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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0167121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691404

ABSTRACT

The vascular endothelial injury occurs in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We sought to determine the frequency and type of cytokine elevations and their relationship to endothelial injury induced by plasma from patients with SARS-CoV-2 versus controls. Plasma from eight consecutively enrolled patients hospitalized with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was compared to controls. Endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity was evaluated using ECIS (electric cell-substrate impedance sensing) on human lung microvascular EC. Plasma from all SARS-CoV-2 but none from controls decreased transendothelial resistance to a greater degree than that produced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the positive control for the assay. Thrombin, angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), complement factor C3a and C5a, and spike protein increased endothelial permeability, but to a lesser extent and a shorter duration when compared to SARS-CoV-2 plasma. Analysis of Ang2, VEGF, and 15 cytokines measured in plasma revealed striking patient-to-patient variability within the SARS-CoV-2 patients. Pretreatment with thrombin inhibitors, single, or combinations of neutralizing antibodies against cytokines, Ca3 and C5a receptor antagonists, or with ACE2 antibody failed to lessen the SARS-CoV-2 plasma-induced EC permeability. The EC barrier destructive effects of plasma from patients with SARS-CoV-2 were susceptible to heat inactivation. Plasma from patients hospitalized with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection uniformly disrupts lung microvascular integrity. No predicted single, or set of, cytokine(s) accounted for the enhanced vascular permeability, although the factor(s) were heat-labile. A still unidentified but potent circulating factor(s) appears to cause the EC disruption in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. IMPORTANCE Lung vascular endothelial injury in SARS-CoV-2 patients is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality and has been linked to more severe complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and subsequent death due to multiorgan failure. We have demonstrated that in eight consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2, who were not selected for evidence of endothelial injury, the diluted plasma-induced intense lung microvascular damage, in vitro. Known endothelial barrier-disruptive agents and proposed mediators of increased endothelial permeability in SARS-CoV-2, induced changes in permeability that were smaller in magnitude and shorter in duration than plasma from patients with SARS-CoV-2. The effect on endothelial cell permeability of plasma from patients with SARS-CoV-2 was heat-labile. The main plasma factor that causes the increased endothelial permeability remains to be identified. Our study provides a possible approach for future studies to understand the underlying mechanisms leading to vascular injury in SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Capillary Permeability , Cytokines/blood , Lung/blood supply , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Young Adult
2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(1): e24162, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555764

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), as the causative agent of COVID-19 disease, show mild symptoms, but some of them develop severe illness. The purpose of this study was to analyze the blood markers of COVID-19 patients and to investigate the correlation between serum inflammatory cytokines and the disease severity. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 50 patients with COVID-19 and 20 patients without COVID-19 were enrolled. According to ICU admission criteria, patients were divided into two groups of non-severe and severe. Differences in the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lymphocytes (LYM) count, and neutrophils (NEU) count between the two groups were determined and analyzed. RESULTS: Out of the 50 patients with COVID-19, 14 were diagnosed as severe cases. There was no significant difference between the two groups of COVID-19 patients in terms of gender and age. Blood tests of COVID-19 patients showed a significant decrease and increase in NEU and LYM counts, respectively. There were significant differences in the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP between the severe and non-severe groups, which were higher in the severe group. Also, there was a significant correlation between the disease severity and CRP with ESR (r = 0.79), CRP with IL-6 (r = 0.74), LYM with NEU (r = -0.97), and ESR with TNF-α (r = 0.7). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study, as the first study in Iran, suggest that the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, ESR, and CRP could be used to predict the severity of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Inflammation/blood , Adult , Aged , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Young Adult
4.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 151, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the feasibility of two biomarkers of endothelial damage (Syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and their association with inflammation, coagulopathy, and mortality. METHODS: The records of 49 COVID-19 patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Wuhan, China between February and April 2020 were examined. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, and outcomes were compared between survivors and non-survivors COVID-19 patients, and between patients with high and low serum Syndecan-1 levels. The dynamics of serum Syndecan-1 levels were also analyzed. RESULTS: The levels of Syndecan-1 were significantly higher in non-survivor group compared with survivor group (median 1031.4 versus 504.0 ng/mL, P = 0.002), and the levels of thrombomodulin were not significantly different between these two groups (median 4534.0 versus 3780.0 ng/mL, P = 0.070). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the group with high Syndecan-1 levels had worse overall survival (log-rank test: P = 0.023). Patients with high Syndecan-1 levels also had significantly higher levels of thrombomodulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Data on the dynamics of Syndecan-1 levels indicated much greater variations in non-survivors than survivors. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with high levels of Syndecan-1 develop more serious endothelial damage and inflammatory reactions, and have increased mortality. Syndecan-1 has potential for use as a marker for progression or severity of COVID-19. Protecting the glycocalyx from destruction is a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelium/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Syndecan-1/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombomodulin/blood , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
5.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 86-102, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529016

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunological markers have been described during COVID-19 and persist after recovery. These immune markers are associated with clinical features among SARSCoV-2 infected individuals. Nevertheless, studies reporting a comprehensive analysis of the immune changes occurring during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, the antibody response, and the phenotype and function of NK cells and T cells in a Colombian family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA. The frequency, phenotype, and function of NK cells (cocultures with K562 cells) and T-cells (stimulated with spike/RdRp peptides) were assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were determined using indirect immunofluorescence and plaque reduction neutralization assay. RESULTS: During COVID-19, we observed a high proinflammatory-cytokine production and a reduced CD56bright-NK cell and cytotoxic response. Compared with healthy controls, infected individuals had a higher frequency of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells CD38+HLA-DR-. During the acute phase, CD8+ T cells stimulated with viral peptides exhibited a monofunctional response characterized by high IL-10 production. However, during recovery, we observed a bifunctional response characterized by the co-expression of CD107a and granzyme B or perforin. CONCLUSION: Although the proinflammatory response is a hallmark of SARS-CoV-2 infection, other phenotypic and functional alterations in NK cells and CD8+ T cells could be associated with the outcome of COVID-19. However, additional studies are required to understand these alterations and to guide future immunotherapy strategies.


Introducción. Se han descrito diferentes marcadores inmunológicos durante la COVID-19, los cuales persisten incluso después de la convalecencia y se asocian con los estadios clínicos de la infección. Sin embargo, aún son pocos los estudios orientados al análisis exhaustivo de las alteraciones del sistema inmunológico en el curso de la infección. Objetivo. Evaluar la producción de citocinas proinflamatorias, la reacción de anticuerpos, y el fenotipo y la función de las células NK y los linfocitos T en una familia colombiana con infección por SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron las citocinas proinflamatorias mediante RT-PCR y ELISA; la frecuencia, el fenotipo y la función de las células NK (en cocultivos con células K562) y linfocitos T CD8+ (estimulados con péptidos spike/RdRp) mediante citometría de flujo, y los anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2, mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta y prueba de neutralización por reducción de placa. Resultados. Durante la COVID-19 hubo una producción elevada de citocinas proinflamatorias, con disminución de las células NK CD56bright y reacción citotóxica. Comparados con los controles sanos, los individuos infectados presentaron con gran frecuencia linfocitos T CD8+ disfuncionales CD38+HLA-DR-. Además, en los linfocitos T CD8+ estimulados con péptidos virales, predominó una reacción monofuncional con gran producción de IL-10 durante la fase aguda y una reacción bifuncional caracterizada por la coexpresión de CD107a y granzima B o perforina durante la convalecencia. Conclusión. Aunque la reacción inflamatoria caracteriza la infección por SARS-CoV-2, hay otras alteraciones fenotípicas y funcionales en células NK y linfocitos T CD8+ que podrían asociarse con la progresión de la infección. Se requieren estudios adicionales para entender estas alteraciones y guiar futuras estrategias de inmunoterapia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , CD56 Antigen/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Colombia , Family Health , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , K562 Cells , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Perforin/metabolism , Phenotype , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Young Adult
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 23895-23912, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498164

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is presently the most pressing public health concern worldwide. Cytokine storm is an important factor leading to death of patients with COVID-19. This study aims to characterize serum cytokines of patients with severe or critical COVID-19. Clinical records were obtained from 149 patients who were tested at the Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital from 30 January to 30 March 2020. Data regarding the clinical features of the patients was collected and analyzed. Among the 149, 45 (30.2%) of them had severe conditions and 104 (69.8%) of that presented critical symptoms. In the meantime, 80 (53.7%) of that 149 died during hospitalization. Of all, male patients accounted for 94 (69.1%). Compared with patients in severe COVID-19, those who in critical COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10. Moreover, the passed-away patients had considerably higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than those survived from it. Regression analysis revealed that serum TNF-α level was an independent risk factor for the death of patient with severe conditions. Among the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-6) analyzed herein, TNF-α was seen as a risk factor for the death of patients with severe or critical COVID-19. This study suggests that anti-TNF-α treatment allows patients with severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia to recover.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Interleukins/blood , Pneumonia, Viral , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunologic Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(6): 1769-1776, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is seen in COVID-19 patients, and reducing malnutrition with appropriate therapies may improve these patients' health. This case-control study aimed to assess and compare serum levels of some inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and appetite in COVID-19 patients with respiratory infections that receive glutamine treatment with a control group. METHODS: In this study, patients who consented to use glutamine were considered as the case group and other patients who did not use glutamine were considered as a control group. Two hundred twenty-two COVID-19 patients (51.2 ± 6.7) using L-Glutamine and 230 COVID-19 patients (51.3 ± 8.2) with similar age, gender, and clinical status, as the control group, were included in the study. For 5 days, the case group consumed 10 g of glutamine supplement three times per day. At the end of the 5 days, blood samples were taken again to test for serum levels of IL1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity, then all data were analyzed. RESULTS: Serum levels of ß-1 interleukin, tumor necrosis factor-α and hs-CRP were significantly reduced with five days of glutamine supplementation (p < 0.05), and patients' appetite during 5 days of glutamine supplementation compared with the control group had a significant increase (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Glutamine supplementation in COVID-19 patients with respiratory infection significantly reduces serum levels of interleukin-1 ß, hs-CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α and significantly increases appetite, so glutamine supplementation may be useful for COVID-19 patients in the hospital.


Subject(s)
Appetite/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glutamine/therapeutic use , Inflammation/prevention & control , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status
9.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(5): 1358-1367, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384149

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is a severe acute respiratory syndrome with an underlying inflammatory state. We have previously demonstrated that acute inflammation modulates cytochromes P450 (CYPs) activity in an isoform-specific manner. We therefore hypothesized that COVID-19 might also impact CYP activity, and thus aimed to evaluate the impact of acute inflammation in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the six main human CYPs activity. This prospective observational study was conducted in 28 patients hospitalized at the Geneva University Hospitals (Switzerland) with a diagnosis of moderate to severe COVID-19. They received the Geneva phenotyping cocktail orally during the first 72 hours of hospitalization and after 3 months. Capillary blood samples were collected 2 hours after cocktail administration to assess the metabolic ratios (MRs) of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also measured in blood. CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A MRs decreased by 52.6% (P = 0.0001), 74.7% (P = 0.0006), and 22.8% (P = 0.045), respectively, in patients with COVID-19. CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 MRs increased by 101.1% (P = 0.009) and 55.8% (P = 0.0006), respectively. CYP2D6 MR variation did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072). As expected, COVID-19 was a good acute inflammation model as mean serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly (P < 0.001) higher during SARS-CoV-2 infection. CYP activity are modulated in an isoform-specific manner by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pharmacokinetics of CYP substrates, whether used to treat the disease or as the usual treatment of patients, could be therefore clinically impacted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Prospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 693269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389185

ABSTRACT

Chronic immune activation has been considered as the driving force for CD4+ T cell depletion in people infected with HIV-1. Interestingly, the normal immune profile of adult HIV-negative individuals living in Africa also exhibit chronic immune activation, reminiscent of that observed in HIV-1 infected individuals. It is characterized by increased levels of soluble immune activation markers, such as the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, TNF-α, and cellular activation markers including HLA-DR, CD-38, CCR5, coupled with reduced naïve and increased memory cells in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. In addition, it is accompanied by low CD4+ T cell counts when compared to Europeans. There is also evidence that mononuclear cells from African infants secrete less innate cytokines than South and North Americans and Europeans in vitro. Chronic immune activation in Africans is linked to environmental factors such as parasitic infections and could be responsible for previously observed immune hypo-responsiveness to infections and vaccines. It is unclear whether the immunogenicity and effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will also be reduced by similar mechanisms. A review of studies investigating this phenomenon is urgently required as they should inform the design and delivery for vaccines to be used in African populations.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/blood , Africa , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HLA-DR Antigens/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/blood , Receptors, CCR5/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 154-160, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370370

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the role and relationship between the cytokine profile and protective vitamin D by measuring their serum levels in COVID-19 intensive care unit patients with severe illnesses. A total of 74 patients were included in our study. Patients were divided into two groups. Patients in the COVID-19 group (n = 31) and individuals without a history of serious illness or infection were used as the control group (n = 43). The serum concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Levels of serum vitamin D were detected with Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methodologies. TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and vitamin D levels were measured in all patients. The serum cytokine levels in the COVID-19 patient group were significantly higher (151.59 ± 56.50, 140.37 ± 64.32, 249.02 ± 62.84, 129.04 ± 31.64, and 123.58 ± 24.49, respectively) than control groups. Serum vitamin D was also significantly low (6.82 ± 3.29) in patients in the COVID-19 group than the controls (21.96 ± 5.39). Regarding the correlation of vitamin D with cytokine levels, it was significantly variable. Our study shows that COVID-19 patients are associated with lower serum vitamin D and higher pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with increased virus presence. Our data provide more evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D on COVID-19 patients and the protective effects of vitamin D on risk were demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341695

ABSTRACT

Overproduction of inflammatory cytokines is a keystone event in COVID-19 pathogenesis; TNF and its receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2) are critical pro-inflammatory molecules. ADAM17 releases the soluble (sol) forms of TNF, TNFR1, and TNFR2. This study evaluated TNF, TNFRs, and ADAM17 at the protein, transcriptional, and gene levels in COVID-19 patients with different levels of disease severity. In total, 102 patients were divided into mild, moderate, and severe condition groups. A group of healthy donors (HD; n = 25) was included. Our data showed that solTNFR1 and solTNFR2 were elevated among the COVID-19 patients (p < 0.0001), without increasing the transcriptional level. Only solTNFR1 was higher in the severe group as compared to the mildly ill (p < 0.01), and the level was higher in COVID-19 patients who died than those that survived (p < 0.0001). The solTNFR1 level had a discrete negative correlation with C-reactive protein (p = 0.006, Rho = -0.33). The solADAM17 level was higher in severe as compared to mild disease conditions (p < 0.01), as well as in COVID-19 patients who died as compared to those that survived (p < 0.001). Additionally, a potential association between polymorphism TNFRSF1A:rs767455 and a severe degree of disease was suggested. These data suggest that solTNFR1 and solADAM17 are increased in severe conditions. solTNFR1 should be considered a potential target in the development of new therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , ADAM17 Protein/blood , ADAM17 Protein/immunology , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
13.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 86-102, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332335

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunological markers have been described during COVID-19 and persist after recovery. These immune markers are associated with clinical features among SARSCoV-2 infected individuals. Nevertheless, studies reporting a comprehensive analysis of the immune changes occurring during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, the antibody response, and the phenotype and function of NK cells and T cells in a Colombian family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA. The frequency, phenotype, and function of NK cells (cocultures with K562 cells) and T-cells (stimulated with spike/RdRp peptides) were assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were determined using indirect immunofluorescence and plaque reduction neutralization assay. RESULTS: During COVID-19, we observed a high proinflammatory-cytokine production and a reduced CD56bright-NK cell and cytotoxic response. Compared with healthy controls, infected individuals had a higher frequency of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells CD38+HLA-DR-. During the acute phase, CD8+ T cells stimulated with viral peptides exhibited a monofunctional response characterized by high IL-10 production. However, during recovery, we observed a bifunctional response characterized by the co-expression of CD107a and granzyme B or perforin. CONCLUSION: Although the proinflammatory response is a hallmark of SARS-CoV-2 infection, other phenotypic and functional alterations in NK cells and CD8+ T cells could be associated with the outcome of COVID-19. However, additional studies are required to understand these alterations and to guide future immunotherapy strategies.


Introducción. Se han descrito diferentes marcadores inmunológicos durante la COVID-19, los cuales persisten incluso después de la convalecencia y se asocian con los estadios clínicos de la infección. Sin embargo, aún son pocos los estudios orientados al análisis exhaustivo de las alteraciones del sistema inmunológico en el curso de la infección. Objetivo. Evaluar la producción de citocinas proinflamatorias, la reacción de anticuerpos, y el fenotipo y la función de las células NK y los linfocitos T en una familia colombiana con infección por SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron las citocinas proinflamatorias mediante RT-PCR y ELISA; la frecuencia, el fenotipo y la función de las células NK (en cocultivos con células K562) y linfocitos T CD8+ (estimulados con péptidos spike/RdRp) mediante citometría de flujo, y los anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2, mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta y prueba de neutralización por reducción de placa. Resultados. Durante la COVID-19 hubo una producción elevada de citocinas proinflamatorias, con disminución de las células NK CD56bright y reacción citotóxica. Comparados con los controles sanos, los individuos infectados presentaron con gran frecuencia linfocitos T CD8+ disfuncionales CD38+HLA-DR-. Además, en los linfocitos T CD8+ estimulados con péptidos virales, predominó una reacción monofuncional con gran producción de IL-10 durante la fase aguda y una reacción bifuncional caracterizada por la coexpresión de CD107a y granzima B o perforina durante la convalecencia. Conclusión. Aunque la reacción inflamatoria caracteriza la infección por SARS-CoV-2, hay otras alteraciones fenotípicas y funcionales en células NK y linfocitos T CD8+ que podrían asociarse con la progresión de la infección. Se requieren estudios adicionales para entender estas alteraciones y guiar futuras estrategias de inmunoterapia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , CD56 Antigen/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Colombia , Family Health , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , K562 Cells , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Perforin/metabolism , Phenotype , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Young Adult
14.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6657894, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused large outbreaks of COVID-19 worldwide. COVID-19 resembles community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Our aim was to identify lymphocyte subpopulations to distinguish between COVID-19 and CAP. METHODS: We compared the peripheral blood lymphocytes and their subsets in 296 patients with COVID-19 and 130 patients with CAP. Parameters for independent prediction of COVID-19 were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: The main lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3+CD4+, CD16+CD56+, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio) and cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) of COVID-19 patients were significantly different from that of CAP patients. CD16+CD56+%, CD4+/CD8+ratio, CD19+, and CD3+CD4+ were identified as predictors of COVID-19 diagnosis by logistic regression. In addition, the CD3+CD4+counts, CD3+CD8+ counts, andTNF-α are independent predictors of disease severity in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphopenia is an important part of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lymphocyte subsets and cytokines may be useful to predict the severity and clinical outcomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Pneumonia/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 163, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies had described the health consequences of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in those with severe infections after discharge from hospital. Moreover, no research had reported the health consequences in health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 after discharge. We aimed to investigate the health consequences in HCWs with severe COVID-19 after discharge from hospital in Hubei Province, China. METHODS: We conducted an ambidirectional cohort study in "Rehabilitation Care Project for Medical Staff Infected with COVID-19" in China. The participants were asked to complete three physical examinations (including the tests of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators) at 153.4 (143.3, 164.8), 244.3 (232.4, 259.1), and 329.4 (319.4, 339.3) days after discharge, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test, one-way ANOVA, χ2, and Fisher's exact test were used to assess the variance between two or more groups where appropriate. RESULTS: Of 333 HCWs with severe COVID-19, the HCWs' median age was 36.0 (31.0, 43.0) years, 257 (77%) were female, and 191 (57%) were nurses. Our research found that 70.4% (114/162), 48.9% (67/137), and 29.6% (37/125) of the HCWs with severe COVID-19 were considered to have not recovered their functional fitness in the first, second, and third functional fitness tests, respectively. The HCWs showed improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance after discharge in follow-up visits. The seropositivity of IgM (17.0% vs. 6.6%) and median titres of IgM (3.0 vs. 1.4) and IgG (60.3 vs. 45.3) in the third physical examination was higher than that in the first physical examination. In the third physical examination, there still were 42.1% and 45.9% of the HCWs had elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and 11.9% and 6.3% of the HCWs had decreased relative numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: The HCWs with severe COVID-19 showed improvement in functional fitness within 1 year after discharge, active intervention should be applied to help their recovery if necessary. It is of vital significance to continue monitoring the functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators after 1 year of discharge from hospital in HCWs with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14094, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303786

ABSTRACT

We aimed to provide a laboratory basis for differential diagnosis of COVID-19 and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). Clinical data were collected from 32 COVID-19 patients (2019-nCoV group), 31 SFTS patients (SFTS group) and 30 healthy controls (control group). For each group of hospitalized patients, a retrospective analysis was performed on specific indices, including cytokines, T-lymphocyte subsets, routine blood parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the indices revealed the differences among groups. Compared with the 2019-nCoV group, the SFTS group had a significantly and greatly decreased counts of WBC, absolute lymphocyte, PLT and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte (P < 0.05); the IL-6, TNF-α, D-D and PCT levels of the SFTS group were higher than those of the 2019-nCoV group (P < 0.05). Compared with those of the SFTS group, the CRP and FIB levels of the 2019-nCoV group were greatly increased (P < 0.05). The ROC curves showed that area under the curves (AUCs) for FIB, PLT and TNF-α were greater than 0.85, demonstrating high diagnostic value. At the initial stage of SARS-CoV-2 or SFTS virus infection, PLT, FIB and TNF-α have definitive clinical value for the early and differential diagnosis of these two infections.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Phlebovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/diagnosis , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/virology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(12): 4435-4438, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed at explaining the mechanism of therapeutic effect of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSC) in subjects with COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Patients with COVID-19 ARDS present with a hyperinflammatory response characterized by high levels of circulating pro-inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor α and ß (TNFα and TNFß). Inflammatory functions of these TNFs can be inhibited by soluble TNF Receptor 2 (sTNFR2). In patients with COVID-19 ARDS, UC-MSC appear to impart a robust anti-inflammatory effect, and treatment is associated with remarkable clinical improvements. We investigated the levels of TNFα, TNFß and sTNFR2 in blood plasma samples collected from subjects with COVID-19 ARDS enrolled in our trial of UC-MSC treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed plasma samples from subjects with COVID-19 ARDS (n=24) enrolled in a Phase 1/2a randomized controlled trial of UC-MSC treatment. Plasma samples were obtained at Day 0 (baseline, before UC-MSC or control infusion), and Day 6 post infusion. Plasma concentrations of sTNFR2, TNFα, and TNFß were evaluated using a quantitative multiplex protein array. RESULTS: Our data indicate that at Day 6 after infusion, UC-MSC recipients develop significantly increased levels of plasma sTNFR2 and significantly decreased levels of TNFα and TNFß, compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that sTNFR2 plays a mechanistic role in mediating UC-MSC effect on TNFα and TNFß plasma levels, determining a decrease in inflammation in COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Lymphotoxin-alpha/blood , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Umbilical Cord/transplantation , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Umbilical Cord/cytology
18.
Virol J ; 18(1): 117, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically described. We determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19 and their relationships with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 94 COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS were analyzed. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 following admission. Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Correlations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines with clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed, furthermore, we also explored the relationships of different cytokines with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. RESULTS: The ARDS group had higher serum levels of all 4 inflammatory cytokines than the controls, and these levels steadily increased after admission. The ARDS group also had higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than the non-ARDS group, and the levels of these cytokines correlated significantly with coagulation parameters and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α correlated with the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen, and were also higher in ARDS patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). All 4 inflammatory cytokines had negative correlations with PaO2/FiO2. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α had positive correlations with the APACHE-II score. Relative to survivors, non-survivors had higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 at admission, and increasing levels over time. CONCLUSIONS: The cytokine storm apparently contributed to the development of ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD in COVID-19 patients. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 correlated with DIC, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with AKI. Relative to survivors, patients who died within 28 days had increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228897

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the syndrome caused by the infection with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is characterized, in its severe form, by interstitial diffuse pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and systemic manifestations of COVID-19 are mainly due to an exaggerated immune response triggered by the viral infection. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), an inflammatory syndrome characterized by elevated levels of circulating cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction are systemic manifestations of COVID-19. CRS is also an adverse event of immunotherapy (IMTX), the treatment of diseases using drugs, cells, and antibodies to stimulate or suppress the immune system. Graft-versus-host disease complications after an allogeneic stem cell transplant, toxicity after the infusion of chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy and monoclonal antibodies can all lead to CRS. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory drugs used for treatment of CRS in IMTX may be useful in reducing the mortality in COVID-19, whereas IMTX itself may help in ameliorating effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this paper, we focused on the potential shared mechanisms and differences between COVID-19 and IMTX-related toxicities. We performed a systematic review of the clinical trials testing anti-inflammatory therapies and of the data published from prospective trials. Preliminary evidence suggests there might be a benefit in targeting the cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, especially by inhibiting the interleukin-6 pathway. Many other approaches based on novel drugs and cell therapies are currently under investigation and may lead to a reduction in hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Nitriles , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 592727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225860

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 112M patients and resulted in almost 2.5M deaths worldwide. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) possibly associated with a cytokine storm. Objectives: To elucidate serum levels of TNF-α and soluble TNF-Receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in patients with severe and mild COVID-19 disease as determinants of disease severity. Methods: We determined serum TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in 46 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (17 patients with severe disease within the intensive care unit [ICU] and 29 non-severe, non-ICU patients) and 15 healthy controls upon admission using ELISA. Subjects were recruited between March-May 2020 at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran, Iran. Results: Serum levels of sTNFRI were significantly higher in ICU patients (P<0.0001) and non-ICU patients (P=0.0342) compared with healthy subjects. Serum sTNFR1 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (P<0.0001). Serum TNF-α levels were greater in ICU and non-ICU patients than in the healthy subjects group (p<0.0001). The sTNFRI concentration in ICU (r=0.79, p=0.0002) and non-ICU (r=0.42, p=0.02) patients positively correlated with age although serum sTNFRI levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in older healthy subjects. The sTNFRI concentration in ICU patients negatively correlated with ESR. Conclusions: The study demonstrates higher sTNFRI in ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease and this be a biomarker of disease severity and mortality. Future studies should examine whether lower levels of systemic sTNFR1 at admission may indicate a better disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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