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1.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(3): 269, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764162

ABSTRACT

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) contributes to immune responses against tumors and may control viral infection including SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, activation of the STING pathway by airway silica or smoke exposure leads to cell death, self-dsDNA release, and STING/type I IFN dependent acute lung inflammation/ARDS. The inflammatory response induced by a synthetic non-nucleotide-based diABZI STING agonist, in comparison to the natural cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, is unknown. A low dose of diABZI (1 µg by endotracheal route for 3 consecutive days) triggered an acute neutrophilic inflammation, disruption of the respiratory barrier, DNA release with NET formation, PANoptosis cell death, and inflammatory cytokines with type I IFN dependent acute lung inflammation. Downstream upregulation of DNA sensors including cGAS, DDX41, IFI204, as well as NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, suggested a secondary inflammatory response to dsDNA as a danger signal. DNase I treatment, inhibition of NET formation together with an investigation in gene-deficient mice highlighted extracellular DNA and TLR9, but not cGAS, as central to diABZI-induced neutrophilic response. Therefore, activation of acute cell death with DNA release may lead to ARDS which may be modeled by diABZI. These results show that airway targeting by STING activator as a therapeutic strategy for infection may enhance lung inflammation with severe ARDS. STING agonist diABZI induces neutrophilic lung inflammation and PANoptosis A, Airway STING priming induce a neutrophilic lung inflammation with epithelial barrier damage, double-stranded DNA release in the bronchoalvelolar space, cell death, NETosis and type I interferon release. B, 1. The diamidobenzimidazole (diABZI), a STING agonist is internalized into the cytoplasm through unknown receptor and induce the activation and dimerization of STING followed by TBK1/IRF3 phosporylation leading to type I IFN response. STING activation also leads to NF-kB activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6. 2. The activation of TNFR1 and IFNAR1 signaling pathway results in ZBP1 and RIPK3/ASC/CASP8 activation leading to MLKL phosphorylation and necroptosis induction. 3. This can also leads to Caspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis induction. 4. Self-dsDNA or mtDNA sensing by NLRP3 or AIM2 induces inflammsome formation leading to Gasdermin D cleavage enabling Gasdermin D pore formation and the release mature IL-1ß and pyroptosis. NLRP3 inflammasome formation can be enhanced by the ZBP1/RIPK3/CASP8 complex. 5. A second signal of STING activation with diABZI induces cell death and the release of self-DNA which is sensed by cGAS and form 2'3'-cGAMP leading to STING hyper activation, the amplification of TBK1/IRF3 and NF-kB pathway and the subsequent production of IFN-I and inflammatory TNFα and IL-6. This also leads to IFI204 and DDX41 upregulation thus, amplifying the inflammatory loop. The upregulation of apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis is indicative of STING-dependent PANoptosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731872

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the pathophysiologic understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suggests that cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has an association with the severity of disease, which is characterized by increased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, IL-7, and IL-10. Hence, managing CRS has been recommended for rescuing severe COVID-19 patients. TNF-α, one of the pro-inflammatory cytokines commonly upregulated in acute lung injury, triggers CRS and facilitates SARS-CoV-2 interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). TNF-α inhibitors, therefore, may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for attenuating disease progression in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Below, we review the possibilities and challenges of targeting the TNF-α pathway in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
3.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(2): e00926, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694654

ABSTRACT

The chronic neurological aspects of traumatic brain injury, post-stroke syndromes, long COVID-19, persistent Lyme disease, and influenza encephalopathy having close pathophysiological parallels that warrant being investigated in an integrated manner. A mechanism, common to all, for this persistence of the range of symptoms common to these conditions is described. While TNF maintains cerebral homeostasis, its excessive production through either pathogen-associated molecular patterns or damage-associated molecular patterns activity associates with the persistence of the symptoms common across both infectious and non-infectious conditions. The case is made that this shared chronicity arises from a positive feedback loop causing the persistence of the activation of microglia by the TNF that these cells generate. Lowering this excess TNF is the logical way to reducing this persistent, TNF-maintained, microglial activation. While too large to negotiate the blood-brain barrier effectively, the specific anti-TNF biological, etanercept, shows promise when administered by the perispinal route, which allows it to bypass this obstruction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Stroke/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Humans , Injections, Spinal , Microglia/metabolism , Microglia/pathology , Stroke/metabolism , Syndrome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 769011, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650341

ABSTRACT

Asthma patients may increase their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the poor prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, anti-COVID-19/asthma comorbidity approaches are restricted on condition. Existing evidence indicates that luteolin has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulation capabilities. We aimed to evaluate the possibility of luteolin evolving into an ideal drug and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We used system pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis to assess the physicochemical properties and biological activities of luteolin and further analyze the binding activities, targets, biological functions, and mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We found that luteolin may exert ideal physicochemical properties and bioactivity, and molecular docking analysis confirmed that luteolin performed effective binding activities in COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network of 538 common targets between drug and disease was constructed and 264 hub targets were obtained. Then, the top 6 hub targets of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity were identified, namely, TP53, AKT1, ALB, IL-6, TNF, and VEGFA. Furthermore, the enrichment analysis suggested that luteolin may exert effects on virus defense, regulation of inflammation, cell growth and cell replication, and immune responses, reducing oxidative stress and regulating blood circulation through the Toll-like receptor; MAPK, TNF, AGE/RAGE, EGFR, ErbB, HIF-1, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways; PD-L1 expression; and PD-1 checkpoint pathway in cancer. The possible "dangerous liaison" between COVID-19 and asthma is still a potential threat to world health. This research is the first to explore whether luteolin could evolve into a drug candidate for COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. This study indicated that luteolin with superior drug likeness and bioactivity has great potential to be used for treating COVID-19/asthma comorbidity, but the predicted results still need to be rigorously verified by experiments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Luteolin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Comorbidity , Computational Biology/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Luteolin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631216

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and endothelin-1 receptor type A (ETAR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on the surface of a great variety of cells: immune cells, vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts express ETAR and AT1R, which are activated by endothelin 1 (ET1) and angiotensin II (AngII), respectively. Certain autoantibodies are specific for these receptors and can regulate their function, thus being known as functional autoantibodies. The function of these antibodies is similar to that of natural ligands, and it involves not only vasoconstriction, but also the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-6 (IL6), IL8 and TNF-α), collagen production by fibroblasts, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release by fibroblasts and neutrophils. The role of autoantibodies against AT1R and ETAR (AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs, respectively) is well described in the pathogenesis of many medical conditions (e.g., systemic sclerosis (SSc) and SSc-associated pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and allograft dysfunction), but their implications in cardiovascular diseases are still unclear. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs in cardiovascular pathologies, highlighting their roles in heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support, preeclampsia, and acute coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Receptor, Endothelin A/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Collagen/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554985

ABSTRACT

Inflammation involves a complex biological response of the body tissues to damaging stimuli. When dysregulated, inflammation led by biomolecular mediators such as caspase-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can play a detrimental role in the progression of different medical conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cytokine storms caused by viral infections such as COVID-19. Computational approaches can accelerate the search for dual-target drugs able to simultaneously inhibit the aforementioned proteins, enabling the discovery of wide-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents. This work reports the first multicondition model based on quantitative structure-activity relationships and a multilayer perceptron neural network (mtc-QSAR-MLP) for the virtual screening of agency-regulated chemicals as versatile anti-inflammatory therapeutics. The mtc-QSAR-MLP model displayed accuracy higher than 88%, and was interpreted from a physicochemical and structural point of view. When using the mtc-QSAR-MLP model as a virtual screening tool, we could identify several agency-regulated chemicals as dual inhibitors of caspase-1 and TNF-alpha, and the experimental information later retrieved from the scientific literature converged with our computational results. This study supports the capabilities of our mtc-QSAR-MLP model in anti-inflammatory therapy with direct applications to current health issues such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspase Inhibitors/chemistry , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 714909, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497067

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinically, evidence shows that uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have a higher death-rate. However, current anti-UCEC/coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment is lacking. Plumbagin (PLB), a pharmacologically active alkaloid, is an emerging anti-cancer inhibitor. Accordingly, the current report was designed to identify and characterize the anti-UCEC function and mechanism of PLB in the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 via integrated in silico analysis. Methods: The clinical analyses of UCEC and COVID-19 in patients were conducted using online-accessible tools. Meanwhile, in silico methods including network pharmacology and biological molecular docking aimed to screen and characterize the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 functions, bio targets, and mechanisms of the action of PLB. Results: The bioinformatics data uncovered the clinical characteristics of UCEC patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, including specific genes, health risk, survival rate, and prognostic index. Network pharmacology findings disclosed that PLB-exerted anti-UCEC/COVID-19 effects were achieved through anti-proliferation, inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and modulation of some of the key molecular pathways associated with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating actions. Following molecular docking analysis, in silico investigation helped identify the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 pharmacological bio targets of PLB, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU). Conclusions: Based on the present bioinformatic and in silico findings, the clinical characterization of UCEC/COVID-19 patients was revealed. The candidate, core bio targets, and molecular pathways of PLB action in the potential treatment of UCEC/COVID-19 were identified accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Endometrial Neoplasms , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/complications , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/genetics , Computational Biology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/methods , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Genetic Association Studies , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Uterus/drug effects , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/pathology , Uterus/virology
8.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0127621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494956

ABSTRACT

The emergence of life-threatening zoonotic diseases caused by betacoronaviruses, including the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, has highlighted the need for developing preclinical models mirroring respiratory and systemic pathophysiological manifestations seen in infected humans. Here, we showed that C57BL/6J wild-type mice intranasally inoculated with the murine betacoronavirus murine hepatitis coronavirus 3 (MHV-3) develop a robust inflammatory response leading to acute lung injuries, including alveolar edema, hemorrhage, and fibrin thrombi. Although such histopathological changes seemed to resolve as the infection advanced, they efficiently impaired respiratory function, as the infected mice displayed restricted lung distention and increased respiratory frequency and ventilation. Following respiratory manifestation, the MHV-3 infection became systemic, and a high virus burden could be detected in multiple organs along with morphological changes. The systemic manifestation of MHV-3 infection was also marked by a sharp drop in the number of circulating platelets and lymphocytes, besides the augmented concentration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-12, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), thereby mirroring some clinical features observed in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19. Importantly, both respiratory and systemic changes triggered by MHV-3 infection were greatly prevented by blocking TNF signaling, either via genetic or pharmacologic approaches. In line with this, TNF blockage also diminished the infection-mediated release of proinflammatory cytokines and virus replication of human epithelial lung cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Collectively, results show that MHV-3 respiratory infection leads to a large range of clinical manifestations in mice and may constitute an attractive, lower-cost, biosafety level 2 (BSL2) in vivo platform for evaluating the respiratory and multiorgan involvement of betacoronavirus infections. IMPORTANCE Mouse models have long been used as valuable in vivo platforms to investigate the pathogenesis of viral infections and effective countermeasures. The natural resistance of mice to the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has launched a race toward the characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infection in other animals (e.g., hamsters, cats, ferrets, bats, and monkeys), as well as adaptation of the mouse model, by modifying either the host or the virus. In the present study, we utilized a natural pathogen of mice, MHV, as a prototype to model betacoronavirus-induced acute lung injure and multiorgan involvement under biosafety level 2 conditions. We showed that C57BL/6J mice intranasally inoculated with MHV-3 develops severe disease, which includes acute lung damage and respiratory distress that precede systemic inflammation and death. Accordingly, the proposed animal model may provide a useful tool for studies regarding betacoronavirus respiratory infection and related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Cell Line , Containment of Biohazards , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(1): 445-458, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491383

ABSTRACT

In addition to respiratory complications produced by SARS-CoV-2, accumulating evidence suggests that some neurological symptoms are associated with the disease caused by this coronavirus. In this study, we investigated the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 stimulation on neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. Analyses of culture supernatants revealed an increase in the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß and iNOS/NO. S1 also increased protein levels of phospho-p65 and phospho-IκBα, as well as enhanced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These effects of the protein were blocked in the presence of BAY11-7082 (1 µM). Exposure of S1 to BV-2 microglia also increased the protein levels of NLRP3 inflammasome and enhanced caspase-1 activity. Increased protein levels of p38 MAPK was observed in BV-2 microglia stimulated with the spike protein S1 (100 ng/ml), an action that was reduced in the presence of SKF 86,002 (1 µM). Results of immunofluorescence microscopy showed an increase in TLR4 protein expression in S1-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition with TAK 242 (1 µM) and transfection with TLR4 small interfering RNA resulted in significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-6 production in S1-stimulated BV-2 microglia. These results have provided the first evidence demonstrating S1-induced neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. We propose that induction of neuroinflammation by this protein in the microglia is mediated through activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, possibly as a result of TLR4 activation. These results contribute to our understanding of some of the mechanisms involved in CNS pathologies of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Microglia/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Furans/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Microglia/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108264, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487769

ABSTRACT

Topoisomerase (TOP) inhibitors were commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. In our present study, we found that etoposide (ETO), a topoisomerase 2 (TOP2) inhibitor, upregulated the production of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Besides, other TOP2 inhibitors including doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and teniposide (TEN) were also able to augment IL-10 production. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors, for example IL-6 and TNF-α, were also decreased accordingly by the treatment of the TOP2 inhibitors. Of note, ETO facilitated IL-10 secretion, which might be regulated by transcription factor Maf via PI3K/AKT pathway, as pharmaceutic blockage of kinase PI3K or AKT attenuated ETO-induced Maf and IL-10 expression. Further, in LPS-induced mice sepsis model, the enhanced generation of IL-10 was observed in ETO-treated mice, whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines were decreased, which significantly reduced the mortality of mice from LPS-induced lethal cytokine storm. Taken together, these results indicated that ETO may exhibit an anti-inflammatory role by upregulating the alteration of transcription factor Maf and promoting subsequential IL-10 secretion via PI3K/Akt pathway in LPS-induced macrophages. Therefore, ETO may serve as a potential anti-inflammatory agent and employed to severe pro-inflammatory diseases including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Etoposide/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf/genetics , Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Female , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf/metabolism , Shock, Septic/chemically induced , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
11.
Biol Direct ; 16(1): 18, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477451

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity reflecting the rapid activation and effective differentiation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In the course of muscle regeneration, MuSCs are reprogrammed by immune cells. In turn, MuSCs confer immune cells anti-inflammatory properties to resolve inflammation and facilitate tissue repair. Indeed, MuSCs can exert therapeutic effects on various degenerative and inflammatory disorders based on their immunoregulatory ability, including effects primed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). At the molecular level, the tryptophan metabolites, kynurenine or kynurenic acid, produced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), augment the expression of TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG6) through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In addition, insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) produced by MuSCs can endow maturing macrophages oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent anti-inflammatory functions. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of the immunomodulatory characteristics of MuSCs and the issues related to their potential applications in pathological conditions, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immune System/physiology , Muscles/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kynurenic Acid/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Muscles/metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Tryptophan/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
12.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2405-2410, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471046

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. mRNA vaccines directed at the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein resulted in development of Abs and protective immunity. To determine the mechanism, we analyzed the kinetics of induction of circulating exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Ab following vaccination of healthy individuals. Results demonstrated induction of circulating exosomes expressing spike protein on day 14 after vaccination followed by Abs 14 d after the second dose. Exosomes with spike protein, Abs to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and T cells secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α increased following the booster dose. Transmission electron microscopy of exosomes also demonstrated spike protein Ags on their surface. Exosomes with spike protein and Abs decreased in parallel after four months. These results demonstrate an important role of circulating exosomes with spike protein for effective immunization following mRNA-based vaccination. This is further documented by induction of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized with exosomes carrying spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Blood Circulation , Cells, Cultured , Exosomes/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vaccination
13.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2650-2669.e14, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442406

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal analyses of the innate immune system, including the earliest time points, are essential to understand the immunopathogenesis and clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in 205 patients (403 samples; days 2 to 41 after symptom onset) from four independent cohorts using single-cell transcriptomics and proteomics together with functional studies. We found elevated interferon (IFN)-α plasma levels in early severe COVD-19 alongside increased NK cell expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in IFN-α signaling, while upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced genes was observed in moderate diseases. NK cells exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) activity but are functionally impaired in severe COVID-19. Further, NK cell dysfunction may be relevant for the development of fibrotic lung disease in severe COVID-19, as NK cells exhibited impaired anti-fibrotic activity. Our study indicates preferential IFN-α and TNF responses in severe and moderate COVID-19, respectively, and associates a prolonged IFN-α-induced NK cell response with poorer disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Base Sequence , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Interferon-alpha/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , RNA-Seq , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome/genetics , United Kingdom , United States
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with high infectivity and mortality has caused severe social and economic impacts worldwide. Growing reports of COVID-19 patients with multi-organ damage indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may also disturb the cardiovascular system. Herein, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) as the in vitro platform to examine the consequence of SARS-CoV2 infection on iCMs. Differentiated iCMs expressed the primary SARS-CoV2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) receptor suggesting the susceptibility of iCMs to SARS-CoV2. Following the infection of iCMs with SARS-CoV2, the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein was detected in the host cells, demonstrating the successful infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV2 infection upregulates several inflammation-related genes, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The pretreatment of iCMs with TNF-α for 24 h, significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, SASR-CoV2 entry receptors. The TNF-α pretreatment enhanced the entry of GFP-expressing SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus into iCMs, and the neutralization of TNF-α ameliorated the TNF-α-enhanced viral entry. Collectively, SARS-CoV2 elevated TNF-α expression, which in turn enhanced the SARS-CoV2 viral entry. Our findings suggest that, TNF-α may participate in the cytokine storm and aggravate the myocardial damage in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Myocardium/cytology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Up-Regulation/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
15.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403545

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality in women and it kills twice as many women as breast cancer. A key role in the pathophysiology of stroke plays the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) within the neurovascular unit. While estrogen induces vascular protective actions, its influence on stroke remains unclear. Moreover, experiments assessing its impact on endothelial cells to induce barrier integrity are non-conclusive. Since pericytes play an active role in regulating BBB integrity and function, we hypothesize that estradiol may influence BBB by regulating their activity. In this study using human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) we investigated the impact of estradiol on key pericyte functions known to influence BBB integrity. HBVPs expressed estrogen receptors (ER-α, ER-ß and GPER) and treatment with estradiol (10 nM) inhibited basal cell migration but not proliferation. Since pericyte migration is a hallmark for BBB disruption following injury, infection and inflammation, we investigated the effects of estradiol on TNFα-induced PC migration. Importantly, estradiol prevented TNFα-induced pericyte migration and this effect was mimicked by PPT (ER-α agonist) and DPN (ER-ß agonist), but not by G1 (GPR30 agonist). The modulatory effects of estradiol were abrogated by MPP and PHTPP, selective ER-α and ER-ß antagonists, respectively, confirming the role of ER-α and ER-ß in mediating the anti-migratory actions of estrogen. To delineate the intracellular mechanisms mediating the inhibitory actions of estradiol on PC migration, we investigated the role of AKT and MAPK activation. While estradiol consistently reduced the TNFα-induced MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, only the inhibition of MAPK, but not Akt, significantly abrogated the migratory actions of TNFα. In transendothelial electrical resistance measurements, estradiol induced barrier function (TEER) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with pericytes, but not in HBMECs cultured alone. Importantly, transcriptomics analysis of genes modulated by estradiol in pericytes showed downregulation of genes known to increase cell migration and upregulation of genes known to inhibit cell migration. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that estradiol modulates pericyte activity and thereby improves endothelial integrity.


Subject(s)
Brain/blood supply , Cell Movement/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Gene Expression Profiling , Pericytes/cytology , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Pericytes/drug effects , Pericytes/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389275

ABSTRACT

Several RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, can infect or use the eye as an entry portal to cause ocular or systemic diseases. Povidone-Iodine (PVP-I) is routinely used during ocular surgeries and eye banking as a cost-effective disinfectant due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against viruses. However, whether PVP-I can exert antiviral activities in virus-infected cells remains elusive. In this study, using Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus infection of human corneal and retinal pigment epithelial cells, we report antiviral mechanisms of PVP-I. Our data showed that PVP-I, even at the lowest concentration (0.01%), drastically reduced viral replication in corneal and retinal cells without causing cellular toxicity. Antiviral effects of PVP-I against ZIKV and CHIKV were mediated by direct viral inactivation, thus attenuating the ability of the virus to infect host cells. Moreover, one-minute PVP-I exposure of infected ocular cells drastically reduced viral replication and the production of infectious progeny virions. Furthermore, viral-induced (CHIKV) expression of inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL1ß) were markedly reduced in PVP-I treated corneal epithelial cells. Together, our results demonstrate potent antiviral effects of PVP-I against ZIKV and CHIKV infection of ocular cells. Thus, a low dose of PVP-I can be used during tissue harvesting for corneal transplants to prevent potential transmission of RNA viruses via infected cells.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Cell Line , Chikungunya virus/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/metabolism , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vero Cells , Zika Virus/physiology
17.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389462

ABSTRACT

Zebrafish has been a reliable model system for studying human viral pathologies. SARS-CoV-2 viral infection has become a global chaos, affecting millions of people. There is an urgent need to contain the pandemic and develop reliable therapies. We report the use of a humanized zebrafish model, xeno-transplanted with human lung epithelial cells, A549, for studying the protective effects of a tri-herbal medicine Coronil. At human relevant doses of 12 and 58 µg/kg, Coronil inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, induced humanized zebrafish mortality, and rescued from behavioral fever. Morphological and cellular abnormalities along with granulocyte and macrophage accumulation in the swim bladder were restored to normal. Skin hemorrhage, renal cell degeneration, and necrosis were also significantly attenuated by Coronil treatment. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis identified ursolic acid, betulinic acid, withanone, withaferine A, withanoside IV-V, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine, rosmarinic acid, and palmatine as phyto-metabolites present in Coronil. In A549 cells, Coronil attenuated the IL-1ß induced IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine secretions, and decreased TNF-α induced NF-κB/AP-1 transcriptional activity. Taken together, we show the disease modifying immunomodulatory properties of Coronil, at human equivalent doses, in rescuing the pathological features induced by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, suggesting its potential use in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Air Sacs/drug effects , Air Sacs/virology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Necrosis/pathology , Necrosis/prevention & control , Pandemics , Phytotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Mucosa/transplantation , Transcriptional Activation/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Zebrafish
18.
Inflamm Res ; 70(10-12): 1165-1175, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Junctional proteins are the most important component of the blood-testis barrier and maintaining the integrity of this barrier is essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. The present study elucidated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in patients who died from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) complications. METHODS: In this study, lung and testis tissue was collected from autopsies of COVID-19 positive (n = 10) and negative men (n = 10) and was taken for stereology, immunocytochemistry, and RNA extraction. RESULTS: Evaluation of the lung tissue showed that the SARS-CoV-2 infection caused extensive damage to the lung tissue and also increases inflammation in testicular tissue and destruction of the testicular blood barrier. Autopsied testicular specimens of COVID-19 showed that COVID-19 infection significantly changes the spatial arrangement of testicular cells and notably decreased the number of Sertoli cells. Moreover, the immunohistochemistry results showed a significant reduction in the protein expression of occluding, claudin-11, and connexin-43 in the COVID-19 group. In addition, we also observed a remarkable enhancement in protein expression of CD68 in the testes of the COVID-19 group in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, the result showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL1ß, and IL6 was significantly increased in COVID-19 cases as well as the expression of occludin, claudin-11, and connexin-43 was decreased in COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present study demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 could induce the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and down-regulation of junctional proteins of the BTB, which can disrupt BTB and ultimately impair spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Blood-Testis Barrier/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Autopsy , Claudins/metabolism , Connexin 43/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Occludin/metabolism , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sertoli Cells/pathology , Testis/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716075, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359192

ABSTRACT

The existence of asymptomatic and re-detectable positive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presents the disease control challenges of COVID-19. Most studies on immune responses in COVID-19 have focused on moderately or severely symptomatic patients; however, little is known about the immune response in asymptomatic and re-detectable positive (RP) patients. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 48 COVID-19 patients which included 8 asymptomatic, 13 symptomatic, 15 recovered and 12 RP patients. The weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified six co-expression modules, of which the turquoise module was positively correlated with the asymptomatic, symptomatic, and recovered COVID-19 patients. The red module positively correlated with symptomatic patients only and the blue and brown modules positively correlated with the RP patients. The analysis by single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) revealed a lower level of IFN response and complement activation in the asymptomatic patients compared with the symptomatic, indicating a weaker immune response of the PBMCs in the asymptomatic patients. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis showed the enrichment of TNFα/NF-κB and influenza infection in the RP patients compared with the recovered patients, indicating a hyper-inflammatory immune response in the PBMC of RP patients. Thus our findings could extend our understanding of host immune response during the progression of COVID-19 disease and assist clinical management and the immunotherapy development for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcriptome/genetics , Adult , Carrier State/virology , Complement Activation/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza, Human/complications , Interferons/blood , Interferons/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Transcriptome/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Young Adult
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 683800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305645

ABSTRACT

The major cause of death in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients is due to de-regulation of the innate immune system and development of cytokine storm. SARS-CoV-2 infects multiple cell types in the lung, including macrophages, by engagement of its spike (S) protein on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. ACE2 receptor initiates signals in macrophages that modulate their activation, including production of cytokines and chemokines. IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a central regulator of inflammatory responses regulating the magnitude of TLR responsiveness. Aim of the work was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated signals modulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. For this purpose, we treated PMA-differentiated THP-1 human macrophages with SARS-CoV-2 S protein and measured the induction of inflammatory mediators including IL6, TNFα, IL8, CXCL5, and MIP1a. The results showed that SARS-CoV-2 S protein induced IL6, MIP1a and TNFα mRNA expression, while it had no effect on IL8 and CXCL5 mRNA levels. We further examined whether SARS-CoV-2 S protein altered the responsiveness of macrophages to TLR signals. Treatment of LPS-activated macrophages with SARS-CoV-2 S protein augmented IL6 and MIP1a mRNA, an effect that was evident at the protein level only for IL6. Similarly, treatment of PAM3csk4 stimulated macrophages with SARS-CoV-2 S protein resulted in increased mRNA of IL6, while TNFα and MIP1a were unaffected. The results were confirmed in primary human peripheral monocytic cells (PBMCs) and isolated CD14+ monocytes. Macrophage responsiveness to TLR ligands is regulated by IRAK-M, an inactive IRAK kinase isoform. Indeed, we found that SARS-CoV-2 S protein suppressed IRAK-M mRNA and protein expression both in THP1 macrophages and primary human PBMCs and CD14+ monocytes. Engagement of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with ACE2 results in internalization of ACE2 and suppression of its activity. Activation of ACE2 has been previously shown to induce anti-inflammatory responses in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with the ACE2 activator DIZE suppressed the pro-inflammatory action of SARS-CoV-2. Our results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 interaction rendered macrophages hyper-responsive to TLR signals, suppressed IRAK-M and promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, activation of ACE2 may be a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy to eliminate the development of cytokine storm observed in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Protein Binding , THP-1 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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