Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 26
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934087

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are characterized by an inflammatory response, alveolar edema, and hypoxemia. ARDS occurs most often in the settings of pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, or severe trauma. The prevalence of ARDS is approximately 10% in patients of intensive care. There is no effective remedy with mortality high at 30-40%. Most functional proteins are dynamic and stringently governed by ubiquitin proteasomal degradation. Protein ubiquitination is reversible, the covalently attached monoubiquitin or polyubiquitin moieties within the targeted protein can be removed by a group of enzymes called deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). Deubiquitination plays an important role in the pathobiology of ALI/ARDS as it regulates proteins critical in engagement of the alveolo-capillary barrier and in the inflammatory response. In this review, we provide an overview of how DUBs emerge in pathogen-induced pulmonary inflammation and related aspects in ALI/ARDS. Better understanding of deubiquitination-relatedsignaling may lead to novel therapeutic approaches by targeting specific elements of the deubiquitination pathways.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Pneumonia/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination/physiology
2.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917275

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin is a small protein that is conjugated to target proteins to signal a great number of critical biological processes. Impaired ubiquitin signaling and defects in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) surveillance are implicated in many human diseases, including cancer. Characterization of the physiological roles of UPS components and their regulatory mechanisms is therefore vital for the identification of therapeutic targets and the development of tools and paradigms to better understand and treat human diseases. In this Special Issue, we assembled seven original research and review articles to provide insights on the multifaceted role of the UPS in pathogenesis and disease, covering the areas of molecular and cellular mechanisms of UPS enzymes, biochemical and biophysical characterization strategies, drug development, and targeted protein degradation.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Ubiquitin , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
3.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105660, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894904

ABSTRACT

Homologous to E6AP carboxyl-terminus (HECT)-type E3 ligase performs ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasomal protein degradation via forming a complex with E2∼Ub. Enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV-2 escape from the infected cells by harnessing the E-class vacuolar protein-sorting (ESCRT) machinery and mimic the cellular system through PPAY motif-based linking to HECT Ub ligase activity. In the present study, we have characterized the binding pattern of E2UbcH5B to HECT domains of NEDD4L, WWP1, WWP2, HECW1, and HECW2 through in silico analysis to isolate the E2UbcH5B-specific peptide inhibitors that may target SARS-CoV-2 viral egression. Molecular dynamics analysis revealed more opening of E2UbcH5B-binding pocket upon binding to HECTNEDD4L, HECTWWP1, HECTWWP2, HECTHECW1, and HECTHECW2. We observed similar binding pattern for E2UbcH5B and mentioned HECT domains as previously reported for HECTNEDD4L where Trp762, Trp709, and Trp657 residues of HECTNEDD4L, HECTWWP1, and HECTWWP2 are involved in making contacts with Ser94 residue of E2UbcH5B. Similarly, corresponding to HECTNEDD4L Tyr756 residue, HECTWWP1, HECTWWP2, HECTHECW1, and HECTHECW2-specific Phe703, Phe651, Phe1387, and Phe1353 residues execute interaction with E2UbcH5B. Our analysis suggests that corresponding to Cys942 of HECTNEDD4L, Cys890, Cys838, Cys1574, and Cys1540 residues of HECTWWP1, HECTWWP2, HECTHECW1, and HECTHECW2, respectively are involved in E2-to-E3 Ub transfer. Furthermore, MM-PBSA free energy calculations revealed favorable energy values for E2UbcH5B-HECT complexes along with the individual residue contributions. Subsequently, two E2UbcH5B-derived peptides (His55-Phe69 and Asn81-Ala96) were tested for their binding abilities against HECT domains of NEDD4L, WWP1, WWP2, HECW1, and HECW2. Their binding was validated through substitution of Phe62, Pro65, Ile84, and Cys85 residues into Ala, which revealed an impaired binding, suggesting that the proposed peptide ligands may selectively target E2-HECT binding and Ub-transfer. Collectively, we propose that peptide-driven blocking of E2-to-HECT Ub loading may limit SARS-CoV-2 egression and spread in the host cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ubiquitin , Binding Sites , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin/chemistry , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/chemistry
4.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822414

ABSTRACT

The p53-dependent ubiquitin ligase Pirh2 regulates a number of proteins involved in different cancer-associated processes. Targeting the p53 family proteins, Chk2, p27Kip1, Twist1 and others, Pirh2 participates in such cellular processes as proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and cellular migration. Thus, it is not surprising that Pirh2 takes part in the initiation and progression of different diseases and pathologies including but not limited to cancer. In this review, we aimed to summarize the available data on Pirh2 regulation, its protein targets and its role in various diseases and pathological processes, thus making the Pirh2 protein a promising therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
5.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1510(1): 79-99, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822055

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation is critical for proper cellular function and development. Protein degradation pathways, such as the ubiquitin proteasomes system, autophagy, and endosome-lysosome pathway, must be tightly regulated to ensure proper elimination of misfolded and aggregated proteins and regulate changing protein levels during cellular differentiation, while ensuring that normal proteins remain unscathed. Protein degradation pathways have also garnered interest as a means to selectively eliminate target proteins that may be difficult to inhibit via other mechanisms. On June 7 and 8, 2021, several experts in protein degradation pathways met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Targeting protein degradation: from small molecules to complex organelles." The event brought together researchers working in different protein degradation pathways in an effort to begin to develop a holistic, integrated vision of protein degradation that incorporates all the major pathways to understand how changes in them can lead to disease pathology and, alternatively, how they can be leveraged for novel therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Ubiquitin , Autophagy/physiology , Humans , Organelles , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism
6.
Clin Immunol ; 238: 109027, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814259

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection activates the immune system to cause autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. We provide a comprehensive review of the relationship between SARS-CoV-2, NOD2 and ubiquitination. COVID-19 infection partly results from host inborn errors and genetic factors and can lead to autoinflammatory disease. The interaction between defective NOD2 and viral infection may trigger NOD2-associated disease. SARS-CoV-2 can alter UBA1 and abnormal ubiquitination leading to VEXAS syndrome. Both NOD2 and ubiquitination play important roles in controlling inflammatory process. Receptor interacting protein kinase 2 is a key component of the NOD2 activation pathway and becomes ubiquitinated to recruit downstream effector proteins. NOD2 mutations result in loss of ubiquitin binding and increase ligand-stimulated NOD2 signaling. During viral infection, mutations of either NOD2 or UBA1 genes or in combination can facilitate autoinflammatory disease. COVID-19 infection can cause autoinflammatory disease. There are reciprocal interactions between SARS-CoV-2, NOD2 and ubiquitination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/genetics , Humans , Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination
7.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(3): 596-611, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706607

ABSTRACT

Over the last 20 years, both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 have transmitted from animal hosts to humans causing zoonotic outbreaks of severe disease. Both viruses originate from a group of betacoronaviruses known as subgroup 2b. The emergence of two dangerous human pathogens from this group along with previous studies illustrating the potential of other subgroup 2b members to transmit to humans has underscored the need for antiviral development against them. Coronaviruses modify the host innate immune response in part through the reversal of ubiquitination and ISGylation with their papain-like protease (PLpro). To identify unique or overarching subgroup 2b structural features or enzymatic biases, the PLpro from a subgroup 2b bat coronavirus, BtSCoV-Rf1.2004, was biochemically and structurally evaluated. This evaluation revealed that PLpros from subgroup 2b coronaviruses have narrow substrate specificity for K48 polyubiquitin and ISG15 originating from certain species. The PLpro of BtSCoV-Rf1.2004 was used as a tool alongside PLpro of CoV-1 and CoV-2 to design 30 novel noncovalent drug-like pan subgroup 2b PLpro inhibitors that included determining the effects of using previously unexplored core linkers within these compounds. Two crystal structures of BtSCoV-Rf1.2004 PLpro bound to these inhibitors aided in compound design as well as shared structural features among subgroup 2b proteases. Screening of these three subgroup 2b PLpros against this novel set of inhibitors along with cytotoxicity studies provide new directions for pan-coronavirus subgroup 2b antiviral development of PLpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Animals , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin/metabolism
8.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686605

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitylation and ISGylation are protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) and two of the main events involved in the activation of pattern recognition receptor (PRRs) signals allowing the host defense response to viruses. As with similar viruses, SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, hijacks these pathways by removing ubiquitin and/or ISG15 from proteins using a protease called PLpro, but also by interacting with enzymes involved in ubiquitin/ISG15 machinery. These enable viral replication and avoidance of the host immune system. In this review, we highlight potential points of therapeutic intervention in ubiquitin/ISG15 pathways involved in key host-pathogen interactions, such as PLpro, USP18, TRIM25, CYLD, A20, and others that could be targeted for the treatment of COVID-19, and which may prove effective in combatting current and future vaccine-resistant variants of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615843

ABSTRACT

Virus infection of eukaryotes triggers cellular innate immune response, a major arm of which is the type I interferon (IFN) family of cytokines. Binding of IFN to cell surface receptors triggers a signaling cascade in which the signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) plays a key role, ultimately leading to an antiviral state of the cell. In retaliation, many viruses counteract the immune response, often by the destruction and/or inactivation of STAT2, promoted by specific viral proteins that do not possess protease activities of their own. This review offers a summary of viral mechanisms of STAT2 subversion with emphasis on degradation. Some viruses also destroy STAT1, another major member of the STAT family, but most viruses are selective in targeting either STAT2 or STAT1. Interestingly, degradation of STAT2 by a few viruses requires the presence of both STAT proteins. Available evidence suggests a mechanism in which multiple sites and domains of STAT2 are required for engagement and degradation by a multi-subunit degradative complex, comprising viral and cellular proteins, including the ubiquitin-proteasomal system. However, the exact molecular nature of this complex and the alternative degradation mechanisms remain largely unknown, as critically presented here with prospective directions of future study.


Subject(s)
Proteolysis , STAT2 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Humans , Models, Biological , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , STAT2 Transcription Factor/chemistry , STAT2 Transcription Factor/ultrastructure , Ubiquitin/metabolism
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438506

ABSTRACT

The majority of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis develop ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) characterized by loss of muscle mass, reduction in myofiber size and decreased muscle strength leading to persisting physical impairment. This phenotype results from a dysregulated protein homeostasis with increased protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis, eventually causing a decrease in muscle structural proteins. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the predominant protein-degrading system in muscle that is activated during diverse muscle atrophy conditions, e.g., inflammation. The specificity of UPS-mediated protein degradation is assured by E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as atrogin-1 and MuRF1, which target structural and contractile proteins, proteins involved in energy metabolism and transcription factors for UPS-dependent degradation. Although the regulation of activity and function of E3 ubiquitin ligases in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy is well perceived, the contribution of the proteasome to muscle atrophy during inflammation is still elusive. During inflammation, a shift from standard- to immunoproteasome was described; however, to which extent this contributes to muscle wasting and whether this changes targeting of specific muscular proteins is not well described. This review summarizes the function of the main proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase response proteins and their signaling pathways in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy with a focus on UPS-mediated protein degradation in muscle during sepsis. The regulation and target-specificity of the main E3 ubiquitin ligases in muscle atrophy and their mode of action on myofibrillar proteins will be reported. The function of the standard- and immunoproteasome in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy will be described and the effects of proteasome-inhibitors as treatment strategies will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Proteolysis
11.
Cell Rep ; 36(13): 109754, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401298

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) is a target for antiviral drug development. It is essential for processing viral polyproteins for replication and functions in host immune evasion by cleaving ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like protein (Ubl) conjugates. While highly conserved, SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV PLpro have contrasting Ub/Ubl substrate preferences. Using a combination of structural analyses and functional assays, we identify a molecular sensor within the S1 Ub-binding site of PLpro that serves as a key determinant of substrate specificity. Variations within the S1 sensor specifically alter cleavage of Ub substrates but not of the Ubl interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15). Significantly, a variant of concern associated with immune evasion carries a mutation in the S1 sensor that enhances PLpro activity on Ub substrates. Collectively, our data identify the S1 sensor region as a potential hotspot of variability that could alter host antiviral immune responses to newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 lineages.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Substrate Specificity/genetics , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
12.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356359

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global health pandemic. COVID-19 severity ranges from an asymptomatic infection to a severe multiorgan disease. Although the inflammatory response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, the exact nature of dysregulation in signaling pathways has not yet been elucidated, underscoring the need for further molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Here, we characterize the host response directly at the point of viral entry through analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs. Multiplexed high-resolution MS-based proteomic analysis of confirmed COVID-19 cases and negative controls identified 7582 proteins and revealed significant upregulation of interferon-mediated antiviral signaling in addition to multiple other proteins that are not encoded by interferon-stimulated genes or well characterized during viral infections. Downregulation of several proteasomal subunits, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and components of protein synthesis machinery was significant upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Targeted proteomics to measure abundance levels of MX1, ISG15, STAT1, RIG-I, and CXCL10 detected proteomic signatures of interferon-mediated antiviral signaling that differentiated COVID-19-positive from COVID-19-negative cases. Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of several proteins with known antiviral properties as well as several proteins involved in ciliary function (CEP131 and CFAP57) that have not previously been implicated in the context of coronavirus infections. In addition, decreased phosphorylation levels of AKT and PKC, which have been shown to play varying roles in different viral infections, were observed in infected individuals relative to controls. These data provide novel insights that add depth to our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper airway and establish a proteomic signature for this viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Proteome/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, Liquid , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Opioid/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Ubiquitin/metabolism
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 339-357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353665

ABSTRACT

Posttranslational modifications of targeted substrates alter their cellular fate. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved and ubiquitous covalent modifier protein that tags substrates with a single molecule or with a polyubiquitin chain. Monoubiquitination affects trafficking and signaling patterns of modified proteins. In contrast, polyubiquitination, particularly K48-linked polyubiquitination, targets the protein for degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) resulting in a committed fate through irreversible inactivation of substrate. Given the diversity of cellular functions impacted by ubiquitination, it is no surprise that the wily pathogenic viruses have co-opted the UPS in myriad ways to ensure their survival. In this review, I describe viral exploitation of nondegradative ubiquitin signaling pathways to effect entry, replication, and egress. Additionally, viruses also harness the UPS to degrade antiviral cellular host factors. Finally, I describe how we can exploit the same proteolytic machinery to enable PROTACs (Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras) to degrade essential viral proteins. Successful implementation of this modality will add to the arsenal of emerging antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Ubiquitin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
14.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 24: 390-399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329250

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with substantial mortality and high morbidity. This study tested the effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blocker, losartan, on SARS-CoV-2 replication and inhibition of the papain-like protease of the virus. METHODS: The dose-dependent inhibitory effect of losartan, in concentrations from 1µM to 100µM as determined by quantitative cell analysis combining fluorescence microscopy, image processing, and cellular measurements (Cellomics analysis) on SARS-CoV-2 replication was investigated in Vero E6 cells. The impact of losartan on deubiquitination and deISGylation of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) were also evaluated.  Results: Losartan reduced PLpro cleavage of tetraUbiquitin to diUbiquitin.  It was less effective in inhibiting PLpro's cleavage of ISG15-AMC than Ubiquitin-AMC.  To determine if losartan inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication, losartan treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 was examined. Losartan treatment one hour prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection reduced levels of SARS-CoV-2 nuclear protein, an indicator of virus replication, by 80% and treatment one-hour post-infection decreased viral replication by 70%. CONCLUSION: Losartan was not an effective inhibitor of deubiquitinase or deISGylase activity of the PLpro but affected the SARS-CoV-2 replication of Vero E6 cells in vitro.  As losartan has a favorable safety profile and is currently available it has features necessary for efficacious drug repurposing and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237363

ABSTRACT

The ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system (UPS) plays a pivotal role in regulation of numerous cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses that are essential for restriction of the virus life cycle in the infected cells. Deubiquitination by the deubiquitinating enzyme, deubiquitinase (DUB), is a reversible molecular process to remove Ub or Ub chains from the target proteins. Deubiquitination is an integral strategy within the UPS in regulating survival and proliferation of the infecting virus and the virus-invaded cells. Many viruses in the infected cells are reported to encode viral DUB, and these vial DUBs actively disrupt cellular Ub-dependent processes to suppress host antiviral immune response, enhancing virus replication and thus proliferation. This review surveys the types of DUBs encoded by different viruses and their molecular processes for how the infecting viruses take advantage of the DUB system to evade the host immune response and expedite their replication.


Subject(s)
Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/enzymology , Animals , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/chemistry , Humans , Immune Evasion , Life Cycle Stages , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Replication , Viruses/immunology
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256380

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of current COVID-19 pandemic, and insufficient production of type I interferon (IFN-I) is associated with the severe forms of the disease. Membrane (M) protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to suppress host IFN-I production, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 M protein was confirmed to suppress the expression of IFNß and interferon-stimulated genes induced by RIG-I, MDA5, IKKϵ, and TBK1, and to inhibit IRF3 phosphorylation and dimerization caused by TBK1. SARS-CoV-2 M could interact with MDA5, TRAF3, IKKϵ, and TBK1, and induce TBK1 degradation via K48-linked ubiquitination. The reduced TBK1 further impaired the formation of TRAF3-TANK-TBK1-IKKε complex that leads to inhibition of IFN-I production. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 M for negative regulation of IFN-I production, which would provide deeper insight into the innate immunosuppression and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Proteolysis , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/metabolism
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1581-1588, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196480

ABSTRACT

The papain-like protease (PLpro ) is an important enzyme for coronavirus polyprotein processing, as well as for virus-host immune suppression. Previous studies reveal that a molecular analysis of PLpro indicates the catalytic activity of viral PLpro and its interactions with ubiquitin. By using sequence comparisons, molecular models, and protein-protein interaction maps, PLpro was compared in the three recorded fatal CoV epidemics, which involved severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The pairwise sequence comparison of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro indicated similarity percentages of 82.59% and 30.06% with SARS-CoV PLpro and MERS-CoV PLpro , respectively. In comparison with SARS-CoV PLpro , in SARS-CoV-2, the PLpro had a conserved catalytic triad of C111, H278, and D293, with a slightly lower number of polar interface residues and of hydrogen bonds, a higher number of buried interface sizes, and a lower number of residues that interact with ubiquitin and PLpro . These features might contribute to a similar or slightly lower level of deubiquitinating activity in SARS-CoV-2 PLpro. It was, however, a much higher level compared to MERS-CoV, which contained amino acid mutations and a low number of polar interfaces. SARS-CoV-2 PLpro and SARS-CoV PLpro showed almost the same catalytic site profiles, interface area compositions and polarities, suggesting a general similarity in deubiquitination activity. Compared with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 had a higher potential for binding interactions with ubiquitin. These estimated parameters contribute to the knowledge gap in understanding how the new virus interacts with the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/enzymology , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Amino Acid Sequence , Catalytic Domain/physiology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Polyproteins/biosynthesis , Polyproteins/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Viral Proteins/biosynthesis , Viral Proteins/genetics
18.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023242

ABSTRACT

Posttranslational modifications of cellular proteins by covalent conjugation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like polypeptides regulate numerous cellular processes that are captured by viruses to promote infection, replication, and spreading. The importance of these protein modifications for the viral life cycle is underscored by the discovery that many viruses encode deconjugases that reverse their functions. The structural and functional characterization of these viral enzymes and the identification of their viral and cellular substrates is providing valuable insights into the biology of viral infections and the host's antiviral defense. Given the growing body of evidence demonstrating their key contribution to pathogenesis, the viral deconjugases are now recognized as attractive targets for the design of novel antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enzymes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Adenoviridae/enzymology , Coronavirus/enzymology , Enzymes/chemistry , Herpesviridae/enzymology , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
19.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115433

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination of proteins is a post-translational modification process with many different cellular functions, including protein stability, immune signaling, antiviral functions and virus replication. While ubiquitination of viral proteins can be used by the host as a defense mechanism by destroying the incoming pathogen, viruses have adapted to take advantage of this cellular process. The ubiquitin system can be hijacked by viruses to enhance various steps of the replication cycle and increase pathogenesis. Emerging viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), flaviviruses like Zika and dengue, as well as highly pathogenic viruses like Ebola and Nipah, have the ability to directly use the ubiquitination process to enhance their viral-replication cycle, and evade immune responses. Some of these mechanisms are conserved among different virus families, especially early during virus entry, providing an opportunity to develop broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we discuss the mechanisms used by emergent viruses to exploit the host ubiquitin system, with the main focus on the role of ubiquitin in enhancing virus replication.


Subject(s)
Ubiquitin/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Replication , Viruses/metabolism , Immune Evasion , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Assembly , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , Virus Release , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/pathogenicity
20.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050647

ABSTRACT

Viral dysregulation or suppression of innate immune responses is a key determinant of virus-induced pathogenesis. Important sensors for the detection of virus infection are the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), which, in turn, are antagonized by many RNA viruses and DNA viruses. Among the different escape strategies are viral mechanisms to dysregulate the post-translational modifications (PTMs) that play pivotal roles in RLR regulation. In this review, we present the current knowledge of immune evasion by viral pathogens that manipulate ubiquitin- or ISG15-dependent mechanisms of RLR activation. Key viral strategies to evade RLR signaling include direct targeting of ubiquitin E3 ligases, active deubiquitination using viral deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), and the upregulation of cellular DUBs that regulate RLR signaling. Additionally, we summarize emerging new evidence that shows that enzymes of certain coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, actively deISGylate key molecules in the RLR pathway to escape type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses. Finally, we discuss the possibility of targeting virally-encoded proteins that manipulate ubiquitin- or ISG15-mediated innate immune responses for the development of new antivirals and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Immune Evasion , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viruses/immunology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL