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1.
Psychol Med ; 53(7): 2808-2819, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine: whether young adults (aged 18-24) not in education, employment or training (NEET) have different psychological treatment outcomes to other young adults; any socio-demographic or treatment-related moderators of differential outcomes; and whether service-level changes are associated with better outcomes for those who are NEET. METHODS: A cohort was formed of 20 293 young adults treated with psychological therapies in eight Improving Access to Psychological Therapies services. Pre-treatment characteristics, outcomes, and moderators of differential outcomes were compared for those who were and were not NEET. Associations between outcomes and the following were assessed for those that were NEET: missing fewer sessions, attending more sessions, having a recorded diagnosis, and waiting fewer days between referral and starting treatment. RESULTS: Those who were NEET had worse outcomes: odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for reliable recovery = 0.68 (0.63-0.74), for deterioration = 1.41 (1.25-1.60), and for attrition = 1.31 (1.19-1.43). Ethnic minority participants that were NEET had better outcomes than those that were White and NEET. Living in deprived areas was associated with worse outcomes. The intensity of treatment (high or low) did not moderate outcomes, but having more sessions was associated with improved outcomes for those that were NEET: odds (per one-session increase) of reliable recovery = 1.10 (1.08-1.12), deterioration = 0.94 (0.91-0.98), and attrition = 0.68 (0.66-0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier treatment, supporting those that are NEET to attend sessions, and in particular, offering them more sessions before ending treatment might be effective in improving clinical outcomes. Additional support when working with White young adults that are NEET and those in more deprived areas may also be important.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Unemployment , Humans , Young Adult , Minority Groups , Employment , Treatment Outcome
2.
Int J Soc Determinants Health Health Serv ; 53(3): 311-322, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239578

ABSTRACT

Social protection can buffer the negative impacts of unemployment on health. Have stimulus packages introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic mitigated potential harms to health from unemployment? We performed a systematic review of the health effects of job loss during the first year of the pandemic. We searched three electronic databases and identified 49 studies for inclusion. Three United States-based studies found that stimulus programs mitigated the impact of job loss on food security and mental health. Furloughs additionally appeared to reduce negative impacts when they were paid. However, despite the implementation of large-scale stimulus packages to reduce economic harms, we observed a clear pattern that job losses were nevertheless significantly associated with negative impacts, particularly on mental health, quality of life, and food security. We also observe suggestive evidence that COVID-related job loss was associated with child maltreatment, worsening dental health, and poor chronic disease outcomes. Overall, although we did find evidence that income-support policies appeared to help protect people from the negative health consequences of pandemic-related job loss, they were not sufficient to fully offset the threats to health. Future research should ascertain how to ensure adequate access to and generosity of social protection programs during epidemics and economic downturns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Unemployment/psychology , Mental Health
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241138

ABSTRACT

Not much is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the labor market experiences of people with disabilities. Since they constitute a generally disadvantaged group in the labor market, it is important to scrutinize whether their position has worsened during these difficult times and how they reacted with regard to their job search behavior. We therefore used data for the year 2020 from a large German panel (Panel Arbeitsmarkt und Soziale Sicherung, PASS), in order to scrutinize the prevalence of unemployment among people with disabilities (N = 739) during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The factors that affected their unemployment status were also analyzed. The study found that people with legally recognized disabilities were more often unemployed than non-disabled people, even when controlling for possible confounding factors such as age, gender, or education. This effect was significant for severe disabilities and marginally significant for minor disabilities. Additionally, the type of disability affected the probability of being unemployed, with cardiovascular diseases, mental illnesses, and musculoskeletal disorders carrying a higher risk. In terms of job-seeking behavior, unemployed people with disabilities reported using some job search methods more frequently than their non-disabled counterparts. However, the intensity of the job search did not differ significantly between the two groups. Further differences were found when analyzing the reasons for abstinence from searching for a job, with unemployed people with disabilities primarily citing health-related factors (with a frequency of over 90%). In summary, health played a pivotal role in determining disabled people's labor market experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Humans , Unemployment , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Educational Status
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 328: 115973, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To buffer the economic impacts of the pandemic-induced economic downturns, the U.S. government passed major economic stimulus bills that provided cash payments to affected citizens and a large boost to unemployment benefits. We ask what impact these enhanced safety-net policies have had on mental health and stress-induced substance use among low-income Americans, especially enhanced unemployment insurance (UI) benefits, which constituted a large economic transfer to those eligible. METHODS: Using individual fixed effects analysis of a panel of nearly 900 low-income Americans since the start of the pandemic from the Understanding America Survey, we examine how receipt of enhanced unemployment benefits has impacted the mental health burden and substance use behaviors of low-income Americans. We additionally examine the buffering effect of a set of other safety-net measures (Stimulus, Medicaid, SNAP, TANF, housing assistance, EITC, WIC, and CHIP). RESULTS: We found that job loss, regardless of benefit receipt, was associated with increased stress and decreased average substance use, driven by reduced smoking when compared with those were employed. Yet, when factoring in UI receipt we see that receiving UI was associated with reduced stress, but no impact on depression or substance use. In contrast, those who did not receive UI experienced greater stress compared with those who were employed. Overall, we found that people who remained employed used substances more than people who were unemployed regardless of UI receipt with the exception of drinking. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that enhanced unemployment offset some of the negative mental health effects of the pandemic and did not increase routine substance use among the unemployed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unemployment , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
5.
JAMA ; 329(9): 701-702, 2023 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311190

ABSTRACT

This Medical News article discusses new research on the association between long COVID and employment status.


Subject(s)
Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Unemployment , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/economics , Employment/economics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/economics , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1124151, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296400

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantify the effect of the unemployment created by COVID-19 on access to (sales of) statin drugs in the United States population. Methods: Approximately half a billion transactions for statin drugs in the United States between January 2018 and September 2020 are analyzed. We studied the potential causal relation between abnormal levels of unemployment during the first wave of COVID-19 in the U.S. and abnormal levels of sales of statin products (both variables defined at the state/week level). Variables are analyzed using the Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) method, which exploits comparisons of statin sales between states where, given the occupational distribution of their workforce, unemployment was more structurally vulnerable to mobility restrictions derived from COVID-19 against states where it was less structurally vulnerable. Results: While we do not find unemployment effects on statin sales on most of the population, our estimates link COVID-fueled unemployment with a sharp sales reduction among Medicaid-insured populations, particularly those in working age. For the period between March and August of 2020, these estimates imply a 31% drop of statin sales among this population. Discussion: COVID-fueled unemployment may have had a negative and significant effect on access to statin populations among Medicaid-insured populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Unemployment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Medicaid , Workforce
7.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103320, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274776

ABSTRACT

Similar to other countries, the Japanese government quickly undertook preventative measures against increasing suicides during the pandemic, but could not suppress the increase. Suicide mortality among both sexes under 20 and females aged 20-39 significantly increased during the pandemic, but unexpectedly had already slowed decreasing trends before the pandemic onset. Furthermore, before the pandemic, a higher complete unemployment rate contributed to increasing suicide mortality of both sexes, whereas during the pandemic, the positive relationship between females suicide mortalities and complete unemployment rates was not observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Unemployment , Pandemics
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e2256152, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244173

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about the functional correlates of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), also known as long COVID, particularly the relevance of neurocognitive symptoms. Objective: To characterize prevalence of unemployment among individuals who did, or did not, develop PCC after acute infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used data from 8 waves of a 50-state US nonprobability internet population-based survey of respondents aged 18 to 69 years conducted between February 2021 and July 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were self-reported current employment status and the presence of PCC, defined as report of continued symptoms at least 2 months beyond initial month of symptoms confirmed by a positive COVID-19 test. Results: The cohort included 15 308 survey respondents with test-confirmed COVID-19 at least 2 months prior, of whom 2236 (14.6%) reported PCC symptoms, including 1027 of 2236 (45.9%) reporting either brain fog or impaired memory. The mean (SD) age was 38.8 (13.5) years; 9679 respondents (63.2%) identified as women and 10 720 (70.0%) were White. Overall, 1418 of 15 308 respondents (9.3%) reported being unemployed, including 276 of 2236 (12.3%) of those with PCC and 1142 of 13 071 (8.7%) of those without PCC; 8229 respondents (53.8%) worked full-time, including 1017 (45.5%) of those with PCC and 7212 (55.2%) without PCC. In survey-weighted regression models excluding retired respondents, the presence of PCC was associated with a lower likelihood of working full-time (odds ratio [OR], 0.71 [95% CI, 0.63-0.80]; adjusted OR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.74-0.96]) and with a higher likelihood of being unemployed (OR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.22-1.73]; adjusted OR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.02-1.48]). The presence of any cognitive symptom was associated with lower likelihood of working full time (OR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.56-0.88]; adjusted OR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.59-0.84]). Conclusions and Relevance: PCC was associated with a greater likelihood of unemployment and lesser likelihood of working full time in adjusted models. The presence of cognitive symptoms was associated with diminished likelihood of working full time. These results underscore the importance of developing strategies to treat and manage PCC symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Employment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 950965, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235330

ABSTRACT

A series of aggressive restrictive measures were adopted around the world in 2020-2022 to attempt to prevent SARS-CoV-2 from spreading. However, it has become increasingly clear the most aggressive (lockdown) response strategies may involve negative side-effects such as a steep increase in poverty, hunger, and inequalities. Several economic, educational, and health repercussions have fallen disproportionately on children, students, young workers, and especially on groups with pre-existing inequalities such as low-income families, ethnic minorities, and women. This has led to a vicious cycle of rising inequalities and health issues. For example, educational and financial security decreased along with rising unemployment and loss of life purpose. Domestic violence surged due to dysfunctional families being forced to spend more time with each other. In the current narrative and scoping review, we describe macro-dynamics that are taking place because of aggressive public health policies and psychological tactics to influence public behavior, such as mass formation and crowd behavior. Coupled with the effect of inequalities, we describe how these factors can interact toward aggravating ripple effects. In light of evidence regarding the health, economic and social costs, that likely far outweigh potential benefits, the authors suggest that, first, where applicable, aggressive lockdown policies should be reversed and their re-adoption in the future should be avoided. If measures are needed, these should be non-disruptive. Second, it is important to assess dispassionately the damage done by aggressive measures and offer ways to alleviate the burden and long-term effects. Third, the structures in place that have led to counterproductive policies should be assessed and ways should be sought to optimize decision-making, such as counteracting groupthink and increasing the level of reflexivity. Finally, a package of scalable positive psychology interventions is suggested to counteract the damage done and improve humanity's prospects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 952363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199454

ABSTRACT

The global economy has been hard hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Many countries are experiencing a severe and destructive recession. A significant number of firms and businesses have gone bankrupt or been scaled down, and many individuals have lost their jobs. The main goal of this study is to support policy- and decision-makers with additional and real-time information about the labor market flow using Twitter data. We leverage the data to trace and nowcast the unemployment rate of South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, we create a dataset of unemployment-related tweets using certain keywords. Principal Component Regression (PCR) is then applied to nowcast the unemployment rate using the gathered tweets and their sentiment scores. Numerical results indicate that the volume of the tweets has a positive correlation, and the sentiments of the tweets have a negative correlation with the unemployment rate during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the now-casted unemployment rate using PCR has an outstanding evaluation result with a low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Symmetric MAPE (SMAPE) of 0.921, 0.018, 0.018, respectively and a high R2-score of 0.929.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology , Unemployment
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2451, 2022 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unemployment is known to involve various psychosocial challenges that can negatively impact mental health. However, the intricacies of how individuals experience these challenges and strive to cope within the context of varied sociocultural and individuating factors, remain comparatively understudied. The present qualitative study used an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of mental health and coping during unemployment. METHODS: Fifteen Australian adults who had recently experienced unemployment (for ≥3 months in the last 2 years), despite being available for and able to work, participated in semi-structured interviews from August to September 2021. Maximum variation sampling ensured participants represented diverse sociodemographic backgrounds. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis within NVivo12 software. RESULTS: Four major themes were identified: 1) disrupted identity and direction in life; 2) navigating conflicting views of contribution and progress; 3) knowing how to cope is not enough; and 4) unemployment as a catalyst for new understandings. Unemployment disrupted participants' sense of purpose, identity and visions for the future. It signified a perceived failure to meet societal standards of value based upon the economic functions of work, which participants struggled to reconcile with their own priorities for work that satisfied psychosocial needs. Participants were aware of effective coping strategies, although these had mixed positive and negative effects on mental health, or were difficult to mobilise during unemployment. The COVID-19 pandemic, while normalising unemployment to some degree, exacerbated future uncertainty and prevented engagement with known coping strategies (e.g., social interaction). However, unemployment could also instigate growth through re-defining markers of achievement, re-aligning goals with one's core values, and developing greater compassion. CONCLUSIONS: Experiences of mental health and coping during unemployment share complex relationships both with each other and with broader personal and sociocultural contexts. Service providers may better meet the mental health needs of those experiencing unemployment by balancing the economic and psychosocial functions of work, understanding that coping is a wholistic issue that goes beyond knowledge of effective strategies, and being aware of the opportunities for self-development that unemployment can create.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Unemployment , Australia , Adaptation, Psychological , Qualitative Research
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 789396, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142306

ABSTRACT

This case study illustrates the role and value of a social needs response team during times of crisis and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in two simultaneous crises-the infectious disease crisis and the socioeconomic crisis. Unemployment and lost wages, housing and food insecurity, and increased childcare needs are just a few examples of the socioeconomic needs that skyrocketed during the COVID-19 pandemic. At the start of the pandemic, the University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS) formed an interdisciplinary team of physicians, social workers, nurse practitioners and students of these professions to reimagine social needs screening in a way that could reach people during the pandemic and provide sustainable support for individual's evolving social needs. The Social Needs Response Team (SNRT) at UPHS utilized various secure platforms to keep members of the team connected with each other and their patients. Orientations for participating students included training on how to employ principles of crisis intervention theory, empathetic inquiry, and patient-led and family-centered care to best uncover and serve the needs of their patients. Alongside the illustrative case study, this piece details guiding principles and concepts that are essential to integrating social needs targeted care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Unemployment , Students
13.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0275422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140569

ABSTRACT

Unemployment is an essential problem for developing countries, which has a direct and major role in economy of a country. Understanding the pattrens of unemployment rate is critical now a days and has drawn attention of researcher from all fields of study across the globe. As unemployment plays an important role in the planning of a country's monetary progress for policymakers and researcher. Determining the unemployment rate efficiently required an advance modeling approach. Recently,numerous studies have relied on traditional testing methods to estimate the unemployment rate. Unemployment is usually nonstationary in nature. As a result, demonstrating them using traditional methods will lead to unpredictable results. It needs a hybrid approach to deal with the prediction of unemployment rate in order to deal with the issue associated with traditional techniques. This research primary goal is to examine the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on the unemployment rate in selected countries of Asia through advanced hybrid modeling approach, using unemployment data of seven developing countries of Asian: Iran, Sri Lanka; Bangladesh; Pakistan; Indonesia; China; and India,and compare the results with conventional modeling approaches. Finding shows that the hybrid ARIMA-ARNN model outperformed over its competitors for Asia developing economies. In addition, the best fitted model was utilised to predict five years ahead unemployment rate. According to the findings, unemployment will rise significantly in developing economies in the next years, and this will have a particularly severe impact on the region's economies that aren't yet developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Unemployment , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Pandemics , Pakistan/epidemiology
14.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(11): e41689, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the general public was concerned about the mental health impacts of unemployment due to COVID-19 and the stress essential workers experienced during this time. Several reports indicated that people in distress were turning to digital technology, but there was little evidence about the impact of these tools on mitigating distress. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to determine the acceptability, feasibility, usability, and effectiveness of mobile mental health apps for decreasing mental health symptoms in essential workers and unemployed individuals with suicide risk. METHODS: We recruited participants who indicated that they were unemployed because of COVID-19 or were COVID-19-designated essential workers. Participants were randomized to 1 of 4 free commercial mobile apps for managing distress that were (1) highly rated by PsyberGuide and (2) met the criteria for intervention features these participants indicated were desirable in a previous survey. Participants used the apps for 4 weeks and completed baseline and 4-week self-assessments of depression, anxiety emotional regulation, and suicide risk. RESULTS: We found no differences between the apps in any outcome but did find significant changes in depression and anxiety over time (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9: estimate=-1.5, SE 0.2, 95% CI -1.1 to -1.8, P<.001; Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale [GAD]-7: estimate=-1.3, SE 0.2, 95% CI -1.0 to -1.6, P<.001). We found no significant changes in suicidal behavior (Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised [SBQ-R]) or emotional regulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale - Short Form [DERS-SF]) for the 4 weeks. We did find a significant dose-response pattern for changes in depression and anxiety. Using the app at least once a week resulted in greater improvements in treatment conditions over time on depression (estimate=-0.6, SE 0.2, 95% CI 1.0-0.2, P=.003) and anxiety (estimate=0.1, SE 0.2, 95% CI 0.4-0.6, P=.78). There was no association between app frequency and changes in suicidal behavior (SBQ-R) or emotional regulation (DERS-SF). We further found a significant difference between the conditions with regard to app usability, with the control app being the most usable (meanBeautiful Mood 72.9, SD 16.7; meanCOVID Coach 71.2, SD 15.4; meanCalm 66.8, SD 17.3; mean7 Cups 65.2, SD 17.7). We found no significant differences for app acceptability or appropriateness. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have evaluated prospectively the utility and usability of commercial apps for mood. This study found that free, self-guided commercial mobile mental health apps are seen as usable, but no one app is superior to the other. Although we found that regular use is indicated for effects on depression and anxiety to occur in those who are more symptomatic, regression to the mean cannot be ruled out. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04536935; https://tinyurl.com/mr36zx3s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Humans , Mental Health , Unemployment , Pandemics
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1598-1606, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109345

ABSTRACT

Research demonstrates that receiving unemployment insurance decreases mental health problems. But researchers have also found racial and ethnic disparities in unemployment insurance receipt resulting from differences in work history and location. We examined a population disproportionately affected by job loss and unemployment insurance exclusions, using a survey of service workers from a single city who were parents of young children and who overwhelmingly had eligible work histories. During the COVID-19 pandemic, workers not identifying as White non-Hispanic in our sample were more likely to get laid off than White workers. Among those who were laid off, these workers and White workers experienced similar increases in material and mental health difficulties and similar gains when they received unemployment insurance. However, these workers were less likely than White workers to receive unemployment insurance at all. These results indicate that unemployment insurance has unrealized potential to reduce material and health disparities. Policies should be implemented to make this coverage more effective and equitable through increased access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , United States , Child, Preschool , Healthcare Disparities , Unemployment , Insurance, Health
16.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1590-1597, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109344

ABSTRACT

Unemployment rates soared at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US, increasing financial stress that can affect physical and mental health. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is the primary cash assistance program for low-income families in the US, with benefits conditional on work activities and subject to suspension. However, many states loosened requirements during the pandemic. Using TANF policy data and data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from the period January 2017-December 2020 with a triple-difference design, we found a general protective effect of supportive changes to TANF on poor physical and mental health days and binge drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic for likely TANF participants. For example, providing emergency cash benefits to those not already participating in TANF, waiving work requirements, waiving or pausing sanctions, and automatically recertifying benefits were associated with reductions in the number of mentally unhealthy days. This study provides support for increasing generosity and easing administrative burdens in safety-net programs to buffer against negative impacts of public health and economic crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Welfare , Humans , United States , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Unemployment , Public Assistance
17.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275095, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098741

ABSTRACT

Using data from all those born in a single week in 1958 in Britain we track associations between short pain and chronic pain in mid-life (age 44) and subsequent health, wellbeing and labor market outcomes in later life. We focus on data taken at age 50 in 2008, when the Great Recession hit and then five years later at age 55 in 2013 and again at age 62 in 2021 during the Covid pandemic. We find those suffering both short-term and chronic pain at age 44 continue to report pain and poor general health in their 50s and 60s. However, the associations are much stronger for those with chronic pain. Furthermore, chronic pain at age 44 is associated with a range of poor mental health outcomes, pessimism about the future and joblessness at age 55 whereas short-duration pain at age 44 is not. Pain has strong predictive power for pain later in life: pain in childhood predicts pain in mid-life, even when one controls for pain in early adulthood. Pain appears to reflect other vulnerabilities as we find that chronic pain at age 44 predicts whether or not a respondent has Covid nearly twenty years later.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Child Development , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unemployment
18.
JAMA ; 328(16): 1639-1641, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094108

ABSTRACT

This study examines changes in unemployment among US health care workers from January 2015 to April 2022, before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Health Workforce , Unemployment , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(9): 726-730, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077939

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to determine relationships between lockdowns and excess mortality, unemployment, and employment growth. METHODS: Each US states' mortality data for 2020 were compared with the prior 3 years to determine excess mortality. Data were compared using measures of lockdowns, or state openness scores and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and cardiovascular disease. Comparisons were made with unemployment rates and employment growth rates. RESULTS: The 2020 excess mortality ranged from -9% to 46%. The average openness score was not significant ( P = 0.20). However, openness was strongly associated with both unemployment ( P = 0.01) and employment growth ( P = 0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistical relationship between excess mortality and openness scores, while there were strong relationships with employment measures. These results suggest that lockdowns are not sufficiently beneficial for future use in this pandemic and raise concerns for use in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Unemployment , Communicable Disease Control , Employment , Humans , Mortality , Pandemics
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus on the social determinants of Deaths of Despair (DoD), i.e., an increase in mortality attributed to drug overdose, alcohol-related liver disease, and suicide in the United States (USA) during recent years. The objective of this study was to review the scientific literature on DoD with the purpose of identifying relevant social determinants and inequalities related to these mortality trends. METHODS: Scoping review focusing on the period 2015-2022 based on PubMed search. Articles were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: published between 1 January 2000 and 31 October 2021; including empirical data; analyzed DoD including the three causes defined by Case and Deaton; analyzed at least one social determinant; written in English; and studied DoD in the USA context only. Studies were excluded if they only analyzed adolescent populations. We synthesized our findings in a narrative report specifically addressing DoD by economic conditions, occupational hazards, educational level, geographical setting, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included. Overall, findings identify a progressive increase in deaths attributable to suicide, drug overdose, and alcohol-related liver disease in the USA in the last two decades. The literature concerning DoD and social determinants is relatively scarce and some determinants have been barely studied. However different, however, large inequalities have been identified in the manner in which the causes of death embedded in the concept of DoD affect different subpopulations, particularly African American, and Hispanic populations, but blue collar-whites are also significantly impacted. Low socioeconomic position and education levels and working in jobs with high insecurity, unemployment, and living in rural areas were identified as the most relevant social determinants of DoD. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for further research on the structural and intermediate social determinants of DoD and social mechanisms. Intersectional and systemic approaches are needed to better understand and tackle DoD and related inequalities.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Liver Diseases , Suicide , Adolescent , Humans , Social Determinants of Health , Unemployment , United States/epidemiology
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