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Future Oncol ; 17(36): 5045-5051, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496871


Aim: To explore factors affecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality among cancer patients based on a pharmacovigilance database. Methods: US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) quarterly data extract files were reviewed for quarters two, three and four of 2020 (i.e., April to December). Patients with an indication related to malignancy and a reported COVID-related reaction were selected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with a fatal outcome was conducted. Results: A total of 2708 patients were included. The following factors were associated with fatal COVID-19 infection: older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), male sex (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07-1.91), non-US report source (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.93-3.13), hematological malignancy (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.28-2.07), potentially immunosuppressive treatment (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.30-2.58) and diagnosis in quarter two versus quarter four (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.27-2.07). Conclusion: Within FAERS reports, cancer patients who are older, males and receiving immunosuppressive treatment and those with hematological malignancies were at a higher risk of death because of COVID-19 infection.

Lay abstract In this study, individuals with a diagnosis of cancer who were older and males and those receiving immunosuppressive treatment seemed to be at a higher risk of a fatal outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 infection.

COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pharmacovigilance , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125524, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414844


Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 22 patients with suspected allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines between December 18, 2020, and January 27, 2021, at a large regional health care network. Participants were individuals who received at least 1 of the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision anaphylaxis codes: T78.2XXA, T80.52XA, T78.2XXD, or E949.9, with documentation of COVID-19 vaccination. Suspected allergy cases were identified and invited for follow-up allergy testing. Exposures: FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic reactions were graded using standard definitions, including Brighton criteria. Skin prick testing was conducted to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (P80). Histamine (1 mg/mL) and filtered saline (negative control) were used for internal validation. Basophil activation testing after stimulation for 30 minutes at 37 °C was also conducted. Concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE antibodies to PEG were obtained to determine possible mechanisms. Results: Of 22 patients (20 [91%] women; mean [SD] age, 40.9 [10.3] years; 15 [68%] with clinical allergy history), 17 (77%) met Brighton anaphylaxis criteria. All reactions fully resolved. Of patients who underwent skin prick tests, 0 of 11 tested positive to PEG, 0 of 11 tested positive to P80, and 1 of 10 (10%) tested positive to the same brand of mRNA vaccine used to vaccinate that individual. Among these same participants, 10 of 11 (91%) had positive basophil activation test results to PEG and 11 of 11 (100%) had positive basophil activation test results to their administered mRNA vaccine. No PEG IgE was detected; instead, PEG IgG was found in tested individuals who had an allergy to the vaccine. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this case series, women and those with a history of allergic reactions appear at have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccine allergy. Immunological testing suggests non-IgE-mediated immune responses to PEG may be responsible in most individuals.

COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(12): 1559-1564, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334105


Background: Remdesivir has been used for treating patients with moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) although there is conflicting evidence regarding its usefulness. Data regarding its safety largely come from the clinical trials conducted to support its emergency use authorization (EUA). This study aimed to identify the adverse events of remdesivir with disproportionately high reporting using real-world data.Research design and methods: The adverse event reports submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) by health-care professionals for drugs that have received EUA or approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in the US were studied. Adisproportionality analysis was performed to determine adverse events more frequently reported with remdesivir compared with other COVID-19 drugs in the database.Results: Elevated liver enzymes, acute kidney injury, raised blood creatinine levels, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, and death had disproportionately higher reporting with remdesivir as asuspect drug compared with other drugs. There is no significant difference in the reporting of these events based on patient sex or age.Conclusions: Our study confirms the drug label information regarding liver enzyme elevation. The renal and cardiac safety signals identified necessitate reevaluation for potential drug-labeling changes.

Acute Kidney Injury , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Bradycardia , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Liver Function Tests , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Approval/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Female , Humans , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 55(3): 553-557, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996516


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-19; HCoV-19; COVID-19) has affected all daily activities. Has it also affected the number of United States (FDA) drug approvals over time? The short answer from empirical time series forecasting is not yet. Care should be taken as the crisis continues through maintaining the scientific, economic, political, and social supportive structures to sustain momentum. This conclusion is based on analyzing the results of (non-overlapping) forecasting routines (viz., complex exponential smoothing, auto-regressive fractionally integrated moving average, extreme learning machine, and multi-layer perceptron) performed on longitudinal (1939-present) FDA (CDER) drug approvals taking into regard pre- and extant-COVID-19 eras. This is an initial study and there are caveats with the approach, and as such, all data and programs are provided to support replication of the results and furthering of the investigation.

COVID-19 , Drug Approval/statistics & numerical data , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Humans , United States