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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 616: 14-18, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850694

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a major threat to human health. As a unique putative protein of SARS-CoV-2, the N-terminus of ORF10 can be recognized by ZYG11B, a substrate receptor of the Cullin 2-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL2). Here we elucidated recognition mechanism of ORF10 N-terminus by ZYG11B through presenting the crystal structure of ZYG11B bound to ORF10 N-terminal peptide. Our work expands the current understanding of ORF10 interaction with ZYG11B, and may also inspire the development of novel therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
2.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822414

ABSTRACT

The p53-dependent ubiquitin ligase Pirh2 regulates a number of proteins involved in different cancer-associated processes. Targeting the p53 family proteins, Chk2, p27Kip1, Twist1 and others, Pirh2 participates in such cellular processes as proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and cellular migration. Thus, it is not surprising that Pirh2 takes part in the initiation and progression of different diseases and pathologies including but not limited to cancer. In this review, we aimed to summarize the available data on Pirh2 regulation, its protein targets and its role in various diseases and pathological processes, thus making the Pirh2 protein a promising therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
3.
J Biol Chem ; 298(2): 101584, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699145

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronaviruses have begun to attract great attention across the world. Of the known human coronaviruses, however, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the most lethal. Coronavirus proteins can be divided into three groups: nonstructural proteins, structural proteins, and accessory proteins. While the number of each of these proteins varies greatly among different coronaviruses, accessory proteins are most closely related to the pathogenicity of the virus. We found for the first time that the ORF3 accessory protein of MERS-CoV, which closely resembles the ORF3a proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, has the ability to induce apoptosis in cells in a dose-dependent manner. Through bioinformatics analysis and validation, we revealed that ORF3 is an unstable protein and has a shorter half-life in cells compared to that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a proteins. After screening, we identified a host E3 ligase, HUWE1, that specifically induces MERS-CoV ORF3 protein ubiquitination and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This results in the diminished ability of ORF3 to induce apoptosis, which might partially explain the lower spread of MERS-CoV compared to other coronaviruses. In summary, this study reveals a pathological function of MERS-CoV ORF3 protein and identifies a potential host antiviral protein, HUWE1, with an ability to antagonize MERS-CoV pathogenesis by inducing ORF3 degradation, thus enriching our knowledge of the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and suggesting new targets and strategies for clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV treatment.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
4.
Trends Immunol ; 43(2): 148-162, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634995

ABSTRACT

Ubc13-catalyzed K63 ubiquitination is a major control point for immune signaling. Recent evidence has shown that the control of multiple immune functions, including chronic inflammation, pathogen responses, lymphocyte activation, and regulatory signaling, is altered by K63 ubiquitination. In this review, we detail the novel cellular sensors that are dependent on K63 ubiquitination for their function in the immune signaling network. Many pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can target K63 ubiquitination to inhibit pathogen immune responses; we describe novel details of the pathways involved and summarize recent clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2-specific responses. We also discuss recent evidence that regulatory T cell (Treg) versus T helper (TH) 1 and TH17 cell subset regulation might involve K63 ubiquitination. Knowledge gaps that merit future investigation and clinically relevant pathways are also addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lysine , Humans , Lysine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
5.
J Exp Med ; 218(9)2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467276

ABSTRACT

The three classes of interferons (IFNs) share the ability to inhibit viral replication, activating cell transcriptional programs that regulate both innate and adaptive responses to viral and intracellular bacterial challenge. Due to their unique potency in regulating viral replication, and their association with numerous autoimmune diseases, the tightly orchestrated transcriptional regulation of IFNs has long been a subject of intense investigation. The protective role of early robust IFN responses in the context of infection with SARS-CoV-2 has further underscored the relevance of these pathways. In this viewpoint, rather than focusing on the downstream effects of IFN signaling (which have been extensively reviewed elsewhere), we will summarize the historical and current understanding of the stepwise assembly and function of factors that regulate IFNß enhancer activity (the "enhanceosome") and highlight opportunities for deeper understanding of the transcriptional control of the ifnb gene.


Subject(s)
Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Interferon-beta/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcription, Genetic , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452921

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, and, as of yet, none of the currently available broad-spectrum drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. Host antiviral proteins play an important role in inhibiting viral proliferation. One of the isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), PABPC4, is an RNA-processing protein, which plays an important role in promoting gene expression by enhancing translation and mRNA stability. However, its function in viruses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the host protein, PABPC4, could be regulated by transcription factor SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs, covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. PABPC4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. Ubiquitinated N protein was recognized by the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2, which delivered it to the autolysosomes for degradation, resulting in impaired viral proliferation. In addition to regulating gene expression, these data demonstrate a novel antiviral function of PABPC4, which broadly suppresses CoVs by degrading the N protein via the selective autophagy pathway. This study will shed light on the development of broad anticoronaviral therapies. IMPORTANCE Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, but none of the currently available drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. During viral infection, the host will activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and host restriction factors in maintaining the innate antiviral responses and suppressing viral replication. This study demonstrated that the host protein, PABPC4, interacts with the nucleocapsid (N) proteins from eight CoVs covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family. PABPC4 could be regulated by SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. This study significantly increases our understanding of the novel host restriction factor PABPC4 against CoV replication and will help develop novel antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/growth & development , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Murine hepatitis virus/growth & development , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/growth & development , Proteolysis , Sp1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
7.
J Biol Chem ; 297(3): 101041, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397437

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3) contains a macrodomain that is essential for coronavirus pathogenesis and is thus an attractive target for drug development. This macrodomain is thought to counteract the host interferon (IFN) response, an important antiviral signalling cascade, via the reversal of protein ADP-ribosylation, a posttranslational modification catalyzed by host poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). However, the main cellular targets of the coronavirus macrodomain that mediate this effect are currently unknown. Here, we use a robust immunofluorescence-based assay to show that activation of the IFN response induces ADP-ribosylation of host proteins and that ectopic expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 macrodomain reverses this modification in human cells. We further demonstrate that this assay can be used to screen for on-target and cell-active macrodomain inhibitors. This IFN-induced ADP-ribosylation is dependent on PARP9 and its binding partner DTX3L, but surprisingly the expression of the Nsp3 macrodomain or the deletion of either PARP9 or DTX3L does not impair IFN signaling or the induction of IFN-responsive genes. Our results suggest that PARP9/DTX3L-dependent ADP-ribosylation is a downstream effector of the host IFN response and that the cellular function of the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 macrodomain is to hydrolyze this end product of IFN signaling, rather than to suppress the IFN response itself.


Subject(s)
ADP-Ribosylation , COVID-19/virology , Interferons/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Humans
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376237

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented a serious risk to global public health. The viral main protease Mpro (also called 3Clpro) encoded by NSP5 is an enzyme essential for viral replication. However, very few host proteins have been experimentally validated as targets of 3Clpro. Here, through bioinformatics analysis of 300 interferon stimulatory genes (ISGs) based on the prediction method NetCorona, we identify RNF20 (Ring Finger Protein 20) as a novel target of 3Clpro. We have also provided evidence that 3Clpro, but not the mutant 3ClproC145A without catalytic activity, cleaves RNF20 at a conserved Gln521 across species, which subsequently prevents SREBP1 from RNF20-mediated degradation and promotes SARS-CoV-2 replication. We show that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of either RNF20 or RNF40 significantly enhances viral replication, indicating the antiviral role of RNF20/RNF40 complex against SARS-CoV-2. The involvement of SREBP1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection is evidenced by a decrease of viral replication in the cells with SREBP1 knockdown and inhibitor AM580. Taken together, our findings reveal RNF20 as a novel host target for SARS-CoV-2 main protease and indicate that 3Clpro inhibitors may treat COVID-19 through not only blocking viral polyprotein cleavage but also enhancing host antiviral response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Protein Stability , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation , Interferons/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Vero Cells
9.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358361

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


TITLE: Dégradation induite des protéines par des molécules PROTAC et stratégies apparentées : développements à visée thérapeutique. ABSTRACT: Alors que, pour la plupart, les médicaments actuels sont de petites molécules inhibant l'action d'une protéine en bloquant un site d'interaction, la dégradation ciblée des protéines, découverte il y a une vingtaine d'années via les petites molécules PROTAC, connaît aujourd'hui un très grand développement, aussi bien au niveau universitaire qu'industriel. Cette dégradation ciblée permet de contrôler la concentration intracellulaire d'une protéine spécifique comme peuvent le faire les techniques basées sur les acides nucléiques (oligonucléotides antisens, ARNsi, CRISPR-Cas9). Les molécules PROTAC sont des chimères hétéro-bifonctionnelles capables de lier simultanément une protéine spécifique devant être dégradée et une E3 ubiquitine ligase. Les PROTAC sont donc capables de provoquer l'ubiquitinylation de la protéine ciblée et sa dégradation par le protéasome 26S. De nature peptidique, puis non peptidique, les PROTAC sont maintenant administrables par voie orale. Ce détournement du système ubiquitine protéasome permet aux molécules PROTAC d'élargir considérablement le champ des applications thérapeutiques puisque l'élimination de protéines dépourvues de poches ou de crevasses bien définies, dites difficiles à cibler, devient possible. Cette technologie versatile a conduit à la dégradation d'une grande variété de protéines comme des facteurs de transcription, des sérine/thréonine/tyrosine kinases, des protéines de structure, des protéines cytosoliques, des lecteurs épigénétiques. Certaines ligases telles que VHL, MDM2, cereblon et IAP sont couramment utilisées pour être recrutées par les PROTAC. Actuellement, le nombre de ligases pouvant être utilisées ainsi que la nature des protéines dégradées sont en constante augmentation. Deux PROTAC sont en étude clinique pour les cancers du sein (ARV471) et de la prostate (ARV110). La dégradation spécifique d'une protéine par le protéasome peut aussi être induite par d'autres types de molécules synthétiques : colles moléculaires, marqueurs hydrophobes, HaloPROTAC, homo-PROTAC. D'autres constituants cellulaires sont aussi éligibles à une dégradation induite : ARN-PROTAC pour les protéines se liant à l'ARN et RIBOTAC pour la dégradation de l'ARN lui-même comme celui du SARS-CoV-2. Des dégradations induites en dehors du protéasome sont aussi connues : LYTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation de protéines extracellulaires vers les lysosomes, et MADTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation par macroautophagie. Plusieurs techniques, en particulier des plates-formes de criblage, la modélisation mathématique et la conception computationnelle sont utilisées pour le développement de nouveaux PROTAC efficaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Catalysis , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Protein Stability , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 339-357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353665

ABSTRACT

Posttranslational modifications of targeted substrates alter their cellular fate. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved and ubiquitous covalent modifier protein that tags substrates with a single molecule or with a polyubiquitin chain. Monoubiquitination affects trafficking and signaling patterns of modified proteins. In contrast, polyubiquitination, particularly K48-linked polyubiquitination, targets the protein for degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) resulting in a committed fate through irreversible inactivation of substrate. Given the diversity of cellular functions impacted by ubiquitination, it is no surprise that the wily pathogenic viruses have co-opted the UPS in myriad ways to ensure their survival. In this review, I describe viral exploitation of nondegradative ubiquitin signaling pathways to effect entry, replication, and egress. Additionally, viruses also harness the UPS to degrade antiviral cellular host factors. Finally, I describe how we can exploit the same proteolytic machinery to enable PROTACs (Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras) to degrade essential viral proteins. Successful implementation of this modality will add to the arsenal of emerging antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Ubiquitin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 556: 87-92, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173393

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced cytokine storm has been a devastating actuality in clinic. The abnormal production of type I interferon (IFN-1) and upregulation of multiple cytokines induced strong inflammation and thus lead to shock and organ failure. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif-containing 37 (TRIM37) regulates the ubiquitination of multiple proteins including TRAFs. RNA sequencing was performed to investigated the alteration of transcriptional profile of H1N1-infected patients. qRT-PCR assay was performed to investigate the RNA levels of certain genes. The group of immune cells was examined by the Flow cytometry analysis. H&E staining was applied to evaluate lung inflammation of WT and TRIM37-KO mice. ELISA assay was performed to demonstrate the alteration of multiple cytokines. The protein levels in NF-kB signaling was estimated by western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays were applied to demonstrate the direct interaction between TRIM37 and TRAF-6. The RNA level of TRIM37 decreased in CD11b+ cells of Flu-infected patients. Knockout of TRIM37 inhibited the immune responses of H1N1-infected mice. TRIM37 deficiency reduced the levels of virous proinflammatory cytokines in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). Mechanically, TRIM37 promoted the K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6. TRIM37 negatively regulated inflammatory responses induced by virus infection via promoting TRAF6 ubiquitination at K63.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Animals , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/chemistry , Tripartite Motif Proteins/deficiency , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 310, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149708

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing world-wide pandemic which has already taken more than two million lives. Effective treatments are urgently needed. The enzymatic activity of the HECT-E3 ligase family members has been implicated in the cell egression phase of deadly RNA viruses such as Ebola through direct interaction of its VP40 Protein. Here we report that HECT-E3 ligase family members such as NEDD4 and WWP1 interact with and ubiquitylate the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Furthermore, we find that HECT family members are overexpressed in primary samples derived from COVID-19 infected patients and COVID-19 mouse models. Importantly, rare germline activating variants in the NEDD4 and WWP1 genes are associated with severe COVID-19 cases. Critically, I3C, a natural NEDD4 and WWP1 inhibitor from Brassicaceae, displays potent antiviral effects and inhibits viral egression. In conclusion, we identify the HECT family members of E3 ligases as likely novel biomarkers for COVID-19, as well as new potential targets of therapeutic strategy easily testable in clinical trials in view of the established well-tolerated nature of the Brassicaceae natural compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport/metabolism , Female , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/genetics , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
13.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138303

ABSTRACT

An emerging class of cellular inhibitory proteins has been identified that targets viral glycoproteins. These include the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that, among other functions, downregulate cell surface proteins involved in adaptive immunity. The RING-CH domain of MARCH proteins is thought to function by catalyzing the ubiquitination of the cytoplasmic tails (CTs) of target proteins, leading to their degradation. MARCH proteins have recently been reported to target retroviral envelope glycoproteins (Env) and vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G). However, the mechanism of antiviral activity remains poorly defined. Here we show that MARCH8 antagonizes the full-length forms of HIV-1 Env, VSV-G, Ebola virus glycoprotein (EboV-GP), and the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), thereby impairing the infectivity of virions pseudotyped with these viral glycoproteins. This MARCH8-mediated targeting of viral glycoproteins requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING-CH domain. We observe that MARCH8 protein antagonism of VSV-G is CT dependent. In contrast, MARCH8-mediated targeting of HIV-1 Env, EboV-GP, and SARS-CoV-2 S protein by MARCH8 does not require the CT, suggesting a novel mechanism of MARCH-mediated antagonism of these viral glycoproteins. Confocal microscopy data demonstrate that MARCH8 traps the viral glycoproteins in an intracellular compartment. We observe that the endogenous expression of MARCH8 in several relevant human cell types is rapidly inducible by type I interferon. These results help to inform the mechanism by which MARCH proteins exert their antiviral activity and provide insights into the role of cellular inhibitory factors in antagonizing the biogenesis, trafficking, and virion incorporation of viral glycoproteins.IMPORTANCE Viral envelope glycoproteins are an important structural component on the surfaces of enveloped viruses that direct virus binding and entry and also serve as targets for the host adaptive immune response. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of action of the MARCH family of cellular proteins that disrupt the trafficking and virion incorporation of viral glycoproteins across several virus families. This research provides novel insights into how host cell factors antagonize viral replication, perhaps opening new avenues for therapeutic intervention in the replication of a diverse group of highly pathogenic enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/metabolism , Species Specificity , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Replication
14.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125490

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has resulted in the current pandemic. The lack of highly efficacious antiviral drugs that can manage this ongoing global emergency gives urgency to establishing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. We characterized the role of the nucleocapsid protein (N) of SARS-CoV-2 in modulating antiviral immunity. Overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 N resulted in the attenuation of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor-mediated interferon (IFN) production and IFN-induced gene expression. Similar to the SARS-CoV-1 N protein, SARS-CoV-2 N suppressed the interaction between tripartate motif protein 25 (TRIM25) and RIG-I. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 N inhibited polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-mediated IFN signaling at the level of Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interfered with the association between TBK1 and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of IRF3. We further found that both type I and III IFN production induced by either the influenza virus lacking the nonstructural protein 1 or the Zika virus were suppressed by the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Our findings provide insights into the molecular function of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein with respect to counteracting the host antiviral immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly C/pharmacology , Poly I/pharmacology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , /metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus/metabolism
15.
FASEB J ; 35(1): e21197, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012122

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 encode four structural and accessory proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins) and two polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab). The polyproteins are further cleaved by 3C-like cysteine protease (3CLpro ) and papain-like protease (PLpro ) into 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). PLpro is released from nsp3 through autocleavage, and then it cleaves the sites between nsp1/2, between nsp2/3 and between nsp3/4 with recognition motif of LXGG, and the sites in the C-terminus of ubiquitin and of protein interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) with recognition motif of RLRGG. Alone or together with SARS unique domain (SUD), PLpro can stabilize an E3 ubiquitin ligase, the ring-finger, and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1), through domain interaction, and thus, promote RCHY1 to ubiquitinate its target proteins including p53. However, a dilemma appears in terms of PLpro roles. On the one hand, the ubiquitination of p53 is good for SARS-CoV because the ubiquitinated p53 cannot inhibit SARS-CoV replication. On the other hand, the ubiquitination of NF-κB inhibitor (IκBα), TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), and stimulator of interferon gene (STING), and the ISGylation of targeted proteins are bad for SARS-CoV because these ubiquitination and ISGylation initiate the innate immune response and antiviral state. This mini-review analyzes the dilemma and provides a snapshot on how the viral PLpro smartly manages its roles to avoid its simultaneously contradictory actions, which could shed lights on possible strategies to deal with SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/physiology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Genes, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Domains , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Substrate Specificity , Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
16.
FASEB J ; 35(1): e21197, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998478

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 encode four structural and accessory proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins) and two polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab). The polyproteins are further cleaved by 3C-like cysteine protease (3CLpro ) and papain-like protease (PLpro ) into 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). PLpro is released from nsp3 through autocleavage, and then it cleaves the sites between nsp1/2, between nsp2/3 and between nsp3/4 with recognition motif of LXGG, and the sites in the C-terminus of ubiquitin and of protein interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) with recognition motif of RLRGG. Alone or together with SARS unique domain (SUD), PLpro can stabilize an E3 ubiquitin ligase, the ring-finger, and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1), through domain interaction, and thus, promote RCHY1 to ubiquitinate its target proteins including p53. However, a dilemma appears in terms of PLpro roles. On the one hand, the ubiquitination of p53 is good for SARS-CoV because the ubiquitinated p53 cannot inhibit SARS-CoV replication. On the other hand, the ubiquitination of NF-κB inhibitor (IκBα), TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), and stimulator of interferon gene (STING), and the ISGylation of targeted proteins are bad for SARS-CoV because these ubiquitination and ISGylation initiate the innate immune response and antiviral state. This mini-review analyzes the dilemma and provides a snapshot on how the viral PLpro smartly manages its roles to avoid its simultaneously contradictory actions, which could shed lights on possible strategies to deal with SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/physiology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Genes, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Domains , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Substrate Specificity , Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
17.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 715, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940863

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has elicited a global health crisis of catastrophic proportions. With only a few vaccines approved for early or limited use, there is a critical need for effective antiviral strategies. In this study, we report a unique antiviral platform, through computational design of ACE2-derived peptides which both target the viral spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and recruit E3 ubiquitin ligases for subsequent intracellular degradation of SARS-CoV-2 in the proteasome. Our engineered peptide fusions demonstrate robust RBD degradation capabilities in human cells and are capable of inhibiting infection-competent viral production, thus prompting their further experimental characterization and therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pandemics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering/methods , Proteolysis , Receptors, Virus , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Virus Attachment
18.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772275

ABSTRACT

Membrane-associated RING-CH-type 8 (MARCH8) strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) incorporation into virions by downregulating its cell surface expression, but the mechanism is still unclear. We now report that MARCH8 also blocks the Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) incorporation via surface downregulation. To understand how these viral fusion proteins are downregulated, we investigated the effects of MARCH8 on EBOV GP maturation and externalization via the conventional secretion pathway. MARCH8 interacted with EBOV GP and furin when detected by immunoprecipitation and retained the GP/furin complex in the Golgi when their location was tracked by a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. MARCH8 did not reduce the GP expression or affect the GP modification by high-mannose N-glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but it inhibited the formation of complex N-glycans on the GP in the Golgi. Additionally, the GP O-glycosylation and furin-mediated proteolytic cleavage were also inhibited. Moreover, we identified a novel furin cleavage site on EBOV GP and found that only those fully glycosylated GPs were processed by furin and incorporated into virions. Furthermore, the GP shedding and secretion were all blocked by MARCH8. MARCH8 also blocked the furin-mediated cleavage of HIV-1 Env (gp160) and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA). We conclude that MARCH8 has a very broad antiviral activity by prohibiting different viral fusion proteins from glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage in the Golgi, which inhibits their transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and incorporation into virions.IMPORTANCE Enveloped viruses express three classes of fusion proteins that are required for their entry into host cells via mediating virus and cell membrane fusion. Class I fusion proteins are produced from influenza viruses, retroviruses, Ebola viruses, and coronaviruses. They are first synthesized as a type I transmembrane polypeptide precursor that is subsequently glycosylated and oligomerized. Most of these precursors are cleaved en route to the plasma membrane by a cellular protease furin in the late secretory pathway, generating the trimeric N-terminal receptor-binding and C-terminal fusion subunits. Here, we show that a cellular protein, MARCH8, specifically inhibits the furin-mediated cleavage of EBOV GP, HIV-1 Env, and H5N1 HA. Further analyses uncovered that MARCH8 blocked the EBOV GP glycosylation in the Golgi and inhibited its transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Thus, MARCH8 has a very broad antiviral activity by specifically inactivating different viral fusion proteins.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus/chemistry , Glycoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , HIV-1/chemistry , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/chemistry , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ebolavirus/physiology , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/physiology , HeLa Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , Protein Binding , THP-1 Cells , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Fusion Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism
19.
Sci Adv ; 6(33): eabb7238, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733188

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking, the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been implicated as a risk factor for severe disease in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we show that mice with lung epithelial cell-specific loss of function of Miz1, which we identified as a negative regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, spontaneously develop progressive age-related changes resembling COPD. Furthermore, loss of Miz1 up-regulates the expression of Ace2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Concomitant partial loss of NF-κB/RelA prevented the development of COPD-like phenotype in Miz1-deficient mice. Miz1 protein levels are reduced in the lungs from patients with COPD, and in the lungs of mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke. Our data suggest that Miz1 down-regulation-induced sustained activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammation in the lung epithelium is sufficient to induce progressive lung and airway destruction that recapitulates features of COPD, with implications for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phenotype , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
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