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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(32): 79512-79524, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239008

ABSTRACT

Different sources of factors in environment can affect the spread of COVID-19 by influencing the diffusion of the virus transmission, but the collective influence of which has hardly been considered. This study aimed to utilize a machine learning algorithm to assess the joint effects of meteorological variables, demographic factors, and government response measures on COVID-19 daily cases globally at city level. Random forest regression models showed that population density was the most crucial determinant for COVID-19 transmission, followed by meteorological variables and response measures. Ultraviolet radiation and temperature dominated meteorological factors, but the associations with daily cases varied across different climate zones. Policy response measures have lag effect in containing the epidemic development, and the pandemic was more effectively contained with stricter response measures implemented, but the generalized measures might not be applicable to all climate conditions. This study explored the roles of demographic factors, meteorological variables, and policy response measures in the transmission of COVID-19, and provided evidence for policymakers that the design of appropriate policies for prevention and preparedness of future pandemics should be based on local climate conditions, population characteristics, and social activity characteristics. Future work should focus on discerning the interactions between numerous factors affecting COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Random Forest , Ultraviolet Rays , Meteorological Concepts , Demography
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 109(1): 182-190, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243341

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation systems, commonly used to disinfect surfaces, drinking water, and air, stem from historical practice to use sunlight to disinfect household items after contagious illness. Currently, it is still recommended in viral outbreak contexts such as COVID-19, Ebola, and Marburg to expose soft surfaces to sunlight after washing with detergent or disinfecting with chlorine. However, sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface is in the UVA/UVB wavelengths, whereas UV disinfection systems typically rely on biocidal UVC. Our goal was to fill the evidence gap on the efficacy of sunlight disinfection on surface materials common in low-resource healthcare settings by seeding four surfaces (stainless steel, nitrile, tarp, cloth) with three microorganisms (viral surrogate bacteriophages Phi6 and MS2 and Escherichia coli bacteria), with and without soil load, and exposing to three sunlight conditions (full sun, partial sun, cloudy). We conducted 144 tests in triplicate and found: solar radiation averaged 737 W/m2 (SD = 333), 519 W/m2 (SD = 65), and 149 W/m2 (SD = 24) for full sun, partial sun, and cloudy conditions; significantly more surfaces averaged ≥ 4 log10 reduction value (LRV) for Phi6 than MS2 and E. coli (P < 0.001) after full sun exposure, and no samples achieved ≥ 4 LRV for partial sun or cloudy conditions. On the basis of our results, we recommend no change to current protocols of disinfecting materials first with a 0.5% chlorine solution then moving to sunlight to dry. Additional field-based research is recommended to understand sunlight disinfection efficacy against pathogenic organisms on healthcare relevant surfaces during actual outbreak contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Purification , Humans , Sunlight , Disinfection/methods , Escherichia coli , Chlorine , Ultraviolet Rays , Water Purification/methods
4.
New Microbiol ; 46(2): 161-169, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235653

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet-C (UVC) has been used to cause virus inactivation. The virucidal activity of three UV light lamps [UVC high frequencies (HF), UVC+B LED and UVC+A LED] was evaluated against the enveloped feline coronavirus (FCoVII), a surrogate model of SARS-CoV-2, the enveloped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the naked encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Virucidal assays were performed at different time points of UV-light exposure (i.e., 5, 30 minutes and 1, 6, and 8 hours), placing each virus 180 cm below the perpendicular irradiation of the lamp and 1 and 2 meters from the perpendicular axis. We found that the UVC HF lamp had virucidal effects (≥96.8% of virus inactivation) against FCoVII, VSV and EMCV after 5 minutes of irradiation at each distance analyzed. Moreover, the UVC+B LED lamp had the highest inhibitory effects on FCoVII and VSV infectivity (≥99% of virus inactivation) when these viruses were settled below the perpendicular axis of the lamp for 5 minutes. Conversely, the UVC+A LED lamp was the least effective, achieving ≥85.9% inactivation of enveloped RNA viruses after 8 hours of UV exposure. Overall, UV light lamps, and in particular UVC HF and UVC+B LED ones, had a rapid and strong virucidal activity against distinct RNA viruses, including coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays , SARS-CoV-2 , Disinfection
5.
Environ Int ; 177: 108022, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231002

ABSTRACT

A non-filter virus inactivation unit was developed that can control the irradiation dose of aerosolized viruses by controlling the lighting pattern of a 280 nm deep-UV (DUV)-LED and the air flowrate. In this study, the inactivation properties of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 were quantitatively evaluated by controlling the irradiation dose to the virus inside the inactivation unit. The RNA concentration of SARS-CoV-2 remained constant when the total irradiation dose of DUV irradiation to the virus exceeded 16.5 mJ/cm2. This observation suggests that RNA damage may occur in regions below the detection threshold of RT-qPCR assay. However, when the total irradiation dose was less than 16.5 mJ/cm2, the RNA concentration monotonically increased with a decreasing LED irradiation dose. However, the nucleocapsid protein concentration of SARS-CoV-2 was not predominantly dependent on the LED irradiation dose. The plaque assay showed that 99.16% of the virus was inactivated at 8.1 mJ/cm2 of irradiation, and no virus was detected at 12.2 mJ/cm2 of irradiation, resulting in a 99.89% virus inactivation rate. Thus, an irradiation dose of 23% of the maximal irradiation capacity of the virus inactivation unit can activate more than 99% of SARS-CoV-2. These findings are expected to enhance versatility in various applications. The downsizing achieved in our study renders the technology apt for installation in narrow spaces, while the enhanced flowrates establish its viability for implementation in larger facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Disinfection/methods , Ultraviolet Rays , RNA
6.
Environ Res ; 231(Pt 2): 116090, 2023 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324461

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic appeared summer surge in 2022 worldwide and this contradicts its seasonal fluctuations. Even as high temperature and intense ultraviolet radiation can inhibit viral activity, the number of new cases worldwide has increased to >78% in only 1 month since the summer of 2022 under unchanged virus mutation influence and control policies. Using the attribution analysis based on the theoretical infectious diseases model simulation, we found the mechanism of the severe COVID-19 outbreak in the summer of 2022 and identified the amplification effect of heat wave events on its magnitude. The results suggest that approximately 69.3% of COVID-19 cases this summer could have been avoided if there is no heat waves. The collision between the pandemic and the heatwave is not an accident. Climate change is leading to more frequent extreme climate events and an increasing number of infectious diseases, posing an urgent threat to human health and life. Therefore, public health authorities must quickly develop coordinated management plans to deal with the simultaneous occurrence of extreme climate events and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Ultraviolet Rays , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hot Temperature , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Climate Change
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8229, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321748

ABSTRACT

UV irradiation is an efficient tool for the disinfection of viruses in general and coronavirus specifically. This study explores the disinfection kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 variants wild type (similar to the Wuhan strain) and three variants (Alpha, Delta, and Omicron) by 267 nm UV-LED. All variants showed more than 5 logs average reduction in copy number at 5 mJ/cm2 but inconsistency was evident, especially for the Alpha variant. Increasing the dose to 7 mJ/cm2 did not increase average inactivation but did result in a dramatic decrease in the inactivation inconsistency making this dose the recommended minimum. Sequence analysis suggests that the difference between the variants is likely due to small differences in the frequency of specific UV extra-sensitive nucleotide sequence motifs although this hypothesis requires further experimental testing. In summary, the use of UV-LED with their simple electricity need (can be operated from a battery or photovoltaic panel) and geometrical flexibility could offer many advantages in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread, but minimal UV dose should be carefully considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Ultraviolet Rays
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1034379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322500

ABSTRACT

Blood products in therapeutic transfusion are now commonly acknowledged to contain biologically active constituents during the processes of preparation. In the midst of a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, preliminary evidence suggests that convalescent plasma may lessen the severity of COVID-19 if administered early in the disease, particularly in patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia and prolonged COVID-19 symptoms. This study examined the influence of photochemical Pathogen Reduction Treatment (PRT) using amotosalen-HCl and UVA light in comparison with untreated control convalescent plasma (n= 72 - paired samples) - cFFP, regarding soluble inflammatory factors: sCD40L, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-alpha and ex-vivo inflammatory bioactivity on endothelial cells. We didn't observe significant modulation of the majority of inflammatory soluble factors (8 of 10 molecules tested) pre- or post-PRT. We noted that IL-8 concentrations were significantly decreased in cFFP with PRT, whereas the IL-18 concentration was increased by PRT. In contrast, endothelial cell release of IL-6 was similar whether cFFP was pre-treated with or without PRT. Expression of CD54 and CD31 in the presence of cFFP were similar to control levels, and both were significant decreased in when cFFP had been pre-treated by PRT. It will be interesting to continue investigations of IL-18 and IL-8, and the physiopathological effect of PRT- treated convalescent plasma and in clinical trials. But overall, it appears that cFFP post-PRT were not excessively pro-inflammatory. Further research, including a careful clinical evaluation of CCP-treated patients, will be required to thoroughly define the clinical relevance of these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelial Cells , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Technology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Ultraviolet Rays , COVID-19 Serotherapy
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320472

ABSTRACT

The highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus is primarily transmitted through respiratory droplets, aerosols, and contaminated surfaces. In addition to antiviral drugs, the decontamination of surfaces and personal protective equipment (PPE) is crucial to mitigate the spread of infection. Conventional approaches, including ultraviolet radiation, vaporized hydrogen peroxide, heat and liquid chemicals, can damage materials or lack comprehensive, effective disinfection. Consequently, alternative material-compatible and sustainable methods, such as nanomaterial coatings, are needed. Therefore, the antiviral activity of two novel zinc-oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) against SARS-CoV-2 was investigated in vitro. Each nanoparticle was produced by applying highly efficient "green" synthesis techniques, which are free of fossil derivatives and use nitrate, chlorate and sulfonate salts as starting materials and whey as chelating agents. The two "green" nanomaterials differ in size distribution, with ZnO-NP-45 consisting of particles ranging from 30 nm to 60 nm and ZnO-NP-76 from 60 nm to 92 nm. Human lung epithelial cells (Calu-3) were infected with SARS-CoV-2, pre-treated in suspensions with increasing ZnO-NP concentrations up to 20 mg/mL. Both "green" materials were compared to commercially available ZnO-NP as a reference. While all three materials were active against both virus variants at concentrations of 10-20 mg/mL, ZnO-NP-45 was found to be more active than ZnO-NP-76 and the reference material, resulting in the inactivation of the Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants by a factor of more than 106. This effect could be due to its greater total reactive surface, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Higher variations in virus inactivation were found for the latter two nanomaterials, ZnO-NP-76 and ZnO-NP-ref, which putatively may be due to secondary infections upon incomplete inactivation inside infected cells caused by insufficient NP loading of the virions. Taken together, inactivation with 20 mg/mL ZnO-NP-45 seems to have the greatest effect on both SARS-CoV-2 variants tested. Prospective ZnO-NP applications include an antiviral coating of filters or PPE to enhance user protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Prospective Studies
10.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0274065, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319442

ABSTRACT

Downstream analysis of virus-infected cell samples, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) or mass spectrometry, often needs to be performed at lower biosafety levels than their actual cultivation, and thus the samples require inactivation before they can be transferred. Common inactivation methods involve chemical crosslinking with formaldehyde or denaturing samples with strong detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. However, these protocols destroy the protein quaternary structure and prevent the analysis of protein complexes, albeit through different chemical mechanisms. This often leads to studies being performed in over-expression or surrogate model systems. To address this problem, we generated a protocol that achieves the inactivation of infected cells through ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV irradiation damages viral genomes and crosslinks nucleic acids to proteins but leaves the overall structure of protein complexes mostly intact. Protein analysis can then be performed from intact cells without biosafety containment. While UV treatment protocols have been established to inactivate viral solutions, a protocol was missing to inactivate crude infected cell lysates, which heavily absorb light. In this work, we develop and validate a UV inactivation protocol for SARS-CoV-2, HSV-1, and HCMV-infected cells. A fluence of 10,000 mJ/cm2 with intermittent mixing was sufficient to completely inactivate infected cells, as demonstrated by the absence of viral replication even after three sequential passages of cells inoculated with the treated material. The herein described protocol should serve as a reference for inactivating cells infected with these or similar viruses and allow for the analysis of protein quaternary structure from bona fide infected cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesviridae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays
11.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 48(4): 381-382, 2023 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289584
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e76, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295187

ABSTRACT

This experimental study aimed to determine the activity of a near-UVA (405 nm) LED ceiling system against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The ceiling system comprised 17 near-UVA LED lights with a radiant power of 1.1 W/each centred at 405 nm wavelength. A 96-multiwell plate, fixed to a wooden base, was inoculated with suspensions of VERO E6 cell cultures infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus and irradiated at a distance of 40 cm with a dose of 20.2 J/cm2 for 120 min. The collected suspensions were transferred to VERO cell culture plates and incubated for 3 days. The maximum measurable log reduction obtained, starting from a concentration of 107.2 TCID50/mL, was 3.0 log10 and indicated inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by the near-UVA LED ceiling system. Near-UVA light at a 405-nm wavelength is emerging as a potential alternative treatment for localised infections and environmental decontamination because it is far less harmful to living organisms' cells than UV-C irradiation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Suspensions , Vero Cells
13.
Food Environ Virol ; 15(2): 107-115, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306046

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of different environmental disinfection methods on reducing contaminated surfaces (CSs) by the Omicron BA.2.2 variant of SARS-CoV-2 in the fever clinic between March 20 and May 30, 2022, and to analyze the influences and related factors of CSs. This study includes survey data from 389 positive patients (SPPs) and 204 CSs in the fever clinic, including the CS type, disinfection method, length of time spent in the clinic, cycle threshold (CT) value, name, age, weight, mask type, mask-wearing compliance, hand-mouth touch frequency and sex. Associations between study variables and specified outcomes were explored using univariate regression analyses. Mask-wearing compliance had a significant negative correlation with CSs (r = - 0.446, P = 0.037). Among the 389 SPPs, 22 SPPs (CRP, 5.66%) caused CSs in the separate isolation room. A total of 219 SPPs (56.30%) were male. The mean age of SPPs was 4.34 ± 3.92 years old, and the mean CT value was 12.44 ± 5.11. In total, 9952 samples with exposure history were taken, including 204 (2.05%) CSs. Among the CSs, the positive rate of flat surfaces was the highest in public areas (2.52%) and separate isolation rooms (4.75%). Disinfection methods of ultraviolet radiation + chemical irradiation significantly reduced the CSs in both the public area (0% vs. 4.56%) and the separate isolation room (0.76% vs. 2.64%) compared with the chemical method alone (P < 0.05). Compared with ordinary SPPs, CRPs were older (6.04 year vs. 4.23 year), and the male proportion was higher (72.73% vs. 55.31%). In particular, it was found that SPPs contaminated their surroundings and therefore imposed risks on other people. Environmental disinfection with ultraviolet radiation + chemical treatment should be emphasized. The findings may be useful to guide infection control practices for the Omicron BA.2.2 variant of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Female , Disinfection , Fomites , Ultraviolet Rays , China
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 879: 163007, 2023 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276142

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet irradiation C (UVC) has emerged as an effective strategy for microbial control in indoor public spaces. UVC is commonly applied for air, surface, and water disinfection. Unlike common 254 nm UVC, far-UVC at 222 nm is considered non-harmful to human health, being safe for occupied spaces, and still effective for disinfection purposes. Therefore, and allied to the urgency to mitigate the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, an increase in UVC-based technology devices appeared in the market with levels of pathogens reduction higher than 99.9 %. This environmentally friendly technology has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of traditional chemical-based disinfection approaches. The novel UVC-based devices were thought to be used in public indoor spaces such as hospitals, schools, and public transport to minimize the risk of pathogens contamination and propagation, saving costs by reducing manual cleaning and equipment maintenance provided by manpower. However, a lack of information about UVC-based parameters and protocols for disinfection, and controversies regarding health and environmental risks still exist. In this review, fundamentals on UVC disinfection are presented. Furthermore, a deep analysis of UVC-based technologies available in the market for the disinfection of public spaces is addressed, as well as their advantages and limitations. This comprehensive analysis provides valuable inputs and strategies for the development of effective, reliable, and safe UVC disinfection systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfection , Humans , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Rays
15.
J Biophotonics ; 16(4): e202200306, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274877

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 appeared in December 2019, needing efforts of science. Besides, a range of light therapies (photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet [UV], laser) has shown scientific alternatives to conventional decontamination therapies. Investigating the efficacy of light-based therapies for environment decontamination against SARS-CoV2, a PRISMA systematic review of Phototherapies against SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV species discussing changes in viral RT-PCR was done. After searching MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde we have found studies about cell cultures irradiation (18), blood components irradiation (10), N95 masks decontamination (03), inanimate surface decontamination (03), aerosols decontamination (03), hospital rooms irradiation (01) with PDT, LED, and UV therapy. The best quality results showed an effective low time and dose UV irradiation for environments and inanimate surfaces without human persons as long as the devices have safety elements dependent on the surfaces, viral charge, humidity, radiant exposure. To interpersonal contamination in humans, PDT or LED therapy seems very promising and are encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Decontamination/methods , RNA, Viral , Phototherapy , Ultraviolet Rays
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253939

ABSTRACT

Improving the cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces is one of the core components of reducing healthcare-associated infections. The effectiveness of an enhanced protocol applying UV-C irradiation for terminal room disinfection between two successive patients was evaluated. Twenty high-touch surfaces in different critical areas were sampled according to ISO 14698-1, both immediately pre- and post-cleaning and disinfection standard operating protocol (SOP) and after UV-C disinfection (160 sampling sites in each condition, 480 in total). Dosimeters were applied at the sites to assess the dose emitted. A total of 64.3% (103/160) of the sampling sites tested after SOP were positive, whereas only 17.5% (28/160) were positive after UV-C. According to the national hygienic standards for health-care setting, 9.3% (15/160) resulted in being non-compliant after SOP and only 1.2% (2/160) were non-compliant after UV-C disinfection. Operation theaters was the setting that resulted in being less compliant with the standard limit (≤15 colony-forming unit/24 cm2) after SOP (12%, 14/120 sampling sites) and where the UV-C treatment showed the highest effectiveness (1.6%, 2/120). The addition of UV-C disinfection to the standard cleaning and disinfection procedure had effective results in reducing hygiene failures.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Robotics , Humans , Disinfection/methods , Xenon , Hospitals , Ultraviolet Rays
17.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 22(5): 991-1009, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251973

ABSTRACT

There are several connections between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), solar UV radiation, and the Montreal Protocol. Exposure to ambient solar UV radiation inactivates SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. An action spectrum describing the wavelength dependence of the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by UV and visible radiation has recently been published. In contrast to action spectra that have been assumed in the past for estimating the effect of UV radiation on SARS-CoV-2, the new action spectrum has a large sensitivity in the UV-A (315-400 nm) range. If this "UV-A tail" is correct, solar UV radiation could be much more efficient in inactivating the virus responsible for COVID-19 than previously thought. Furthermore, the sensitivity of inactivation rates to the total column ozone would be reduced because ozone absorbs only a small amount of UV-A radiation. Using solar simulators, the times for inactivating SARS-CoV-2 have been determined by several groups; however, many measurements are affected by poorly defined experimental setups. The most reliable data suggest that 90% of viral particles embedded in saliva are inactivated within ~ 7 min by solar radiation for a solar zenith angle (SZA) of 16.5° and within ~ 13 min for a SZA of 63.4°. Slightly longer inactivation times were found for aerosolised virus particles. These times can become considerably longer during cloudy conditions or if virus particles are shielded from solar radiation. Many publications have provided evidence of an inverse relationship between ambient solar UV radiation and the incidence or severity of COVID-19, but the reasons for these negative correlations have not been unambiguously identified and could also be explained by confounders, such as ambient temperature, humidity, visible radiation, daylength, temporal changes in risk and disease management, and the proximity of people to other people. Meta-analyses of observational studies indicate inverse associations between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity or severity of COVID-19, although the quality of these studies is largely low. Mendelian randomisation studies have not found statistically significant evidence of a causal effect of 25(OH)D concentration on COVID-19 susceptibility or severity, but a potential link between vitamin D status and disease severity cannot be excluded as some randomised trials suggest that vitamin D supplementation is beneficial for people admitted to a hospital. Several studies indicate significant positive associations between air pollution and COVID-19 incidence and fatality rates. Conversely, well-established cohort studies indicate no association between long-term exposure to air pollution and infection with SARS-CoV-2. By limiting increases in UV radiation, the Montreal Protocol has also suppressed the inactivation rates of pathogens exposed to UV radiation. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the expected larger inactivation rates without the Montreal Protocol would have had tangible consequences on the progress of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Ozone/analysis , Vitamin D
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 452: 131292, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268830

ABSTRACT

Microbial safety in water has always been the focus of attention, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Development of green, efficient and safe disinfection technology is the key to control the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Here, an in situ aquatic electrode KrCl excimer radiation with main emission wavelength 222 nm (UV222) was designed and used to disinfect model waterborne virus and bacteria, i.e. phage MS2, E. coli and S. aureus. High inactivation efficacy and diversity of inactivation mechanisms of UV222 were proved by comparision with those of commercial UV254. UV222 could totally inactivate MS2, E. coli and S. aureus with initial concentrations of ∼107 PFU or CFU mL-1 within 20, 15, and 36 mJ/cm2, respectively. The UV dose required by UV254 to inactivate the same logarithmic pathogenic microorganism is at least twice that of UV222. The protein, genomic and cell membrane irreparable damage contributed to the microbial inactivation by UV222, but UV254 only act on nucleic acid of the target microorganisms. We found that UV222 damage nucleic acid with almost the same or even higher efficacy with UV254. In addition, free base damage of UV222 in similar ways with UV254(dimer and hydrate). But due to the quantum yield of free base degradation of UV222 was greater than UV254, the photolysis rates of UV222 to A, G, C and U four bases were 11.5, 1.2, 3.2 and 1 times as those of UV254, respectively. Excellent disinfection performance in UV222 irradiation was also achieved in real water matrices (WWTP and Lake). In addition, it was proved that coexisting HCO3- or HPO42 - in real and synthetic water matrices can produce • OH to promote UV222 disinfection. This study provided novel insight into the UV222 disinfection process and demonstrated its possibility to take place of the conventional ultraviolet mercury lamp in water purification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Purification , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Staphylococcus aureus , Pandemics , Disinfection , Water
19.
Food Environ Virol ; 15(2): 123-130, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268774

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 contaminated items in the cold chain becomes a threat to public health, therefore the effective and safe sterilization method fit for the low temperature is needed. Ultraviolet is an effective sterilization method while its effect on SARS-CoV-2 under low-temperature environment is unclear. In this research, the sterilization effect of high-intensity ultraviolet-C (HIUVC) irradiation against SARS-CoV-2 and Staphylococcus aureus on different carriers at 4 °C and - 20 °C was investigated. The results showed that dose of 15.3 mJ/cm2 achieved more than 3 log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 on gauze at 4 °C and - 20 °C. The vulnerability of coronavirus to HIUVC under - 20 °C was not significantly different than those under 4 °C. Four models including Weibull, biphasic, log-linear tail and log linear were used to fit the survival curves of SARS-CoV-2 and Staphylococcus aureus. The biphasic model fitted best with R2 ranging from 0.9325 to 0.9878. Moreover, the HIUVC sterilization correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and Staphylococcus aureus was established. This paper provides data support for the employment of HIUVC under low-temperature environment. Also, it provides a method of using Staphylococcus aureus as a marker to evaluate the sterilization effect of cold chain sterilization equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Temperature , Refrigeration , Ultraviolet Rays
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various studies support the inverse correlation between solar exposure and Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection. In Spain, from the Canary Islands to the northern part of the country, the global incidence of COVID-19 is different depending on latitude, which could be related to different meteorological conditions such as temperature, humidity, and ultraviolet index (UVI). The objective of the present work was to analyze the association between UVI, other relevant environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, and the incidence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 at different latitudes in Spain. METHODS: An observational prospective study was conducted, recording the numbers of new cases, hospitalizations, patients in critical units, mortality rates, and annual variations related to UVI, temperature, and humidity in five different provinces of Spain from January 2020 to February 2021. RESULTS: Statistically significant inverse correlations (Spearman coefficients) were observed between UVI, temperature, annual changes, and the incidence of COVID-19 cases at almost all latitudes. CONCLUSION: Higher ultraviolet radiation levels and mean temperatures could contribute to reducing COVID-19 incidence, hospitalizations, and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humidity , Temperature , Spain/epidemiology , Ultraviolet Rays , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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