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2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043721, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and its latest version NEWS2 are recommended for monitoring deterioration in patients admitted to hospital, little is known about their performance in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to compare the performance of the NEWS and NEWS2 in patients with COVID-19 versus those without during the first phase of the pandemic. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two acute hospitals (Scarborough and York) are combined into a single dataset and analysed collectively. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (≥18 years) non-elective admissions discharged between 11 March 2020 and 13 June 2020 with an index or on-admission NEWS2 electronically recorded within ±24 hours of admission to predict mortality at four time points (in-hospital, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours) in COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 admissions. RESULTS: Out of 6480 non-elective admissions, 620 (9.6%) had a diagnosis of COVID-19. They were older (73.3 vs 67.7 years), more often male (54.7% vs 50.1%), had higher index NEWS (4 vs 2.5) and NEWS2 (4.6 vs 2.8) scores and higher in-hospital mortality (32.1% vs 5.8%). The c-statistics for predicting in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 admissions was significantly lower using NEWS (0.64 vs 0.74) or NEWS2 (0.64 vs 0.74), however, these differences reduced at 72hours (NEWS: 0.75 vs 0.81; NEWS2: 0.71 vs 0.81), 48 hours (NEWS: 0.78 vs 0.81; NEWS2: 0.76 vs 0.82) and 24hours (NEWS: 0.84 vs 0.84; NEWS2: 0.86 vs 0.84). Increasing NEWS2 values reflected increased mortality, but for any given value the absolute risk was on average 24% higher (eg, NEWS2=5: 36% vs 9%). CONCLUSIONS: The index or on-admission NEWS and NEWS2 offers lower discrimination for COVID-19 admissions versus non-COVID-19 admissions. The index NEWS2 was not proven to be better than the index NEWS. For each value of the index NEWS/NEWS2, COVID-19 admissions had a substantially higher risk of mortality than non-COVID-19 admissions which reflects the increased baseline mortality risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Early Warning Score , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , /therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(2): 131-132, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093276
4.
Lancet ; 397(10270): 186, 2021 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093256
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 187, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays have typically been determined using samples from symptomatic, often hospitalised, patients. In this setting the sensitivity and specificity of the best performing assays can both exceed 98%. However, antibody assay performance following mild infection is less clear. METHODS: We assessed quantitative IgG responses in a cohort of healthcare workers in Oxford, UK, with a high pre-test probability of Covid-19, in particular the 991/11,475(8.6%) who reported loss of smell/taste. We use anosmia/ageusia and other risk factors as probes for Covid-19 infection potentially undiagnosed by immunoassays by investigating their relationship with antibody readings either side of assay thresholds. RESULTS: The proportion of healthcare workers reporting anosmia/ageusia increased at antibody readings below diagnostic thresholds using an in-house ELISA (n = 9324) and the Abbott Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA; n = 11,324): 426/906 (47%) reported anosmia/ageusia with a positive ELISA, 59/449 (13.1%) with high-negative and 326/7969 (4.1%) with low-negative readings. Similarly, by CMIA, 518/1093 (47.4%) with a positive result reported anosmia/ageusia, 106/686 (15.5%) with a high-negative and 358/9563 (3.7%) with a low-negative result. Adjusting for the proportion of staff reporting anosmia/ageusia suggests the sensitivity of both assays in mild infection is lower than previously reported: Oxford ELISA 89.8% (95%CI 86.6-92.8%) and Abbott CMIA 79.3% (75.9-82.7%). CONCLUSION: Following mild SARS-CoV-2 infection 10-30% of individuals may have negative immunoassay results. While lowered diagnostic thresholds may result in unacceptable specificity, our findings have implications for epidemiological analyses and result interpretation in individuals with a high pre-test probability. Samples from mild PCR-confirmed infections should be included in SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay evaluations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , /diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Asymptomatic Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoassay/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Undiagnosed Diseases , United Kingdom
7.
Wiad Lek ; 73(12 cz 2): 2752-2757, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to stimulate discussions about the necessity to improve the legal regulations that guarantee a proper public health policy, as well as to determine the balance between the level of restrictions that may be imposed by State in order to protect both, the public interest of health and the economic development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: National legislation of Ukraine, United Kingdom and France on public health and health policy, case law of these countries, including high court decisions were used for dialectical, comparative, synthetic and systemic analyses. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: As the legality of government officials' actions principle is a fundamental constitutional principle in most European countries, states must establish such legal provisions to avoid short-term and long-term conflicts when the rights of individuals and legal entities are being restricted. At the legislative level, it is necessary to adopt transparent rules to attract private funding to the health sector. Development of the e-health and telemedicine systems could be boosted through the use of public-private partnership tools.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Europe , France , Humans , Ukraine , United Kingdom
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 367, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of face masks remains contentious, with international variation in practice. Their prevalence in the UK, is likely to increase due to new legislation. Clear information regarding the appropriate use of masks is needed, to ensure compliance with policies to reduce transmission of COVID-19. We aimed to assess the impact of visual representations of guidance, or infographics, upon the knowledge of appropriate face mask usage in a representative UK cohort. METHODS: Adult patients were recruited to this randomised internet-based questionnaire study during the 12-14 May 2020 from across the UK. Respondents viewed one of five public health stimuli regarding the use of face masks, or no stimulus. The groups accessed aids by the European Centre for Disease Control (EUCDC), World Health Organisation (WHO), Singaporean Ministry of Health (SMOH), text from the UK government (UK Gov), or an infographic designed by the Behavioural Insights Team (BIT). The primary outcome was to evaluate the effect of each infographic upon participants' recall of face mask technique, sentiments and willingness to wear a face covering. Secondary outcomes included the effect of symptomology and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: 4099 respondents were randomised (1009 control, 628 EUCDC, 526 WHO, 639 SMOH, 661 UKGOV and 606 BIT). Stimuli from the WHO, SMOH and BIT demonstrated significantly higher average recall scores compared to the controls (7.40 v. 7.38 v. 7.34 v. 6.97, P < 0.001). BIT's stimulus led to the highest confidence about mask-wearing (87%). Only 48.2% of the cohort felt stimuli reduced anxiety about COVID-19. However, willingness to use a mask was high, (range 84 to 88%). CONCLUSIONS: To ensure the appropriate use of masks, as mandated by UK law, guidance must provide sufficient information, yet remain understandable. Infographics can aid the recall of correct mask techniques by highlighting salient steps and reducing cognitive burden. They have also demonstrated greater trustworthiness than text-only guidance. The effect of infographics upon COVID-19-related anxiety was poor, and they should be further developed to address this sentiment. A willingness to wear face masks has, however, been demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Audiovisual Aids , Health Education/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e046556, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe variations in COVID-19 outcomes in relation to local risks within a well-defined but diverse single-city area. DESIGN: Observational study of COVID-19 outcomes using quality-assured integrated data from a single UK hospital contextualised to its feeder population and associated factors (comorbidities, ethnicity, age, deprivation). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Single-city hospital with a feeder population of 228 632 adults in Wolverhampton. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital admissions (defined as COVID-19 admissions (CA) or non-COVID-19 admissions (NCA)) and mortality (defined as COVID-19 deaths or non-COVID-19 deaths). RESULTS: Of the 5558 patients admitted, 686 died (556 in hospital); 930 were CA, of which 270 were hospital COVID-19 deaths, 47 non-COVID-19 deaths and 36 deaths after discharge; of the 4628 NCA, there were 239 in-hospital deaths (2 COVID-19) and 94 deaths after discharge. Of the 223 074 adults not admitted, 407 died. Age, gender, multimorbidity and black ethnicity (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.2), p<0.001, compared with white ethnicity, absolute excess risk of <1/1000) were associated with CA and mortality. The South Asian cohort had lower CA and NCA, lower mortality compared with the white group (CA, 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8), p<0.01; NCA, 0.4 (0.3 to 0.6), p<0.001) and community deaths (0.5 (0.3 to 0.7), p<0.001). Despite many common risk factors for CA and NCA, ethnic groups had different admission rates and within-group differing association of risk factors. Deprivation impacted only the white ethnicity, in the oldest age bracket and in a lesser (not most) deprived quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Wolverhampton's results, reflecting high ethnic diversity and deprivation, are similar to other studies of black ethnicity, age and comorbidity risk in COVID-19 but strikingly different in South Asians and for deprivation. Sequentially considering population and then hospital-based NCA and CA outcomes, we present a complete single health economy picture. Risk factors may differ within ethnic groups; our data may be more representative of communities with high Black, Asian and minority ethnic populations, highlighting the need for locally focused public health strategies. We emphasise the need for a more comprehensible and nuanced conveyance of risk.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Ethnic Groups , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
11.
BMJ ; 372: n376, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084531
12.
Science ; 371(6530): 680-681, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083130
14.
Ortop Traumatol Rehabil ; 22(5): 303-309, 2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Working during the coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact on health care workers. A group of orthopaedic trainees at Royal Gwent Hospital, UK, were redeployed to intensive therapy unit for four weeks during COVID-19 pandemic. This study reviews our experience; focusing on causes of stress and anxiety, and how they were managed. The lessons learnt could be used as a framework for pre-emptive me-asures during future challenges. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthopaedic registrars were divided into two groups. Seven trainees (Redeployed group) moved to ITU for four weeks to support the critical care team. The other group (Retained group) of eight registrars continued to cover orthopaedic rota. A survey was done for anxiety levels comparing the two groups at three time points during these four weeks. RESULTS: Anxiety and stress in the ITU-redeployed group was comparatively less than the continuing group as time progressed during the redeployment. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The disruptive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been a source of massive stress and an-xiety for health care workers. 2. Our experience shows that stress is controllable with the correct strategies. 3. The main points are early identification of vulnerable groups, proper induction, active involvement, adequate explanation, appreciation, good communication, and available psychological support whenever needed. 4. These are essential to maintain a resilient workforce against upcoming waves of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Critical Care/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Orthopedic Nursing/organization & administration , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Young Adult
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 915, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078584

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone can reduce mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients needing oxygen and ventilation by 18% and 36%, respectively. Here, we estimate the potential number of lives saved and life years gained if this treatment were to be rolled out in the UK and globally, as well as the cost-effectiveness of implementing this intervention. Assuming SARS-CoV-2 exposure levels of 5% to 15%, we estimate that, for the UK, approximately 12,000 (4,250 - 27,000) lives could be saved between July and December 2020. Assuming that dexamethasone has a similar effect size in settings where access to oxygen therapies is limited, this would translate into approximately 650,000 (240,000 - 1,400,000) lives saved globally over the same time period. If dexamethasone acts differently in these settings, the impact could be less than half of this value. To estimate the full potential of dexamethasone in the global fight against COVID-19, it is essential to perform clinical research in settings with limited access to oxygen and/or ventilators, for example in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , /economics , /therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dexamethasone/economics , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiration, Artificial , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Ventilators, Mechanical
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076267

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine aspects of children's health literacy; the information sources they were accessing, their information preferences, their perceived understanding of and their reported information needs in relation to COVID-19. An online survey for children aged 7-12 years of age and parent/caregivers from the UK, Sweden, Brazil, Spain, Canada and Australia was conducted between 6th of April and the 1st of June 2020. The surveys included demographic questions and both closed and open questions focussing on access to and understanding of COVID-19 information. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis procedures were conducted. The findings show that parents are the main source of information for children during the pandemic in most countries (89%, n = 347), except in Sweden where school was the main source of information. However, in many cases parents chose to shield, filter or adapt their child's access to information about COVID-19, especially in relation to the death rates within each country. Despite this, children in this study reported knowing that COVID-19 was deadly and spreads quickly. This paper argues for a community rather than individual approach to addressing children's health literacy needs during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Australia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , /transmission , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Online Systems , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweden/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076248

ABSTRACT

We present findings from three waves of a population-representative, UK time-use diary survey conducted both pre- and in real time during full 'lockdown', and again following the easing of social restrictions. We used an innovative online diary instrument that has proved both reliable and quick-to-field. Combining diary information on activity, location, and co-presence to estimate infection risks associated with daily behavior, we show clear changes in risk-associated behavior between the pre, full-lockdown and post full-lockdown periods. We document a shift from more to less risky daily behavior patterns (combinations of activity/location/co-presence categories) between the pre-pandemic pattern and full lockdown in May/June 2020, followed by a reversion (although not a complete reversal) of those patterns in August 2020 following the end of the first lockdown. Because, in general, a populations' time use changes relatively slowly, the behavioral changes revealed may be interpreted as a consequence of the UK COVID-19 lockdown social restrictions and their subsequent relaxation.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Social Behavior , Adult , Aged , Diaries as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Online Systems , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
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