Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 235
Filter
1.
J Ultrasound ; 26(2): 497-503, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241318

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the role of lung ultrasound (LUS) in recognizing lung abnormalities in pregnant women affected by COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study analyzing LUS patterns in 60 consecutively enrolled pregnant women affected by COVID-19 infection was performed. LUS was performed by using a standardized protocol by Soldati et al. The scoring system of LUS findings ranged from 0 to 3 in increasing alteration severity. The highest score obtained from each landmark was reported and the sum of the 12 zones examined was calculated. RESULTS: Patients were divided into two groups: 26 (43.3%) patients with respiratory symptoms and 32 (53.3%) patients without respiratory symptoms; 2 patients were asymptomatic (3.3%). Among the patients with respiratory symptoms 3 (12.5%) had dyspnea that required a mild Oxygen therapy. A significant correlation was found between respiratory symptoms and LUS score (p < 0.001) and between gestational weeks and respiratory symptoms (p = 0.023). Regression analysis showed that age and respiratory symptoms were risk factors for highest LUS score (p < 0.005). DISCUSSION: LUS can affect the clinical decision course and can help in stratifying patients according to its findings. The lack of ionizing radiation and its repeatability makes it a reliable diagnostic tool in the management of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thorax , Ultrasonography/methods , COVID-19 Testing
2.
J Vet Intern Med ; 37(3): 1223-1232, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocol for evaluation of the cardiac and respiratory systems in horses does not exist. OBJECTIVES: (a) Describe the windows of a POCUS protocol for cardiorespiratory assessment of horses (CRASH); (b) Estimate the number of acoustic windows that can be acquired by a sonographer-in-training; (c) Estimate the time required to complete the protocol for specific groups of horses; (d) Describe the sonographic abnormalities detected in horses presented with cardiovascular, respiratory, or systemic disease. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven healthy horses, 14 horses competing in athletic events, and 120 horses with clinical disease. METHOD: A pocket-sized ultrasound device was used to acquire 7 sonographic cardiorespiratory windows in various clinical scenarios. The duration of the examination was timed, and images were evaluated for diagnostic quality. Abnormalities in horses with clinical disease were determined by an expert sonographer. RESULTS: The CRASH protocol could be performed in healthy and diseased horses in hospital, barn, and competition settings between 5.5 ± 0.9 (athletic horses) and 6.9 ± 1.9 min (horses with clinical disease). Thoracic windows were obtained most consistently, followed by right parasternal long-axis echocardiographic windows. Frequently detected abnormalities were pleural fluid, lung consolidation, B-lines, and moderate-to-severe left-sided heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: The CRASH protocol was feasible using a pocket-sized ultrasound device in various groups of horses, could be completed rapidly in a variety of settings, and frequently identified sonographic abnormalities when evaluated by an expert sonographer. The diagnostic accuracy, observer agreement, and utility of the CRASH protocol merit further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Horses , Animals , Feasibility Studies , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography/methods , Echocardiography/veterinary
3.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 497-504, 2022 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242018

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care lung ultrasonography is an evidence-based application that may play a vital role in the care of critically ill pediatric patients. Lung ultrasonography has the advantage of being available at the patient's bedside with results superior to chest radiography and comparable to chest computed tomography for most lung pathologies. It has a steep learning curve. It can be readily performed in both advanced healthcare systems and resource-scarce settings. The purpose of this review is to discuss the basic principles of lung ultrasonography and its applications in the evaluation and treatment of critically ill pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Point-of-Care Systems , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography/methods
4.
Radiography (Lond) ; 29(4): 675-679, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308241

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Testicular cells, seminiferous tubule cells, spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cells showing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression have the potential to be targets and to be damaged by the coronavirus. We aimed to use Two-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) as an effective technique to identify parenchymal damage in the testicles of patients recovering from COVID-19 infection. METHODS: 35 Male patients (group 1) who recovered after COVID-19 infection between 4 and 12 weeks were included in this prospective study. Before 2D-SWE, these male patients were confirmed with control Rt-PCR test negativity. In addition, the first Rt-PCR test positivity of these patients was confirmed. A control group was formed of 31 healthy subjects (group 2). These two groups were compared in terms of age, volume of each testis, and SWE values. Ultrasound including SWE was applied to all the testes. A total of 9 measurements were taken as 3 SWE measurements from each third of the testis (superior, mid, inferior) and the average of these was calculated. Data obtained in the study were analyzed statistically. A value of p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean SWE values for the right testis and the left testis were determined to be statistically significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2, respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is an increase in testicular stiffness in males who have recovered from COVID-19 infection. The underlying cause of testicular damage is changes at the cellular level. The 2D-SWE technique can predict potential testicular parenchymal damage in male patients recovering from COVID-19 infection. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Two-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) seems to be a promising imaging technique in the evaluation of testis parenchyma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Male , Testis/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
5.
Lung ; 201(2): 149-157, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294688

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Dyspnea is a common symptom in survivors of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. While frequently employed in hospital settings, the use of point-of-care ultrasound in ambulatory clinics for dyspnea evaluation has rarely been explored. We aimed to determine how lung ultrasound score (LUS) and inspiratory diaphragm excursion (DE) correlate with patient-reported dyspnea during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in survivors of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesize higher LUS and lower DE will correlate with dyspnea severity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Single-center cross-sectional study of survivors of critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia (requiring high-flow nasal cannula, invasive, or non-invasive mechanical ventilation) seen in our Post-ICU clinic. All patients underwent standardized scanning protocols to compute LUS and DE. Pearson correlations were performed to detect an association between LUS and DE with dyspnea at rest and exertion during 6MWT. RESULTS: We enrolled 45 patients. Average age was 61.5 years (57.7% male), with average BMI of 32.3 Higher LUS correlated significantly with dyspnea, at rest (r = + 0.41, p = < 0.01) and at exertion (r = + 0.40, p = < 0.01). Higher LUS correlated significantly with lower oxygen saturation during 6MWT (r = -0.55, p = < 0.01) and lower 6MWT distance (r = -0.44, p = < 0.01). DE correlated significantly with 6MWT distance but did not correlate with dyspnea at rest or exertion. CONCLUSION: Higher LUS correlated significantly with patient-reported dyspnea at rest and exertion. Higher LUS significantly correlated with more exertional oxygen desaturation during 6MWT and lower 6MWT distance. DE did not correlate with dyspnea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/etiology , Ultrasonography/methods , Intensive Care Units , Survivors
6.
Mo Med ; 120(2): 128-133, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300092

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated advanced pulmonary ultrasonography training for COVID-19 lung examination. Students completed identical pretests and post-tests and a survey. Changes were found for individual questions and overall scores (all P≤.02), specifically image identification, previous material, and COVID-19 questions. Students were receptive to the training for education and future practice (P<.001), and they felt capable using ultrasound for diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients. Pulmonary ultrasonography training should be considered for the medical school curriculum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Lung Diseases , Students, Medical , Humans , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , Curriculum , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Clinical Competence , COVID-19 Testing
7.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(2): 214-221, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289044

ABSTRACT

In this study, the utility of point-of-care lung ultrasound for clinical classification of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was prospectively assessed. Twenty-seven adult patients with COVID-19 underwent bedside lung ultrasonography (LUS) examinations three times each within the first 2 wk of admission to the isolation ward. We divided the 81 exams into three groups (moderate, severe and critically ill). Lung scores were calculated as the sum of points. A rank sum test and bivariate correlation analysis were carried out to determine the correlation between LUS on admission and clinical classification of COVID-19. There were dramatic differences in LUS (p < 0.001) among the three groups, and LUS scores (r = 0.754) correlated positively with clinical severity (p < 0.01). In addition, moderate, severe and critically ill patients were more likely to have low (≤9), medium (9-15) and high scores (≥15), respectively. This study provides stratification criteria of LUS scores to assist in quantitatively evaluating COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Ultrasonography/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 195, 2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an increasingly popular imaging method in clinical practice. It became particularly important during the COVID-19 pandemic due to its mobility and ease of use compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The objective of this study was to assess the value of LUS in quantifying the degree of lung involvement and in discrimination of lesion types in the course of COVID-19 pneumonia as compared to HRCT analyzed by the artificial intelligence (AI). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study including adult patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in whom initial HRCT and LUS were performed with an interval < 72 h. HRCT assessment was performed automatically by AI. We evaluated the correlations between the inflammation volume assessed both in LUS and HRCT, between LUS results and the HRCT structure of inflammation, and between LUS and the laboratory markers of inflammation. Additionally we compared the LUS results in subgroups depending on the respiratory failure throughout the hospitalization. RESULTS: Study group comprised 65 patients, median 63 years old. For both lungs, the median LUS score was 19 (IQR-interquartile range 11-24) and the median CT score was 22 (IQR 16-26). Strong correlations were found between LUS and CT scores (for both lungs r = 0.75), and between LUS score and percentage inflammation volume (PIV) (r = 0.69). The correlations remained significant, if weakened, for individual lung lobes. The correlations between LUS score and the value of the percentage consolidation volume (PCV) divided by percentage ground glass volume (PGV), were weak or not significant. We found significant correlation between LUS score and C-reactive protein (r = 0.55), and between LUS score and interleukin 6 (r = 0.39). LUS score was significantly higher in subgroups with more severe respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: LUS can be regarded as an accurate method to evaluate the extent of COVID-19 pneumonia and as a promising tool to estimate its clinical severity. Evaluation of LUS in the assessment of the structure of inflammation, requires further studies in the course of the disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been preregistered 13 Aug 2020 on clinicaltrials.gov with the number NCT04513210.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Artificial Intelligence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 36(2): 234-239, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the impact of lung ultrasonography (LUS) on economics and possible impact on patients' outcomes, proven its diagnostic accuracy in patients with acute respiratory failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite some previous ethical concerns on LUS examination, today this technique has showed several advantages. First, it is now clear that the daily use of LUS can provide a relevant cost reduction in healthcare of patients with acute respiratory failure, while reducing the risk of transport of patients to radiological departments for chest CT scan. In addition, LUS reduces the exposition to x-rays since can replace the bedside chest X-ray examination in many cases. Indeed, LUS is characterized by a diagnostic accuracy that is even superior to portable chest X-ray when performed by well trained personnel. Finally, LUS examination is a useful tool to predict the course of patients with pneumonia, including the need for hospitalization and ICU admission, noninvasive ventilation failure and orotracheal intubation, weaning success, and mortality. SUMMARY: LUS should be implemented not only in Intensive Care Units, but also in other setting like emergency departments. Since most data comes from the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, further investigations are required in Acute Respiratory Failure of different etiologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Ultrasonography/methods
10.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 160(12): 531-539, 2023 06 23.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to establish different cut-off points based on the lung ultrasound score (LUS) to classify COVID-19 pneumonia severity. METHODS: Initially, we conducted a systematic review among previously proposed LUS cut-off points. Then, these results were validated by a single-centre prospective cohort study of adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Studied variables were poor outcome (ventilation support, intensive care unit admission or 28-days mortality) and 28-days mortality. RESULTS: From 510 articles, 11 articles were included. Among the cut-off points proposed in the articles included, only the LUS>15 cut-off point could be validated for its original endpoint, demonstrating also the strongest relation with poor outcome (odds ratio [OR]=3.636, confidence interval [CI] 1.411-9.374). Regarding our cohort, 127 patients were admitted. In these patients, LUS was statistically associated with poor outcome (OR=1.303, CI 1.137-1.493), and with 28-days mortality (OR=1.024, CI 1.006-1.042). LUS>15 showed the best diagnostic performance when choosing a single cut-off point in our cohort (area under the curve 0.650). LUS≤7 showed high sensitivity to rule out poor outcome (0.89, CI 0.695-0.955), while LUS>20 revealed high specificity to predict poor outcome (0.86, CI 0.776-0.917). CONCLUSIONS: LUS is a good predictor of poor outcome and 28-days mortality in COVID-19. LUS≤7 cut-off point is associated with mild pneumonia, LUS 8-20 with moderate pneumonia and ≥20 with severe pneumonia. If a single cut-off point were used, LUS>15 would be the point which better discriminates mild from severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Hospitalization , Ultrasonography/methods
11.
Eur J Intern Med ; 110: 29-34, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251232

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic, lung ultrasound (LUS) proved to be of great value in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with pneumonia. However, limited data exist regarding its use to assess aeration changes during follow-up (FU). Our study aims to prospectively evaluate 232 subjects who underwent a 3-month-FU program after hospitalization for COVID-19 at the University Hospital of Pisa. The goals were to assess the usefulness of standardized LUS compared with the gold standard chest computed tomography (CT) to evaluate aeration changes and to verify LUS and CT agreement at FU. Patients underwent in the same day a standardized 16-areas LUS and high-resolution chest CT reported by expert radiologists, assigning interpretative codes. Based on observations distribution, LUS score cut-offs of 3 and 7 were selected, corresponding to the 50th and 75th percentile, respectively. Patients with LUS scores above both these thresholds were older and with longer hospital stay. Patients with a LUS score ≥3 had more comorbidities. LUS and chest CT showed a high agreement in identifying residual pathological findings, using both cut-off scores of 3 (OR 14,7; CL 3,6-64,5, Sensitivity 91%, Specificity 49%) and 7 (OR 5,8; CL 2,3-14,3, Sensitivity 65%, Specificity 79%). Our data suggest that LUS is very sensitive in identifying pathological findings at FU after a hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to CT. Given its low cost and safety, LUS could replace CT in selected cases, such as in contexts with limited resources or it could be used as a gate-keeper examination before more advanced techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Pandemics , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Hospitalization , Ultrasonography/methods
12.
Respir Med ; 210: 107176, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269571

ABSTRACT

Background Long-term respiratory effects can occur after COVID-19 pneumonia (CP). The COVID Lung Ultrasound Study (COVIDLUS) aimed to investigate the utility of serial lung ultrasound (LUS) to track functional and physiological recovery after hospitalisation in patients with CP. Methods Between April 2021 and April 2022, 21 patients were recruited at discharge (D0). LUS was performed on D0, day 41 (D41) and day 83 (D83). CT Thorax was performed on D83. Lymphocyte count, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Troponin, CRP, and D-dimers were measured at D0, D41 and D83. 6 minute walking test (6MWT) was performed on D83 and quality of life questionnaires and spirometry completed on D41 and D83. Results 19 subjects completed the study (10 males [52%]; mean age: 52 years [range:37-74]). 1 patient died. LUS scores were significantly higher at D0, compared to D41 and D83 (Mean score:10.9 [D0]/2.8 [D41]/1.5 [D83]; p < 0.0001). LUS scores correlated poorly with CT at D83 (Pearson r2 = 0.28). Mean lymphocyte counts were lower at D0 but increased at D41 and D83. Mean serum Ferritin was significantly lower at D41 and D83, as compared to D0. The mean 6MWT distance was 385 m (130-540 m). Quality of life measures did not differ at D41 and D83. Lung function increased between D41 and D83 with mean increase in FEV1 and FVC of 160 ml and 190 ml respectively. Conclusion LUS can monitor the early recovery of lung interstitial changes from CP. The utility of LUS to predict development of subsequent lung fibrosis post-COVID deserves further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Quality of Life , Ultrasonography/methods , Female , Adult , Aged
13.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 71(6): 345-349, 2022 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267959

ABSTRACT

Technological advances over the past two decades have paved the way for the prehospital use of ultrasound. This practice was first developed in traumatology and then in a multitude of other indications, including cardiology. The development of pulmonary ultrasound is certainly the most visible illustration of this. Firstly, because it is an extra-cardiac examination that provides the answer to a cardiac question. Secondly because from a theoretical point of view this ultrasound indication was a bad indication for the use of ultrasound due to the air contained in the thorax. Thirdly, because this indication has become a 'standard of care' when caring for a patient with dyspnea - a practice that has become widespread during the COVID epidemic. In patients with heart failure, ultrasound has a high diagnostic power (including for alternative diagnoses) which is all the more precise since the technique is non-invasive, the response is obtained quickly, the examination can be repeated at desire to follow the evolution of the patient. The main other indications for prehospital ultrasound are cardiac arrest to search for a curable cause, identification of residual mechanical cardiac activity, monitoring of cerebral perfusion; chest pain, for both positive and negative diagnoses; shock for the search for an etiology and therapeutic follow-up or even pulmonary embolism or ultrasound for the search for dilation of the right ventricle which is now at the forefront of the recommendation algorithm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Emergencies , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods
14.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(9): 2203-2215, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Worldwide, lung ultrasound (LUS) was utilized to assess coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Often, imaging protocols were however defined arbitrarily and not following an evidence-based approach. Moreover, extensive studies on LUS in post-COVID-19 patients are currently lacking. This study analyses the impact of different LUS imaging protocols on the evaluation of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 LUS data. METHODS: LUS data from 220 patients were collected, 100 COVID-19 positive and 120 post-COVID-19. A validated and standardized imaging protocol based on 14 scanning areas and a 4-level scoring system was implemented. We utilized this dataset to compare the capability of 5 imaging protocols, respectively based on 4, 8, 10, 12, and 14 scanning areas, to intercept the most important LUS findings. This to evaluate the optimal trade-off between a time-efficient imaging protocol and an accurate LUS examination. We also performed a longitudinal study, aimed at investigating how to eventually simplify the protocol during follow-up. Additionally, we present results on the agreement between AI models and LUS experts with respect to LUS data evaluation. RESULTS: A 12-areas protocol emerges as the optimal trade-off, for both COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients. For what concerns follow-up studies, it appears not to be possible to reduce the number of scanning areas. Finally, COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 LUS data seem to show differences capable to confuse AI models that were not trained on post-COVID-19 data, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of LUS patterns specific to post-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-areas acquisition protocol is recommended for both COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients, also during follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/methods
15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 58(4): 1042-1050, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 pneumonia in children. STUDY DESIGN: Children (0-18 years old) diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized between March 2020 and March 2021 were included in this observational study. All children underwent follow-up visits 3 months postdischarge, and if any abnormalities were stated, a second visit after the next 3 months was scheduled. Clinical assessment included medical history, physical examination, lung ultrasound (LUS) using a standardized protocol, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). PFTs results were compared with healthy children. RESULTS: Forty-one patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (severe disease n = 3, mechanical ventilation, n = 0) were included in the study. Persistent symptoms were reported by seven (17.1%) children, the most common was decreased exercise tolerance (57.1%), dyspnea (42.9%), and cough (42.9%). The most prevalent abnormalities in LUS were coalescent B-lines (37%) and small subpleural consolidations (29%). The extent of LUS abnormalities was significantly greater at the first than at the second follow-up visit (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in PFTs results neither between the study group and healthy children nor between the two follow-up visits in the study group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that children might experience long-term sequelae following COVID-19 pneumonia. In the majority of cases, these are mild and resolve over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Aftercare , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Discharge , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
16.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281098, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244682

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is associated with a decrease of respiratory, physical, and psychological function, subsequently affecting quality of life. The aim of the present pilot study was to use ultrasound imaging (USI) to evaluate and compare the thickness of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles between individuals recently diagnosed with moderate Covid-19 infection and healthy individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational pilot study was performed. A total sample of 24 participants were recruited from a private medical center (Madrid, Spain): Covid-19 (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). The external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), transversus abdominis (TrA), rectus abdominis (RA), interrecti distance (IRD) and diaphragm thickness were assessed using USI during inspiration, expiration and during contraction. RESULTS: USI measurements of the thickness of EO, IO, TrA, RA, IRD and the diaphragm did not differ significantly between groups during inspiration, expiration or during contraction (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that the morphology of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm is not altered in people with a recent history of moderate Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diaphragm , Humans , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Quality of Life , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Abdominal Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Muscles/physiology , Ultrasonography/methods
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(2)2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200514

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: COVID-19 induces massive systemic inflammation. Researchers have spent much time and effort finding an excellent and rapid image tool to evaluate COVID-19 patients. Since the pandemic's beginning, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been identified for this purpose. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were used to treat mild patients and prevent respiratory disease worsening. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 15 Caucasian patients with mild COVID-19 who did not require home oxygen, treated with Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab (Group 1). A molecular nose-throat swab test confirmed the diagnosis. All were office patients, and nobody was affected by respiratory failure. They were admitted to receive the single-day infusion of mAb treatment in agreement with the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) rules for approval. LUS was performed before the drug administration (T0) and after three months (T1). We compared LUS at T1 in other outpatients who came for follow-up and were overlapping at the time of diagnosis for admittance criteria to receive mAb (Group 2). Results: Our COVID-19 outpatients reported no hospitalization in a follow-up visit after recovery. All patients became SARS-CoV-2 negative within one month since T0. LUS score at T0 was 8.23 ± 6.46. At T1 we found a significant decrease in Group 1 LUS score (5.18 ± 4.74; p < 0.05). We also found a significant decrease in the LUS score of Group 1 T1 compared to Group2 T1 (5.18 ± 4.74 vs 7.82 ± 5.21; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Early treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 virus effectively achieves a better recovery from disease and reduces lung involvement after three months as evaluated with LUS. Despite extrapolation to the general population may be done with caution, based on our data this ultrasound method is also effective for evaluating and following lung involvement in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
19.
Respir Care ; 68(3): 400-407, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used to monitor critically ill patients with COVID-19, but the optimal number of examined lung zones is disputed. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. The objective was to investigate whether concise (6 zones) and extended (12 zones) LUS scoring protocols are clinically equivalent in critically ill ICU subjects with COVID-19. The primary outcome of this study was (statistical) agreement between concise and extended LUS score index evaluated in both supine and prone position. Agreement was determined using correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots to detect systematic differences between protocols. Secondary outcomes were difference between LUS score index in supine and prone position using similar methods. RESULTS: We included 130 LUS examinations in 40 subjects (mean age 69.0 ± 8.5y, 75% male). Agreement between concise and extended LUS score index had no clinically relevant constant or proportional bias and limits of agreement were below the smallest detectable change. Across position changes, supine LUS score index was 8% higher than prone LUS score index and had limits above the smallest detectable change, indicating true LUS score index differences between protocols may occur due to the position change itself. Lastly, inter-rater and intra-rater agreement were very good. CONCLUSIONS: Concise LUS was equally informative as extended LUS for monitoring critically ill subjects with COVID-19 in supine or prone position. Clinicians can monitor patients undergoing position changes but must be wary that LUS score index alterations may result from the position change itself rather than disease progression or clinical improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Critical Illness , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 152: 106385, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous traditional filtering approaches and deep learning-based methods have been proposed to improve the quality of ultrasound (US) image data. However, their results tend to suffer from over-smoothing and loss of texture and fine details. Moreover, they perform poorly on images with different degradation levels and mainly focus on speckle reduction, even though texture and fine detail enhancement are of crucial importance in clinical diagnosis. METHODS: We propose an end-to-end framework termed US-Net for simultaneous speckle suppression and texture enhancement in US images. The architecture of US-Net is inspired by U-Net, whereby a feature refinement attention block (FRAB) is introduced to enable an effective learning of multi-level and multi-contextual representative features. Specifically, FRAB aims to emphasize high-frequency image information, which helps boost the restoration and preservation of fine-grained and textural details. Furthermore, our proposed US-Net is trained essentially with real US image data, whereby real US images embedded with simulated multi-level speckle noise are used as an auxiliary training set. RESULTS: Extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments indicate that although trained with only one US image data type, our proposed US-Net is capable of restoring images acquired from different body parts and scanning settings with different degradation levels, while exhibiting favorable performance against state-of-the-art image enhancement approaches. Furthermore, utilizing our proposed US-Net as a pre-processing stage for COVID-19 diagnosis results in a gain of 3.6% in diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework can help improve the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Ultrasonography/methods , Image Enhancement/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Algorithms
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL