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1.
Am J Nurs ; 121(8): 22, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612686

ABSTRACT

The Food and Drug Administration has granted emergency use authorization to sotrovimab for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in patients at increased risk for progression to severe illness.Sotrovimab is a monoclonal antibody that works directly against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to block its attachment and entry into a human cell.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Prior Authorization/legislation & jurisprudence , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Prior Authorization/trends , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , United States Food and Drug Administration/trends
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125524, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414844

ABSTRACT

Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 22 patients with suspected allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines between December 18, 2020, and January 27, 2021, at a large regional health care network. Participants were individuals who received at least 1 of the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision anaphylaxis codes: T78.2XXA, T80.52XA, T78.2XXD, or E949.9, with documentation of COVID-19 vaccination. Suspected allergy cases were identified and invited for follow-up allergy testing. Exposures: FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic reactions were graded using standard definitions, including Brighton criteria. Skin prick testing was conducted to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (P80). Histamine (1 mg/mL) and filtered saline (negative control) were used for internal validation. Basophil activation testing after stimulation for 30 minutes at 37 °C was also conducted. Concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE antibodies to PEG were obtained to determine possible mechanisms. Results: Of 22 patients (20 [91%] women; mean [SD] age, 40.9 [10.3] years; 15 [68%] with clinical allergy history), 17 (77%) met Brighton anaphylaxis criteria. All reactions fully resolved. Of patients who underwent skin prick tests, 0 of 11 tested positive to PEG, 0 of 11 tested positive to P80, and 1 of 10 (10%) tested positive to the same brand of mRNA vaccine used to vaccinate that individual. Among these same participants, 10 of 11 (91%) had positive basophil activation test results to PEG and 11 of 11 (100%) had positive basophil activation test results to their administered mRNA vaccine. No PEG IgE was detected; instead, PEG IgG was found in tested individuals who had an allergy to the vaccine. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this case series, women and those with a history of allergic reactions appear at have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccine allergy. Immunological testing suggests non-IgE-mediated immune responses to PEG may be responsible in most individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341503

ABSTRACT

Due to the sheer number of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) cases there is a need for increased world-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing capability that is both efficient and effective. Having open and easy access to detailed information about these tests, their sensitivity, the types of samples they use, etc. would be highly useful to ensure their reproducibility, to help clients compare and decide which tests would be best suited for their applications, and to avoid costs of reinventing similar or identical tests. Additionally, this resource would provide a means of comparing the many innovative diagnostic tools that are currently being developed in order to provide a foundation of technologies and methods for the rapid development and deployment of tests for future emerging diseases. Such a resource might thus help to avert the delays in testing and screening that was observed in the early stages of the pandemic and plausibly led to more COVID-19-related deaths than necessary. We aim to address these needs via a relational database containing standardized ontology and curated data about COVID-19 diagnostic tests that have been granted Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). Simple queries of this actively growing database demonstrate considerable variation among these tests with respect to sensitivity (limits of detection, LoD), controls and targets used, criteria used for calling results, sample types, reagents and instruments, and quality and amount of information provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , Databases, Factual , Emergencies , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Data Management/organization & administration , Data Management/standards , Databases, Factual/supply & distribution , Emergencies/classification , Emergency Treatment/classification , Emergency Treatment/methods , Humans , Internet , Laboratories/standards , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States , User-Computer Interface
9.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 30(7): 827-837, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192592

ABSTRACT

The US Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel System was established in 2009 to use routinely collected electronic health data for improving the national capability to assess post-market medical product safety. Over more than a decade, Sentinel has become an integral part of FDA's surveillance capabilities and has been used to conduct analyses that have contributed to regulatory decisions. FDA's role in the COVID-19 pandemic response has necessitated an expansion and enhancement of Sentinel. Here we describe how the Sentinel System has supported FDA's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight new capabilities developed, key data generated to date, and lessons learned, particularly with respect to working with inpatient electronic health record data. Early in the pandemic, Sentinel developed a multi-pronged approach to support FDA's anticipated data and analytic needs. It incorporated new data sources, created a rapidly refreshed database, developed protocols to assess the natural history of COVID-19, validated a diagnosis-code based algorithm for identifying patients with COVID-19 in administrative claims data, and coordinated with other national and international initiatives. Sentinel is poised to answer important questions about the natural history of COVID-19 and is positioned to use this information to study the use, safety, and potentially the effectiveness of medical products used for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Information Management/organization & administration , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislation & jurisprudence
12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 102: 106214, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917234

ABSTRACT

Most crises, though difficult and challenging to address, offer opportunities for change and for development of new perspectives or approaches to deal with traditional strategies. The reaction to and the managing of the COVID-19 pandemic has provided a platform for evaluating how we quantify disease prevalence, incidence, time courses and sequellae as well as how well we plan, design, analyze and interpret health care associated data, including clinical trials and electronic medical records and health claims data. Whether the Covid-19 crisis provides opportunities to advance the fields of biostatistics and epidemiology in select ways remains to be seen. This article describes three areas of crises experienced by the author during a career in the regulation of pharmaceutical products and how they were responded to. Some suggestions for potential future opportunities in reaction to the Covid-19 crises are provided.


Subject(s)
Biostatistics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Epidemiology/organization & administration , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Cooperative Behavior , Data Collection/standards , Drug Development/organization & administration , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Efficiency, Organizational , Epidemiology/standards , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration
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