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1.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 263-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535083

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTS: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chile/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
2.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Latency , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S215-S223, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496725

ABSTRACT

Public Health 3.0 approaches are critical for monitoring disparities in economic, social, and overall health impacts following the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated policy changes to slow community spread. Timely, cross-sector data as identified using this approach help decisionmakers identify changes, track racial disparities, and address unintended consequences during a pandemic. We applied a monitoring and evaluation framework that combined policy changes with timely, relevant cross-sector data and community review. Indicators covered unemployment, basic needs, family violence, education, childcare, access to health care, and mental, physical, and behavioral health. In response to increasing COVID-19 cases, nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies were implemented in March 2020 in King County, Washington. By December 2020, 554 000 unemployment claims were filed. Social service calls increased 100%, behavioral health crisis calls increased 25%, and domestic violence calls increased 25%, with disproportionate impact on communities of color. This framework can be replicated by local jurisdictions to inform and address racial inequities in ongoing COVID-19 mitigation and recovery. Cross-sector collaboration between public health and sectors addressing the social determinants of health are an essential first step to have an impact on long-standing racial inequities. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S215-S223. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306422).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Public Health , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mental Health , Population Surveillance , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Washington
4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): e1157-e1162, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Joblessness is common in survivors from critical care. Our aim was to describe rates of return to work versus unemployment following coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care admission. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective case series. SETTING: Critical Care Follow-Up Clinic, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy. PATIENTS: One hundred and one consecutive laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 patients were discharged from our hospital following an ICU stay between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. Twenty-five died in the ICU. Seventy-six were discharged alive from hospital. Two patients refused participation, while three were unreachable. The remaining 71 were alive at 6 months and interviewed. INTERVENTIONS: Baseline and outcome healthcare data were extracted from the electronic patient records. Employment data were collected using a previously published structured interview instrument that included current and previous employment status, hours worked per week, and timing of return to work. Health-related quality of life status was assessed using the Italian EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 71 interviewed patients, 45 (63%) were employed prior to coronavirus disease 2019, of which 40 (89%) of them worked full-time. Thirty-three (73%) of the previously employed survivors had returned to work by 6 months, 10 (22%) were unemployed, and 2 (5%) were newly retired. Among those who returned to work, 20 (85%) of them reported reduced effectiveness at work. Those who did not return to work were either still on sick leave or lost their job as a consequence of coronavirus disease 2019. Reported quality of life of survivors not returning to work was worse than of those returning to work. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 survivors following ICU in our cohort had returned to work by 6 months of follow-up. However, most of them reported reduced work effectiveness. Prolonged sick leave and unemployment were common findings in those not returning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Return to Work/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Retirement/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(4): 518-529, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236065

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to simultaneously advance theory and practice by understanding how the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic relates to new hire engagement. Prior research suggests starting a new job is an uncertain experience; we theorize that the COVID-19 pandemic creates additional environmental stressors that affect new hire engagement. First, we hypothesize that the occurrence of COVID-19 and unemployment rates relate negatively to engagement. Second, we theorize that the effects of the pandemic become more disruptive on new hire engagement as they gain tenure within the organization. Third, drawing from strategic management theory, we test whether States that introduce stronger COVID-19 policies help enhance the engagement of new hires. Examining a U.S. national sample of 12,577 newly hired (90 days or less) quick service restaurant employees across 9 months (January-September, 2020), we find support for these hypotheses. Subsequent model comparisons suggest there may be health stressors that shape engagement more strongly than purely economic stressors. These findings may be important because they highlight the experiences of workers more likely to be exposed to the pandemic and affected by COVID-related policies. Should the results generalize to other samples and jobs, this study offers potentially new research directions for understanding relationships between macro stressors and new hire perceptions and socialization. It also offers practical implications by helping organizations understand the importance of explicitly managing job insecurity, particularly in terms of COVID-19 policy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , State Government , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Work Engagement , Workplace/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel Selection/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Unemployment/psychology , United States , Young Adult
7.
New Solut ; 31(2): 107-112, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232404

ABSTRACT

The global political economy is generating new forms and growing shares of informal, insecure, and precarious labor, adding to histories of insecure work and an externalization of social costs. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the consequences of ignoring such signals in terms of the increased risk and vulnerability of insecure labor. This paper explores how such trends are generating intersecting adverse health outcomes for workers, communities, and environments and the implications for breaking siloes and building links between the paradigms, science, practice, and tools for occupational health, public health, and eco-health. Applying the principle of controlling hazards at the source is argued in this context to call for an understanding of the upstream production and socio-political factors that are jointly affecting the nature of work and employment and their impact on the health of workers, the public, and the planet.


Subject(s)
Employment , Occupational Health/trends , Adolescent , Africa, Eastern , Africa, Southern , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Employment/standards , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Politics , Public Health , Unemployment/psychology , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/psychology , Workplace/standards , Young Adult
8.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 64-68, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interventions to suppress the coronavirus pandemic have led to economic recession and higher unemployment, which will increase mortality and decrease quality of life. The aim of this article is to estimate the consequences on mortality and life expectancy of increased unemployment rates due to the coronavirus pandemic in Sweden and other countries. METHODS: Based on recent increases and expected future unemployment rates due to the coronavirus pandemic, results from a systematic review and data from vital statistics in Sweden, the number of premature deaths due to unemployment in Sweden have been estimated. RESULTS: Based on our assumptions, the calculations show that if the number of unemployed persons in Sweden increases by 100,000, one may expect some 1800 more premature deaths during the following 9 years. If the duration of the recession is limited to 4 years, excess deaths due to unemployment may be around 800. On average, the unemployed will lose 2 years of their remaining life expectancy. In many other countries unemployment rates have or are estimated to rise more than in Sweden, sometimes two- or threefold, suggesting hundreds of thousands of excess deaths due to unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to suppress the coronavirus pandemic include the shut-down of economic activities and lead to increased all-cause mortality. These public health effects must be considered in the decision-making process and should be added to overall estimates of the effects of the pandemic on public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mortality, Premature , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Recession , Humans , Life Expectancy , Sweden/epidemiology
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2274, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189224

ABSTRACT

Massive unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic could result in an eviction crisis in US cities. Here we model the effect of evictions on SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, simulating viral transmission within and among households in a theoretical metropolitan area. We recreate a range of urban epidemic trajectories and project the course of the epidemic under two counterfactual scenarios, one in which a strict moratorium on evictions is in place and enforced, and another in which evictions are allowed to resume at baseline or increased rates. We find, across scenarios, that evictions lead to significant increases in infections. Applying our model to Philadelphia using locally-specific parameters shows that the increase is especially profound in models that consider realistically heterogenous cities in which both evictions and contacts occur more frequently in poorer neighborhoods. Our results provide a basis to assess eviction moratoria and show that policies to stem evictions are a warranted and important component of COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Housing/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cities/legislation & jurisprudence , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Computer Simulation , Housing/economics , Humans , Models, Statistical , Philadelphia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217373, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171508

ABSTRACT

Importance: An accurate understanding of the distributional implications of public health policies is critical for ensuring equitable responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health threats. Objective: To identify and quantify the association of race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities of state-specific lockdowns with 6 well-being dimensions in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled, repeated cross-sectional study used data from 14 187 762 households who participated in phase 1 of the population-representative US 2020 Household Pulse Survey (HPS). Households were invited to participate by email, text message, and/or telephone as many as 3 times. Data were collected via an online questionnaire from April 23 to July 21, 2020, and participants lived in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Exposures: Indicators of race/ethnicity, sex, and income and their intersections. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unemployment; food insufficiency; mental health problems; no medical care received for health problems; default on last month's rent or mortgage; and class cancellations with no distance learning. Race/ethnicity, sex, income, and their intersections were used to measure distributional implications across historically marginalized populations; state-specific, time-varying population mobility was used to measure lockdown intensity. Logistic regression models with pooled repeated cross-sections were used to estimate risk of dichotomous outcomes by social group, adjusted for confounding variables. Results: The 1 088 314 respondents (561 570 [51.6%; 95% CI, 51.4%-51.9%] women) were aged 18 to 88 years (mean [SD], 51.55 [15.74] years), and 826 039 (62.8%; 95% CI, 62.5%-63.1%) were non-Hispanic White individuals; 86 958 (12.5%; 95% CI, 12.4%-12.7%), African American individuals; 86 062 (15.2%; 95% CI, 15.0%-15.4%), Hispanic individuals; and 50 227 (5.6%; 95% CI, 5.5%-5.7%), Asian individuals. On average, every 10% reduction in mobility was associated with higher odds of unemployment (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), food insufficiency (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), mental health problems (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1), and class cancellations (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). Across most dimensions compared with White men with high income, African American individuals with low income experienced the highest risks (eg, food insufficiency, men: OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.8-3.7; mental health problems, women: OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1; medical care inaccessibility, women: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9; unemployment, men: OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.5-3.2; rent/mortgage defaults, men: OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 4.7-7.1). Other high-risk groups were Hispanic individuals (eg, unemployment, Hispanic men with low income: OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and women with low income across all races/ethnicities (eg, medical care inaccessibility, non-Hispanic White women: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, African American and Hispanic individuals, women, and households with low income had higher odds of experiencing adverse outcomes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home orders. Blanket public health policies ignoring existing distributions of risk to well-being may be associated with increased race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
11.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 581-586, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171161

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic, it has several specificities influencing its outcomes due to the entwinement of several factors, which anthropologists have called "syndemics". Drawing upon Singer and Clair's syndemics model, I focus on synergistic interaction among chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and COVID-19 in Pakistan. I argue that over 36 million people in Pakistan are standing at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, developing severe complications, and losing their lives. These two diseases, but several other socio-cultural, economic, and political factors contributing to structured vulnerabilities, would function as confounders. To deal with the critical effects of these syndemics the government needs appropriate policies and their implementation during the pandemic and post-pandemic. To eliminate or at least minimize various vulnerabilities, Pakistan needs drastic changes, especially to overcome (formal) illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, gender difference, and rural and urban difference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Syndemic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Climate Change/economics , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Developing Countries/economics , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/economics , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Literacy/economics , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Politics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/economics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
13.
J Rural Health ; 37(2): 278-286, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the county-level effects of social determinants of health (SDoH) on COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019) mortality rates by rural-urban residence and estimate county-level exceedance probabilities for detecting clusters. METHODS: The county-level data on COVID-19 death counts as of October 23, 2020, were obtained from the Johns Hopkins University. SDoH data were collected from the County Health Ranking and Roadmaps, the US Department of Agriculture, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Semiparametric negative binomial regressions with expected counts based on standardized mortality rates as offset variables were fitted using integrated Laplace approximation. Bayesian significance was assessed by 95% credible intervals (CrI) of risk ratios (RR). County-level mortality hotspots were identified by exceedance probabilities. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 mortality rates per 100,000 were 65.43 for the urban and 50.78 for the rural counties. Percent of Blacks, HIV, and diabetes rates were significantly associated with higher mortality in rural and urban counties, whereas the unemployment rate (adjusted RR = 1.479, CrI = 1.171, 1.867) and residential segregation (adjusted RR = 1.034, CrI = 1.019, 1.050) were associated with increased mortality in urban counties. Counties with a higher percentage of college or associate degrees had lower COVID-19 mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: SDoH plays an important role in explaining differential COVID-19 mortality rates and should be considered for resource allocations and policy decisions on operational needs for businesses and schools at county levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Social Segregation , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249352, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Existing literature on how employment loss affects depression has struggled to address potential endogeneity bias caused by reverse causality. The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique natural experiment because the source of unemployment is very likely to be exogenous to the individual. This study assessed the effect of job loss and job furlough on the mental health of individuals in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA AND METHODS: The data for the study came from the first and second waves of the national survey, the National Income Dynamics-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM), conducted during May-June and July-August 2020, respectively. The sample for NIDS-CRAM was drawn from an earlier national survey, conducted in 2017, which had collected data on mental health. Questions on depressive symptoms during the lockdown were asked in Wave 2 of NIDS-CRAM, using a 2-question version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). The PHQ-2 responses (0-6 on the discrete scale) were regrouped into four categories making the ordered logit regression model the most suited for assessing the impact of employment status on depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The study revealed that adults who retained paid employment during the COVID-19 lockdown had significantly lower depression scores than adults who lost employment. The benefits of employment also accumulated over time, underscoring the effect of unemployment duration on mental health. The analysis revealed no mental health benefits to being furloughed (on unpaid leave), but paid leave had a strong and significant positive effect on the mental health of adults. CONCLUSIONS: The economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented job losses, which impaired mental wellbeing significantly. Health policy responses to the crisis therefore need to focus on both physical and mental health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/psychology , Young Adult
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 607, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between food insecurity and mental health outcomes among low-income Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 2714 low-income respondents nationwide from June 29, 2020 to July 21, 2020. A proportional odds logit model was employed to estimate the associations between food insecurity and anxiety and between food insecurity and depression. RESULTS: Food insecurity is associated with a 257% higher risk of anxiety and a 253% higher risk of depression. Losing a job during the pandemic is associated with a 32% increase in risk for anxiety and a 27% increase in risk for depression. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity caused by the pandemic was associated with increased risk of mental illness. The relative risk of mental illness from being food insecure is almost three-fold that of losing a job during the pandemic. Public health measures should focus on getting direct subsidies of food purchases to poor families, especially families with children. They should also reduce the stigma and shame that is associated with accepting charitable foods.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health , Pandemics , Unemployment/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152938

ABSTRACT

We estimate the effects of shelter-in-place (SIP) orders during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We do not find detectable effects of these policies on disease spread or deaths. We find small but measurable effects on mobility that dissipate over time. And we find small, delayed effects on unemployment. We conduct additional analyses that separately assess the effects of expanding versus withdrawing SIP orders and test whether there are spillover effects in other states. Our results are consistent with prior studies showing that SIP orders have accounted for a relatively small share of the mobility trends and economic disruptions associated with the pandemic. We reanalyze two prior studies purporting to show that SIP orders caused large reductions in disease prevalence, and show that those results are not reliable. Our results do not imply that social distancing behavior by individuals, as distinct from SIP policy, is ineffective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Shelter , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Emergency Shelter/economics , Emergency Shelter/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Policy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
17.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(2): 157-165, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147321

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is an ongoing and persistent problem for many individuals and families in the United States and in New York City. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the scope of the problem and data show that food insecurity rates have increased almost three times over pre-COVID rates. In addition, with unemployment increasing daily and the closure of safety net programs and services, there became a need for creatively attending to the basic needs of individuals and families. SCO Family of Services (SCO), a large human service provider in New York City and Long Island, launched an innovative project with DoorDash during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic and successfully got food into the homes of more than 1,900 families. This article discusses the practice innovation, project impact, lessons learned, and social work implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Interinstitutional Relations , Social Work/organization & administration , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Program Development , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
18.
Patient ; 14(3): 359-371, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All countries experienced social and economic disruption and threats to health security from the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but the responses in terms of control measures varied considerably. While control measures, such as quarantine, lockdown and social distancing, reduce infections and infection-related deaths, they have severe negative economic and social consequences. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the acceptability of different infectious disease control measures, and examine how respondents trade off between economic and health outcomes. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was developed, with attributes covering: control restrictions, duration of restrictions, tracking, number of infections and of deaths, unemployment, government expenditure and additional personal tax. A representative sample of Australians (n = 1046) completed the survey, which included eight choice tasks. Data were analysed using mixed logit regression to identify heterogeneity and latent class models to examine heterogeneity. RESULTS: In general, respondents had strong preferences for policies that avoided high infection-related deaths, although lower unemployment and government expenditure were also considered important. Respondents preferred a shorter duration for restrictions, but their preferences did not vary significantly for the differing levels of control measures. In terms of tracking, respondents preferred mobile phone tracking or bracelets when compared to no tracking. Significant differences in preferences was identified, with two distinct classes: Class 1 (57%) preferred the economy to remain open with some control measures, whereas Class 2 (43%), had stronger preferences for policies that reduced avoidable deaths. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the Australian population is willing to relinquish some freedom, in the short term, and trade off the negative social and economic impacts of the pandemic, to avoid the negative health consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Choice Behavior , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Cell Phone , Decision Support Techniques , Economics/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Policy , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128012

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ineluctably caused social distancing and unemployment, which may bring additional health risks for patients with cancer. To investigate the association of the pandemic-related impacts with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with melanoma during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a cross-sectional study among Chinese patients with melanoma. A self-administered online questionnaire was distributed to melanoma patients through social media. Demographic and clinical data, and pandemic-related impacts (unemployment and income loss) were collected. HRQoL was determined by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and its disease-specific module (the melanoma subscale, MS). A total of 135 patients with melanoma completed the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 ± 14.2 years, 48.1% (65/135) were male, and 17.04% (34/135) were unemployed since the epidemic. Unemployment of the patients and their family members and income loss were significantly associated with a lower FACT-G score, while the MS score was associated with the unemployment of the patients' family members. Our findings suggested that unemployment is associated with impaired HRQoL in melanoma patients during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Melanoma/economics , Melanoma/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Unemployment/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Melanoma/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
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