001). Neutralizing and inhibitory functions were both lower in anti-TNFα treated compared with non-anti-TNFα treated patients, and HCs (P < .03; P < .0001, respectively). Anti-TNFα drug levels and vaccine responses did not affect anti-spike levels. Infection rate (∼2%) and AEs were comparable in all groups. IBD activity was unaffected by BNT162b2. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study in patients with IBD stratified according to treatment, all patients mounted serologic response to 2 doses of BNT162b2; however, its magnitude was significantly lower in patients treated with anti-TNFα, regardless of administration timing and drug levels. Vaccine was safe. As vaccine serologic response longevity in this group may be limited, vaccine booster dose should be considered.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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