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1.
J Cell Biol ; 221(3)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795409

ABSTRACT

Bo Zhong studies the regulation of the antiviral innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis by the protein ubiquitination system.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology/history , Immunity, Innate , Ubiquitination , Virology/history , Animals , China , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
2.
J Biol Chem ; 298(2): 101584, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699145

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronaviruses have begun to attract great attention across the world. Of the known human coronaviruses, however, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the most lethal. Coronavirus proteins can be divided into three groups: nonstructural proteins, structural proteins, and accessory proteins. While the number of each of these proteins varies greatly among different coronaviruses, accessory proteins are most closely related to the pathogenicity of the virus. We found for the first time that the ORF3 accessory protein of MERS-CoV, which closely resembles the ORF3a proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, has the ability to induce apoptosis in cells in a dose-dependent manner. Through bioinformatics analysis and validation, we revealed that ORF3 is an unstable protein and has a shorter half-life in cells compared to that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a proteins. After screening, we identified a host E3 ligase, HUWE1, that specifically induces MERS-CoV ORF3 protein ubiquitination and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This results in the diminished ability of ORF3 to induce apoptosis, which might partially explain the lower spread of MERS-CoV compared to other coronaviruses. In summary, this study reveals a pathological function of MERS-CoV ORF3 protein and identifies a potential host antiviral protein, HUWE1, with an ability to antagonize MERS-CoV pathogenesis by inducing ORF3 degradation, thus enriching our knowledge of the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and suggesting new targets and strategies for clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV treatment.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
3.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686605

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitylation and ISGylation are protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) and two of the main events involved in the activation of pattern recognition receptor (PRRs) signals allowing the host defense response to viruses. As with similar viruses, SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, hijacks these pathways by removing ubiquitin and/or ISG15 from proteins using a protease called PLpro, but also by interacting with enzymes involved in ubiquitin/ISG15 machinery. These enable viral replication and avoidance of the host immune system. In this review, we highlight potential points of therapeutic intervention in ubiquitin/ISG15 pathways involved in key host-pathogen interactions, such as PLpro, USP18, TRIM25, CYLD, A20, and others that could be targeted for the treatment of COVID-19, and which may prove effective in combatting current and future vaccine-resistant variants of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Future Med Chem ; 14(7): 459-462, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675018
5.
Trends Immunol ; 43(2): 148-162, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634995

ABSTRACT

Ubc13-catalyzed K63 ubiquitination is a major control point for immune signaling. Recent evidence has shown that the control of multiple immune functions, including chronic inflammation, pathogen responses, lymphocyte activation, and regulatory signaling, is altered by K63 ubiquitination. In this review, we detail the novel cellular sensors that are dependent on K63 ubiquitination for their function in the immune signaling network. Many pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can target K63 ubiquitination to inhibit pathogen immune responses; we describe novel details of the pathways involved and summarize recent clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2-specific responses. We also discuss recent evidence that regulatory T cell (Treg) versus T helper (TH) 1 and TH17 cell subset regulation might involve K63 ubiquitination. Knowledge gaps that merit future investigation and clinically relevant pathways are also addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lysine , Humans , Lysine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0061821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622002

ABSTRACT

The host transmembrane protein MARCH8 is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that downregulates various host transmembrane proteins, such as MHC-II. We have recently reported that MARCH8 expression in virus-producing cells impairs viral infectivity by reducing virion incorporation of not only HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein but also vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein through two different pathways. However, the MARCH8 inhibition spectrum remains largely unknown. Here, we show the antiviral spectrum of MARCH8 using viruses pseudotyped with a variety of viral envelope glycoproteins. Infection experiments revealed that viral envelope glycoproteins derived from the rhabdovirus, arenavirus, coronavirus, and togavirus (alphavirus) families were sensitive to MARCH8-mediated inhibition. Lysine mutations at the cytoplasmic tails of rabies virus-G, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoproteins, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, and Chikungunya virus and Ross River virus E2 proteins conferred resistance to MARCH8. Immunofluorescence showed impaired downregulation of the mutants of these viral envelope glycoproteins by MARCH8, followed by lysosomal degradation, suggesting that MARCH8-mediated ubiquitination leads to intracellular degradation of these envelopes. Indeed, rabies virus-G and Chikungunya virus E2 proteins proved to be clearly ubiquitinated. We conclude that MARCH8 has inhibitory activity on a variety of viral envelope glycoproteins whose cytoplasmic lysine residues are targeted by this antiviral factor. IMPORTANCE A member of the MARCH E3 ubiquitin ligase family, MARCH8, downregulates many different kinds of host transmembrane proteins, resulting in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. On the other hands, MARCH8 acts as an antiviral factor when it binds to and downregulates HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein that are viral transmembrane proteins. This study reveals that, as in the case of cellular membrane proteins, MARCH8 shows broad-spectrum inhibition against various viral envelope glycoproteins by recognizing their cytoplasmic lysine residues, resulting in lysosomal degradation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lysine/drug effects , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Down-Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Lysine/metabolism , Ubiquitination/physiology , Viral Envelope Proteins/drug effects
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009918, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622376

ABSTRACT

Under RNA virus infection, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in host cells recognizes viral RNA and activates the expression of type I IFN. To investigate the roles of protein methyltransferases and demethylases in RIG-I antiviral signaling pathway, we screened all the known related enzymes with a siRNA library and identified LSD1 as a positive regulator for RIG-I signaling. Exogenous expression of LSD1 enhances RIG-I signaling activated by virus stimulation, whereas its deficiency restricts it. LSD1 interacts with RIG-I, promotes its K63-linked polyubiquitination and interaction with VISA/MAVS. Interestingly, LSD1 exerts its function in antiviral response not dependent on its demethylase activity but through enhancing the interaction between RIG-I with E3 ligases, especially TRIM25. Furthermore, we provide in vivo evidence that LSD1 increases antiviral gene expression and inhibits viral replication. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that LSD1 is a positive regulator of signaling pathway triggered by RNA-virus through mediating RIG-I polyubiquitination.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , RNA Virus Infections/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 7, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606287

ABSTRACT

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in antibody genes. Protein expression and activity are tightly controlled by various mechanisms. However, it remains unknown whether a signal from the extracellular environment directly affects the AID activity in the nucleus where it works. Here, we demonstrated that a deubiquitinase USP10, which specifically stabilizes nuclear AID protein, can translocate into the nucleus after AKT-mediated phosphorylation at its T674 within the NLS domain. Interestingly, the signals from BCR and TLR1/2 synergistically promoted this phosphorylation. The deficiency of USP10 in B cells significantly decreased AID protein levels, subsequently reducing neutralizing antibody production after immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nanoparticle vaccines. Collectively, we demonstrated that USP10 functions as an integrator for both BCR and TLR signals and directly regulates nuclear AID activity. Its manipulation could be used for the development of vaccines and adjuvants.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , B-Cell Activating Factor/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytidine Deaminase/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology , Ubiquitination/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , B-Cell Activating Factor/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics
9.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(1): 67-78, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541184

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused severe morbidity and mortality in humans. It is urgent to understand the function of viral genes. However, the function of open reading frame 10 (ORF10), which is uniquely expressed by SARS-CoV-2, remains unclear. In this study, we showed that overexpression of ORF10 markedly suppressed the expression of type I interferon (IFN-I) genes and IFN-stimulated genes. Then, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) was identified as the target via which ORF10 suppresses the IFN-I signaling pathway, and MAVS was found to be degraded through the ORF10-induced autophagy pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of ORF10 promoted the accumulation of LC3 in mitochondria and induced mitophagy. Mechanistically, ORF10 was translocated to mitochondria by interacting with the mitophagy receptor Nip3-like protein X (NIX) and induced mitophagy through its interaction with both NIX and LC3B. Moreover, knockdown of NIX expression blocked mitophagy activation, MAVS degradation, and IFN-I signaling pathway inhibition by ORF10. Consistent with our observations, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, ORF10 inhibited MAVS expression and facilitated viral replication. In brief, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the innate immune response; that is, ORF10 induces mitophagy-mediated MAVS degradation by binding to NIX.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Autophagy/immunology , Gene Silencing , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
10.
Mol Cell ; 82(1): 15-29, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525902

ABSTRACT

Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are specialized proteases that remove ubiquitin from substrates or cleave within ubiquitin chains to regulate ubiquitylation and therefore play important roles in eukaryotic biology. Dysregulation of DUBs is implicated in several human diseases, highlighting the importance of DUB function. In addition, many pathogenic bacteria and viruses encode and deploy DUBs to manipulate host immune responses and establish infectious diseases in humans and animals. Hence, therapeutic targeting of DUBs is an increasingly explored area that requires an in-depth mechanistic understanding of human and pathogenic DUBs. In this review, we summarize the multiple layers of regulation that control autoinhibition, activation, and substrate specificity of DUBs. We discuss different strategies to inhibit DUBs and the progress in developing selective small-molecule DUB inhibitors. Finally, we propose a classification system of DUB inhibitors based on their mode of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deubiquitinating Enzymes , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitination/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Humans
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 194: 347-357, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521017

ABSTRACT

Site-specific ubiquitination can regulate the functions of Rab proteins in membrane trafficking. Previously we showed that site-specific monoubiquitination on Rab5 downregulates its function. Rab7 acts in the downstream of Rab5. Although site-specific ubiquitination of Rab7 can affect its function, it remains elusive how the ubiquitination is involved in modulation of the function of Rab7 at molecular level. Here, we report molecular basis for the regulation of Rab7 by site-specific monoubiquitination. Rab7 was predominantly monoubiquitinated at multiple sites in the membrane fraction of cultured cells. Two major ubiquitination sites (K191 and K194), identified by mutational analysis with single K mutants, were responsible for membrane localization of monoubiquitinated Rab7. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we derived structural models of site-specifically monoubiquitinated Rab7 in solution. Structural analysis combined with molecular dynamics simulation corroborated that the ubiquitin moieties on K191 and K194 are key determinants for exclusion of Rab7 from the endosomal membrane. Ubiquitination on the two major sites apparently mitigated colocalization of Rab7 with ORF3a of SARS-CoV-2, potentially deterring the egression of SARS-CoV-2. Our results establish that the regulatory effects of a Rab protein through site-specific monoubiquitination are commonly observed among Rab GTPases while the ubiquitination sites differ in each Rab protein.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , /metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Protein Binding , Ubiquitination
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727861, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477822

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory response is a host-protective mechanism against tissue injury or infections, but also has the potential to cause extensive immunopathology and tissue damage, as seen in many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome and many other infectious diseases with public health concerns, such as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), if failure to resolve in a timely manner. Recent studies have uncovered a superfamily of endogenous chemical molecules that tend to resolve inflammatory responses and re-establish homeostasis without causing excessive damage to healthy cells and tissues. Among these, the monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein (MCPIP) family consisting of four members (MCPIP-1, -2, -3, and -4) has emerged as a group of evolutionarily conserved molecules participating in the resolution of inflammation. The focus of this review highlights the biological functions of MCPIP-1 (also known as Regnase-1), the best-studied member of this family, in the resolution of inflammatory response. As outlined in this review, MCPIP-1 acts on specific signaling pathways, in particular NFκB, to blunt production of inflammatory mediators, while also acts as an endonuclease controlling the stability of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), leading to the resolution of inflammation, clearance of virus and dead cells, and promotion of tissue regeneration via its pleiotropic effects. Evidence from transgenic and knock-out mouse models revealed an involvement of MCPIP-1 expression in immune functions and in the physiology of the cardiovascular system, indicating that MCPIP-1 is a key endogenous molecule that governs normal resolution of acute inflammation and infection. In this review, we also discuss the current evidence underlying the roles of other members of the MCPIP family in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Further understanding of the proteins from this family will provide new insights into the identification of novel targets for both host effectors and microbial factors and will lead to new therapeutic treatments for infections and other inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Ribonucleases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcription Factors/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/genetics , Transcriptional Activation/immunology , Ubiquitination
13.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1416-1427, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475314

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15) (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like modifier induced during infections and involved in host defense mechanisms. Not surprisingly, many viruses encode deISGylating activities to antagonize its effect. Here we show that infection by Zika, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses induce ISG15-modifying enzymes. While influenza and Zika viruses induce ISGylation, SARS-CoV-2 triggers deISGylation instead to generate free ISG15. The ratio of free versus conjugated ISG15 driven by the papain-like protease (PLpro) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2 correlates with macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype and attenuated antigen presentation. In vitro characterization of purified wild-type and mutant PLpro revealed its strong deISGylating over deubiquitylating activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses of PLpro substrates and secretome from SARS-CoV-2-infected macrophages revealed several glycolytic enzymes previously implicated in the expression of inflammatory genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that altered free versus conjugated ISG15 dysregulates macrophage responses and probably contributes to the cytokine storms triggered by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/genetics , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452921

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, and, as of yet, none of the currently available broad-spectrum drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. Host antiviral proteins play an important role in inhibiting viral proliferation. One of the isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), PABPC4, is an RNA-processing protein, which plays an important role in promoting gene expression by enhancing translation and mRNA stability. However, its function in viruses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the host protein, PABPC4, could be regulated by transcription factor SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs, covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. PABPC4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. Ubiquitinated N protein was recognized by the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2, which delivered it to the autolysosomes for degradation, resulting in impaired viral proliferation. In addition to regulating gene expression, these data demonstrate a novel antiviral function of PABPC4, which broadly suppresses CoVs by degrading the N protein via the selective autophagy pathway. This study will shed light on the development of broad anticoronaviral therapies. IMPORTANCE Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, but none of the currently available drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. During viral infection, the host will activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and host restriction factors in maintaining the innate antiviral responses and suppressing viral replication. This study demonstrated that the host protein, PABPC4, interacts with the nucleocapsid (N) proteins from eight CoVs covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family. PABPC4 could be regulated by SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. This study significantly increases our understanding of the novel host restriction factor PABPC4 against CoV replication and will help develop novel antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/growth & development , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Murine hepatitis virus/growth & development , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/growth & development , Proteolysis , Sp1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
15.
mBio ; 12(5): e0233521, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430167

ABSTRACT

Newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic with astonishing mortality and morbidity. The high replication and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are remarkably distinct from those of previous closely related coronaviruses, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The innate immune defense is a physical barrier that restricts viral replication. We report here that the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease targets RIG-I and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein via two distinct mechanisms for inhibition. Specifically, Nsp5 cleaves off the 10 most-N-terminal amino acids from RIG-I and deprives it of the ability to activate MAVS, whereas Nsp5 promotes the ubiquitination and proteosome-mediated degradation of MAVS. As such, Nsp5 potently inhibits interferon (IFN) induction by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in an enzyme-dependent manner. A synthetic small-molecule inhibitor blunts the Nsp5-mediated destruction of cellular RIG-I and MAVS and processing of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural proteins, thus restoring the innate immune response and impeding SARS-CoV-2 replication. This work offers new insight into the immune evasion strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and provides a potential antiviral agent to treat CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is rapidly evolving with better transmissibility. Understanding the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 interaction with host cells is of paramount significance, and development of antiviral agents provides new avenues to prevent and treat COVID-19 diseases. This study describes a molecular characterization of innate immune evasion mediated by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease and subsequent development of a small-molecule inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , A549 Cells , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HCT116 Cells , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Immunoblotting , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitination , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology
17.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
18.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358361

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


TITLE: Dégradation induite des protéines par des molécules PROTAC et stratégies apparentées : développements à visée thérapeutique. ABSTRACT: Alors que, pour la plupart, les médicaments actuels sont de petites molécules inhibant l'action d'une protéine en bloquant un site d'interaction, la dégradation ciblée des protéines, découverte il y a une vingtaine d'années via les petites molécules PROTAC, connaît aujourd'hui un très grand développement, aussi bien au niveau universitaire qu'industriel. Cette dégradation ciblée permet de contrôler la concentration intracellulaire d'une protéine spécifique comme peuvent le faire les techniques basées sur les acides nucléiques (oligonucléotides antisens, ARNsi, CRISPR-Cas9). Les molécules PROTAC sont des chimères hétéro-bifonctionnelles capables de lier simultanément une protéine spécifique devant être dégradée et une E3 ubiquitine ligase. Les PROTAC sont donc capables de provoquer l'ubiquitinylation de la protéine ciblée et sa dégradation par le protéasome 26S. De nature peptidique, puis non peptidique, les PROTAC sont maintenant administrables par voie orale. Ce détournement du système ubiquitine protéasome permet aux molécules PROTAC d'élargir considérablement le champ des applications thérapeutiques puisque l'élimination de protéines dépourvues de poches ou de crevasses bien définies, dites difficiles à cibler, devient possible. Cette technologie versatile a conduit à la dégradation d'une grande variété de protéines comme des facteurs de transcription, des sérine/thréonine/tyrosine kinases, des protéines de structure, des protéines cytosoliques, des lecteurs épigénétiques. Certaines ligases telles que VHL, MDM2, cereblon et IAP sont couramment utilisées pour être recrutées par les PROTAC. Actuellement, le nombre de ligases pouvant être utilisées ainsi que la nature des protéines dégradées sont en constante augmentation. Deux PROTAC sont en étude clinique pour les cancers du sein (ARV471) et de la prostate (ARV110). La dégradation spécifique d'une protéine par le protéasome peut aussi être induite par d'autres types de molécules synthétiques : colles moléculaires, marqueurs hydrophobes, HaloPROTAC, homo-PROTAC. D'autres constituants cellulaires sont aussi éligibles à une dégradation induite : ARN-PROTAC pour les protéines se liant à l'ARN et RIBOTAC pour la dégradation de l'ARN lui-même comme celui du SARS-CoV-2. Des dégradations induites en dehors du protéasome sont aussi connues : LYTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation de protéines extracellulaires vers les lysosomes, et MADTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation par macroautophagie. Plusieurs techniques, en particulier des plates-formes de criblage, la modélisation mathématique et la conception computationnelle sont utilisées pour le développement de nouveaux PROTAC efficaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Catalysis , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Protein Stability , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 339-357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353665

ABSTRACT

Posttranslational modifications of targeted substrates alter their cellular fate. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved and ubiquitous covalent modifier protein that tags substrates with a single molecule or with a polyubiquitin chain. Monoubiquitination affects trafficking and signaling patterns of modified proteins. In contrast, polyubiquitination, particularly K48-linked polyubiquitination, targets the protein for degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) resulting in a committed fate through irreversible inactivation of substrate. Given the diversity of cellular functions impacted by ubiquitination, it is no surprise that the wily pathogenic viruses have co-opted the UPS in myriad ways to ensure their survival. In this review, I describe viral exploitation of nondegradative ubiquitin signaling pathways to effect entry, replication, and egress. Additionally, viruses also harness the UPS to degrade antiviral cellular host factors. Finally, I describe how we can exploit the same proteolytic machinery to enable PROTACs (Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras) to degrade essential viral proteins. Successful implementation of this modality will add to the arsenal of emerging antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Ubiquitin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
20.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 46: 116356, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347508

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, periodic recurrence of viral infections, and the emergence of challenging variants has created an urgent need of alternative therapeutic approaches to combat the spread of viral infections, failing to which may pose a greater risk to mankind in future. Resilience against antiviral drugs or fast evolutionary rate of viruses is stressing the scientific community to identify new therapeutic approaches for timely control of disease. Host metabolic pathways are exquisite reservoir of energy to viruses and contribute a diverse array of functions for successful replication and pathogenesis of virus. Targeting the host factors rather than viral enzymes to cease viral infection, has emerged as an alternative antiviral strategy. This approach offers advantage in terms of increased threshold to viral resistance and can provide broad-spectrum antiviral action against different viruses. The article here provides substantial review of literature illuminating the host factors and molecular mechanisms involved in innate/adaptive responses to viral infection, hijacking of signalling pathways by viruses and the intracellular metabolic pathways required for viral replication. Host-targeted drugs acting on the pathways usurped by viruses are also addressed in this study. Host-directed antiviral therapeutics might prove to be a rewarding approach in controlling the unprecedented spread of viral infection, however the probability of cellular side effects or cytotoxicity on host cell should not be ignored at the time of clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/drug effects , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/physiology , Glycosylation/drug effects , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunity/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/physiology , Polyamines/metabolism , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitination/drug effects , Ubiquitination/physiology
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