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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114898, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061786

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, various measures have been implemented to prevent the spread of infection, including restrictions on human mobility. A dynamic fluctuation in the number of suicides has been observed during this period. The question is whether the increase/decrease in suicides during the pandemic is related to changes in human mobility. To answer the same, we estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) of suicide for changes in human mobility using the relative number of suicides by month from March 2020 to September 2021, based on the same months in 2019 as reference. The IRR of suicide during the pandemic were significantly lower in the months when mobility decreased-in both the previous and current month-than in the months when mobility was stable; the IRR of suicide were statistically higher in the months with increased mobility compared with the stable months. The burden from a decrease in one's mobility, which might lead to an increase in suicide, may not occur immediately, as seen in the delayed effects of unemployment. It may be important to investigate people's mental health and stress levels after pandemic restrictions were relaxed. The findings may help practitioners and families consider the timing of intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Pandemics , Japan/epidemiology , Unemployment/psychology
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 316: 114774, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036449

ABSTRACT

This study estimated the excess suicidal mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. A Poisson regression model was used to assess the association between unemployment rates, expenditure for alcohol, eating out, and suicide, from January 2008 to March 2020. The excess suicidal mortality was assessed by applying the identified model to data from April 2020 to December 2021. The number of estimated excess deaths during COVID-19 was 3397 in men and 2390 in women. COVID-19 may have caused unprecedented psychological distress among people, owing to restricted social gatherings and prolonged uncertainties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Suicide/psychology , Unemployment/psychology
3.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 25(3): 79-89, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lack of work appeared to be linked to several symptoms related to poor mental health. Likewise, the reverse relationship, namely the influence of poor mental health on the risk of job loss, has also been analysed, i.e. distress could lead to a poorer work performance culminating in potential job loss. Thus, the bidirectional nature of the relationship between unemployment and mental health makes the accurate estimation of causal relationships a complex matter, leaving room for additional research on the subject. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this research is to analyse the influence that unemployment could have on mental health taking into account the bidirectional nature that exists between both concepts. METHODS: In order to tackle the causal effect of being unemployed on mental health, we present a biprobit model taking into account the presence of dummy endogenous regressors and we compare these results with those obtained from a standard univariate probit. Our identification strategy exploits geographical information on the unemployment rates as instrument. We use Spanish cross-sectional data from the 2006, 2011 and 2017 years. RESULTS: Based on the results, the paper concludes that unemployed persons in Spain could be subject to a 5.4% higher probability of suffering symptoms related to a common mental disorder (versus 11% obtained using a standard probit). DISCUSSION: The results obtained confirm a negative impact of unemployment situation on mental health. In other words, the probability of unemployed people suffering a mental disorder seems superior to that for individuals with a job. Moreover, the marginal effect obtained from a univariate probit model without the possibility of controlling the mental health selection effects, proves the existence of a problem of simultaneity that would have overestimated the effect of being unemployed on mental health. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION: It is hoped that the conclusions obtained here prove useful in the implementation of specific mental health care provision aimed at unemployed people. In this context, the evidence obtained should result in the incorporation of health assistance as an essential part in response to the needs of this collective. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: These special needs of unemployed people should be contemplated not only from a health care provision but also as part of a broader system that incorporates the mental health care of unemployed persons as part of more general public health policies. Finally, these results suggest that mental health-related objectives should be considered when planning, implementing, and evaluating active labour market policies for the unemployed. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: The length and severity of the last recession, together with the risks associated with the global crisis resulting from COVID-19, reiterate the obvious concerns about the consequences of economic crises and unemployment on personal mental health. In this context, our study could be a step forward in the study of the causal relationships between unemployment and mental health when new data are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Unemployment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , Unemployment/psychology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14898, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016841

ABSTRACT

Job loss is a stressful event that increases the risk of experiencing depression and anxiety, especially during the initial months of unemployment. This study examined differences in psychological symptoms and resilient functioning accounted by employment status. The results pointed out that recently unemployed compared to currently employed individuals had lower levels of perceived controllability and resilience as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety. Path analyses showed that lower controllability appraisals at wave 1 of recently unemployed compared to employed individuals, in turn, predicted a lower use of active coping and reappraisal at wave 2, with the latter further accounting for lower levels in resilience. Higher use of distraction further mediated the relation between employment status and higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Our findings demonstrate the importance of controllability appraisals and coping strategies used to promote adaptive psychological functioning following job loss.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Employment/psychology , Humans , Unemployment/psychology
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1614, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Every year, more than 700,000 people die due to suicide, one of the most common reasons for youth death. While many studies have revealed two main factors for suicidal behavior: impulsive suicidal behavior due to mental illness and financial stress, it is not clear what happens if individuals face deterioration of mental health and economic recession. This paper attempts to answer this question and how suicide rates are correlated with these factors. METHODS: We empirically investigate whether economic recessions and air pollution trigger suicides by examining Japan, a country with one of the highest suicide rates, from 2014 to 2021. We take advantage of the characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic and the periods before the pandemic, when both economic recessions and reductions in air pollution occurred simultaneously. Using monthly and municipal- level data, we construct a triple difference model that takes air pollution and unemployment as treatments. RESULTS: Our findings show that high (upper half of each period) levels of air pollution and unemployment have substantial impacts on the suicide rates of adults (22.9% in the short term) and children (42.7% in the short term, 36.0% in the long term), indicating that the increase in suicide rates among children is almost twice as high as that among adults. Our study finds that unemployment and air pollution alone are not associated with increased suicide rates but their simultaneous occurrence triggers suicides during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study urges suicide prevention, particularly among children, as an essential consideration for public health. Furthermore, our results indicate the need for the government to allocate resources to recover air quality and the economy simultaneously during a recession to reduce suicide mortality of both child and adults.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Economic Recession , Humans , Pandemics , Unemployment/psychology
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 314: 114663, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882457

ABSTRACT

This study examines the factors associated with the change in the number of suicides per month during the COVID-19 pandemic from 2019 to 2021. For economic indicators, employment and unemployment rates, Consumer Price Index, and Consumer Sentiment Index were used. As inverse indicators of social distancing, the numbers of overseas departures, domestic trips, and movie audience were used. The monthly numbers of inpatients and outpatients for depression were included to consider the effect of the prevalence of depression. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and a linear regression were conducted. There was a continued decrease in the number of suicides of 1.7% in 2021 from 2020 following the 4.4% decrease in the previous year. The employment rate was positively associated with the number of suicides for males, while the consumer price index was negatively associated with the number of suicides for females. While the inverse social distancing measures were positively correlated with the number of suicides, no significant association was observed in the regression analysis. Commonly shared thoughts that the pandemic would lead to an increase in suicides by its direct negative impact on mental health or indirect impact through the aggravation of economic conditions and social distancing need to be re-examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Research Design , Suicide/psychology , Unemployment/psychology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855611

ABSTRACT

In a follow-up to our 2021 scoping review of the quantitative literature on the impacts of economic recessions on mental health, this scoping review summarizes qualitative research to develop a descriptive understanding of the key factors that transmute the socioeconomic stressors of a recession into poorer mental health. The previous study identified 22 qualitative studies from 2008 to 2020, which were updated with search results from six databases for articles published between 2020 and 2021. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the total 335 identified studies, 13 articles were included. These were peer-reviewed, qualitative studies in developed economies, published from 2008 to 2021, and available online in English. Participants perceived that financial hardship and unemployment during recessions increased stress and led to feelings of shame, loss of structure and identity, and a perceived lack of control, which increased interpersonal conflict, social isolation, maladaptive coping, depression, self-harm, and suicidal behavior. Participants struggled with accessing health and social services and suggested reforms to improve the navigation and efficiency of services and to reduce the perceived harms of austerity measures. Providers should screen for mental distress and familiarize themselves with health and social resources in their community to help patients navigate these complex systems. Policy makers should be aware of the potential protective nature of unemployment safeguards and consider other low-cost measures to bolster mental health supports and informal social networks. Research in this area was limited. Further research would be beneficial given the impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 recession.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Recession , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Policy , Unemployment/psychology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809867

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the issue of youth unemployment has begun to emerge in China. Unemployed young people are at high risk of depression and other mental health problems. The present study investigates influential factors related to depression and examines the possible mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation and self-efficacy between perceived social support and depressive symptoms among unemployed youths in China. Through community recruitment, 511 unemployed young people from Shanghai participated in this cross-sectional survey. The results demonstrate that the prevalence of probable depression in the sample was 49.3% (95% CI: 45.0-53.7%). Moreover, we found that both the perceived social support and self-efficacy were significant negative predictors of depression, whereas difficulties in emotion regulation were positive predictors of depression. In addition, the analysis results indicate that difficulties in emotion regulation and self-efficacy partially mediate the relationship between perceived social support and depression. Overall, this cross-sectional study reveals that depression and mental health problems among China's unemployed youths are concerning while identifying emotion-regulation difficulties as a risk factor for these and social support and self-efficacy as protective factors, all of which warrant our attention in preventing and intervening with cases of youth depression.


Subject(s)
Emotional Regulation , Unemployment , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Self Efficacy , Social Support , Unemployment/psychology
10.
Child Abuse Negl ; 130(Pt 1): 105474, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for child maltreatment have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially due to economic downfalls leading to parental job losses and poor mental health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between child maltreatment and unemployment rate in the Republic of Korea. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Nationally representative data at the province level were used. METHODS: The monthly excess number of hotline calls related to child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated for each province. Fixed effects regressions was used to examine the relationship between the excess number of hotline calls and unemployment rate. RESULTS: The average excess number of hotline calls was significantly negative in the early stage of the pandemic, but became significantly positive afterwards except for some months with averages not statistically different from zero. The regression results showed that an increase of male unemployment rate by 1% was significantly associated with an increase in the excess number of hotline calls by 0.15-0.17 per 10,000 children for most dependent variables for the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical significance of female unemployment rate was mixed with the opposite sign of the coefficient to that of male unemployment. Overall unemployment rate was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that disruptions in child welfare services should be avoided to prevent underreporting of or delayed responses to suspected cases. Also, policies need to be designed considering potential pathways from economic downfalls, especially male unemployment, to child maltreatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Unemployment/psychology
11.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(10): 765-774, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate depression and sexual function among pregnant and non-pregnant women throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 188 women, 96 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant were included. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) were applied to the participants after obtaining sociodemographic data. RESULTS: The depression scores of pregnant and non-pregnant women were similar (p = 0.846). We found that the depression scores were significantly higher among the group of participants who have lower economic status (p = 0.046). Moreover, the depression score was significantly higher among women who lost their income during the pandemic (p = 0.027). The score on the ASEX was significantly higher, and sexual dysfunction was more prevalent among women who have lower levels of schooling and income (p < 0.05). Likewise, the ASEX scores were significantly higher (p = 0.019) among the group who experienced greater income loss throughout the pandemic. Upon comparing the pregnant and non-pregnant groups, we detected that sexual dysfunction had a significantly higher rate among pregnant women (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In times of global crisis, such as the current pandemic, low-income families have an increased risk of experiencing depression and sexual dysfunction. When we compared pregnant women with non-pregnant women, depression scores were similar, but pregnant women were at a 6.2 times higher risk of developing sexual dysfunction.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a depressão e as funções sexuais de mulheres grávidas e não grávidas durante a pandemia de Covid-19. MéTODOS: Um total de 188 mulheres, 96 grávidas e 92 não grávidas, foram incluídas. O Inventário de Depressão de Beck (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI, em inglês) e a Escala de Experiências Sexuais do Arizona (Arizona Sexual Experience Scale, ASEX, em inglês) foram aplicados aos participantes após a obtenção dos dados sociodemográficos. RESULTADOS: As pontuações de depressão de mulheres grávidas e não grávidas foram semelhantes (p = 0,846). Verificou-se que as pontuações de depressão foram significativamente maiores no grupo de participantes de menor nível econômico (p = 0,046). Além disso, a pontuação de depressão foi significativamente maior em mulheres que perderam sua renda durante a pandemia (p = 0,027). A pontuação na ASEX foi significativamente maior, e a disfunção sexual foi mais prevalente em pessoas com menores escolaridade e nível de renda (p < 0,05). Da mesma forma, as pontuações na ASEX foram significativamente mais altas (p = 0,019) no grupo que experimentou maior perda de renda durante a pandemia. Ao comparar os grupos de gestantes e não gestantes, detectou-se que a disfunção sexual apresentava índice significativamente maior entre as gestantes (p <0,001). CONCLUSãO: Em tempos de crise global, como a atual pandemia, famílias de baixa renda têm um risco maior de sofrer depressão e disfunção sexual. Quando comparamos mulheres grávidas e mulheres não grávidas, as pontuações de depressão foram semelhantes, mas as mulheres grávidas apresentaram um risco 6,2 vezes maior de desenvolver disfunção sexual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Factors , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Turkey/epidemiology , Unemployment/psychology , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331997

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate whether the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis varied with regards to young Swiss men's pre-crisis level of education and socioeconomic status and to changes in their work situation due to it. METHODS: A cohort of 2345 young Swiss men (from 21 out of 26 Swiss cantons; mean age = 29) completed survey-based assessments shortly before (April 2019 to February 2020) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (May to June 2020). Outcomes measured were psychological outcomes before and during the COVID-19 crisis (depression, perceived stress and sleep quality), and the fear, isolation and psychological trauma induced by it. We investigated associations between these outcomes and their predictors: pre-crisis socioeconomic status (relative financial status, difficulty paying bills, level of education), changes in work situation during the crisis (job loss, partial unemployment, working from home, change in workload) and working in contact with potentially infected people, both inside and outside the healthcare sector. For outcomes measured before and during the crisis, the analyses were adjusted for their pre-crisis levels. RESULTS: About 21% of participants changed their employment status (job loss, partial unemployment or lost money if self-employed) and more than 40% worked predominantly from home during the COVID-19 crisis. Participants with a lower relative socioeconomic status already before the crisis experienced a higher psychological impact due to the COVID-19 crisis, compared to participants with an average socioeconomic status (major depression (b = 0.12 [0.03, 0.22]), perceived stress (b = 0.15 [0.05, 0.25]), psychological trauma (b = 0.15 [0.04, 0.26]), fear (b = 0.20 [0.10, 0.30]) and isolation (b = 0.19 [0.08, 0.29])). A higher impact was also felt by participants who lost their job due to the COVID-19 crisis, the partially unemployed, those with an increased workload or those who worked mainly from home (e.g. depression b = 0.25 [0.16, 0.34] for those working 90%+ at home, compared to those not working at home). CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country like Switzerland, with relatively high social security benefits and universal healthcare, the COVID-19 crisis had a considerable psychological impact, especially among those with a lower socioeconomic status and those who experienced deteriorations in their work situation due to the COVID-19 crisis. Supporting these populations during the crisis may help to prevent an amplification of inequalities in mental health and social status. Such support could help to lower the overall impact of the crisis on the mental well-being of Switzerland's population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Men/psychology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Employment/psychology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Social Class , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland , Unemployment/psychology
15.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(5): e283-e293, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether patterns of work during COVID-19 pandemic altered by effort to contain the outbreak affected anxiety and depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 911 residents of Philadelphia, inquiring about their working lives during early months of the epidemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression, plus demographics, perceived sources of support, and general health. RESULTS: Occupational contact with suspected COVID-19 cases was associated with anxiety. Concerns about return to work, childcare, lack of sick leave, and loss/reduction in work correlated with anxiety and depression, even when there was no evidence of occupational contact with infected persons; patterns differed by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Heightened anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic can be due to widespread disruption of working lives, especially in "non-essential" low-income industries, on par with experience in healthcare.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Employment/classification , Employment/psychology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking , Unemployment/psychology
16.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(4): 518-529, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236065

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to simultaneously advance theory and practice by understanding how the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic relates to new hire engagement. Prior research suggests starting a new job is an uncertain experience; we theorize that the COVID-19 pandemic creates additional environmental stressors that affect new hire engagement. First, we hypothesize that the occurrence of COVID-19 and unemployment rates relate negatively to engagement. Second, we theorize that the effects of the pandemic become more disruptive on new hire engagement as they gain tenure within the organization. Third, drawing from strategic management theory, we test whether States that introduce stronger COVID-19 policies help enhance the engagement of new hires. Examining a U.S. national sample of 12,577 newly hired (90 days or less) quick service restaurant employees across 9 months (January-September, 2020), we find support for these hypotheses. Subsequent model comparisons suggest there may be health stressors that shape engagement more strongly than purely economic stressors. These findings may be important because they highlight the experiences of workers more likely to be exposed to the pandemic and affected by COVID-related policies. Should the results generalize to other samples and jobs, this study offers potentially new research directions for understanding relationships between macro stressors and new hire perceptions and socialization. It also offers practical implications by helping organizations understand the importance of explicitly managing job insecurity, particularly in terms of COVID-19 policy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , State Government , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Work Engagement , Workplace/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel Selection/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Unemployment/psychology , United States , Young Adult
17.
New Solut ; 31(2): 107-112, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232404

ABSTRACT

The global political economy is generating new forms and growing shares of informal, insecure, and precarious labor, adding to histories of insecure work and an externalization of social costs. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the consequences of ignoring such signals in terms of the increased risk and vulnerability of insecure labor. This paper explores how such trends are generating intersecting adverse health outcomes for workers, communities, and environments and the implications for breaking siloes and building links between the paradigms, science, practice, and tools for occupational health, public health, and eco-health. Applying the principle of controlling hazards at the source is argued in this context to call for an understanding of the upstream production and socio-political factors that are jointly affecting the nature of work and employment and their impact on the health of workers, the public, and the planet.


Subject(s)
Employment , Occupational Health/trends , Adolescent , Africa, Eastern , Africa, Southern , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Employment/standards , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Politics , Public Health , Unemployment/psychology , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/psychology , Workplace/standards , Young Adult
18.
Med J Aust ; 214(10): 462-468, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate initial levels of symptoms of depression and anxiety, and their changes during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia; to identify trajectories of symptoms of depression and anxiety; to identify factors associated with these trajectories. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal cohort study; seven fortnightly online surveys of a representative sample of 1296 Australian adults from the beginning of COVID-19-related restrictions in late March 2020 to mid-June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms of depression and anxiety, measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales; trajectories of symptom change. RESULTS: Younger age, being female, greater COVID-19-related work and social impairment, COVID-19-related financial distress, having a neurological or mental illness diagnosis, and recent adversity were each significantly associated with higher baseline depression and anxiety scores. Growth mixture models identified three latent trajectories for depression symptoms (low throughout the study, 81% of participants; moderate throughout the study, 10%; initially severe then declining, 9%) and four for anxiety symptoms (low throughout the study, 77%; initially moderate then increasing, 10%; initially moderate then declining, 5%; initially mild then increasing before again declining, 8%). Factors statistically associated with not having a low symptom trajectory included mental disorder diagnoses, COVID-19-related financial distress and social and work impairment, and bushfire exposure. CONCLUSION: Our longitudinal data enabled identification of distinct symptom trajectories during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. Early intervention to ensure that vulnerable people are clinically and socially supported during a pandemic should be a priority.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Australia/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Teleworking , Unemployment/psychology , Young Adult
19.
Midwifery ; 99: 103013, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the mental health of pregnant women during the early and peak stages of the Covid-19 outbreak DESIGN: Online survey PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women over the age of 18 years with no mental disorder during the pre-pregnancy period (N = 729). MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: Mental disorders were assessed using the "Depression Anxiety Stress Scale" and social support was determined using the "Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale." Pregnant women had moderate levels of anxiety and depression and mild levels of stress. Anxiety, depression, and stress of moderate or high severity was reported in 62.2%, 44.6%, and 32.2% of the women, respectively. Pregnant women who lost their jobs during the pandemic period showed a 3-fold increase in the risk of anxiety, a 6-fold increase in the risk of depression, and a 4.8-fold increase in the risk of stress. An increase in the perception of social support has protective effects against all three mental disorders during pregnancy. In pregnant women with at least one obstetric risk, the risk of antenatal anxiety is 2 times higher than that in women with no risk. Similarly, women with a chronic physical illness before pregnancy have a higher risk of anxiety during pregnancy than healthy women. Financial strain has predictive value for anxiety and depression, and advanced age is a predictor for depression. KEY CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of mental disorders in pregnant women during the pandemic period was much higher than that during the pre-pandemic period. The high frequency of antenatal mental disorders can lead to an increase in the frequency of obstetric and maternal complications in the short and long term. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Early detection of inadequate social support and economic difficulties of pregnant women during the pandemic period is recommended for protecting their mental health. Pregnant women should have easy access to psychosocial support, and they should be provided obstetric counseling during the pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Pregnancy Complications , Stress, Psychological , Unemployment/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Maternal Health , Mental Health/trends , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Turkey/epidemiology
20.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 48(3): 388-392, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163075

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused massive unemployment, exacerbated pre-existing behavioral health (mental health and substance use) disorders for many people, and created new disorders for others. Although policy changes have increased health care and unemployment benefits, most people want jobs and self-sufficiency rather than handouts. A robust evidence base shows that supported employment can enable unemployed people with behavioral health conditions to find competitive, integrated employment and behavioral health supports. Millions of U.S. citizens may need these services as the pandemic recedes and jobs become available. Government attention to supported employment is necessary now more than ever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment, Supported/organization & administration , Mental Health , Unemployment/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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