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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1472-1473, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526998
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1325-1326, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526997
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S2): S82-S83, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526716
4.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1127-1138, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525996

ABSTRACT

In 2010, the US health insurance system underwent one of its most substantial transformations with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which increased coverage for millions of people in the USA, including those with and at risk of HIV. Even so, the system of HIV care and prevention services in the USA is a complex patchwork of payers, providers, and financing mechanisms. People with HIV are primarily covered by Medicaid, Medicare, private insurance, or a combination of these; many get care through other programmes, particularly the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serves as the nation's safety net for people with HIV who remain uninsured or underinsured but offers modest to no support for prevention services. While uninsurance has drastically declined over the past decade, the USA trails other high-income countries in key HIV-specific metrics, including rates of viral suppression. In this paper in the Series, we provide an overview of the coverage and financing landscape for HIV treatment and prevention in the USA, discuss how the Affordable Care Act has changed the domestic health-care system, examine the major programmes that provide coverage and services, and identify remaining challenges.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Insurance Coverage/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance, Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gender Identity , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
5.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Prev Med ; 153: 106852, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525993

ABSTRACT

Limited research has been conducted on the mental health concerns of frontline and essential workers and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (U.S.). This study examined the association between working on the frontlines in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic (March to July 2020) and personal crisis text concerns (e.g., self-harm, suicidal thoughts, anxiety/stress, and substance abuse) for frontline essential workers and the children of frontline workers. We used a novel data set from a crisis texting service, Crisis Text Line (CTL), that is widely used throughout the U.S. Generalized Estimating Equations examined the individual association between eight specific crisis types (Depression, Stress/Anxiety, Self-Harm, Suicidal Thoughts, Substance Abuse, Isolation, Relationship Issues, and Abuse) and being in frontline work or being a child of a frontline worker during the early phase of the pandemic. Using CTL concerns as a proxy for the prevalence of mental health issues, we found that children of workers, specifically the youngest demographic (13 years and under), females, and non-conforming youth had a higher risk of specific crisis events during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, Hispanic children of workers reported higher rates of stress/anxiety, whereas African American children of workers had higher rates of abuse and depression. Frontline workers had a higher risk of suicidal thoughts, and the risk of crisis events was generally highest for non-binary, transgender, and male users. Increases in CTL usage among frontline workers were noted across 7-28 days after spikes in local COVID-19 cases. The research to date has focused on the mental health of frontline essential workers, but our study highlights troubling trends in psychological stress among children of these workers. Supportive interventions and mental health resources are needed not only for frontline essential workers, but for their children too.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(10): 1007-1017, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the relationship between moral distress and mental health problems. We examined moral distress in 2579 frontline healthcare workers (FHCWs) caring for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the height of the spring 2020 pandemic surge in New York City. The goals of the study were to identify common dimensions of COVID-19 moral distress; and to examine the relationship between moral distress, and positive screen for COVID-19-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, burnout, and work and interpersonal functional difficulties. METHOD: Data were collected in spring 2020, through an anonymous survey delivered to a purposively-selected sample of 6026 FHCWs at Mount Sinai Hospital; 2579 endorsed treating COVID-19 patients and provided complete survey responses. Physicians, house staff, nurses, physician assistants, social workers, chaplains, and clinical dietitians comprised the sample. RESULTS: The majority of the sample (52.7%-87.8%) endorsed moral distress. Factor analyses revealed three dimensions of COVID-19 moral distress: negative impact on family, fear of infecting others, and work-related concerns. All three factors were significantly associated with severity and positive screen for COVID-19-related PTSD symptoms, burnout, and work and interpersonal difficulties. Relative importance analyses revealed that concerns about work competencies and personal relationships were most strongly related to all outcomes. CONCLUSION: Moral distress is prevalent in FHCWs and includes family-, infection-, and work-related concerns. Prevention and treatment efforts to address moral distress during the acute phase of potentially morally injurious events may help mitigate risk for PTSD, burnout, and functional difficulties.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Morals , Pandemics , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1613-1616, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524681

ABSTRACT

Surges in COVID-19 cases have stressed hospital systems, negatively affected health care and public health infrastructures, and degraded national critical functions (1,2). Resource limitations, such as available hospital space, staffing, and supplies led some facilities to adopt crisis standards of care, the most extreme operating condition for hospitals, in which the focus of medical decision-making shifted from achieving the best outcomes for individual patients to addressing the immediate care needs of larger groups of patients (3). When hospitals deviated from conventional standards of care, many preventive and elective procedures were suspended, leading to the progression of serious conditions among some persons who would have benefitted from earlier diagnosis and intervention (4). During March-May 2020, U.S. emergency department visits declined by 23% for heart attacks, 20% for strokes, and 10% for diabetic emergencies (5). The Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) COVID Task Force* examined the relationship between hospital strain and excess deaths during July 4, 2020-July 10, 2021, to assess the impact of COVID-19 surges on hospital system operations and potential effects on other critical infrastructure sectors and national critical functions. The study period included the months during which the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant became predominant in the United States.† The negative binomial regression model used to calculate estimated deaths predicted that, if intensive care unit (ICU) bed use nationwide reached 75% capacity an estimated 12,000 additional excess deaths would occur nationally over the next 2 weeks. As hospitals exceed 100% ICU bed capacity, 80,000 excess deaths would be expected in the following 2 weeks. This analysis indicates the importance of controlling case growth and subsequent hospitalizations before severe strain. State, local, tribal, and territorial leaders could evaluate ways to reduce strain on public health and health care infrastructures, including implementing interventions to reduce overall disease prevalence such as vaccination and other prevention strategies, as well as ways to expand or enhance capacity during times of high disease prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Adult , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1597-1602, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524678

ABSTRACT

Diabetes affects approximately one in 10 persons in the United States† and is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 (1), especially when a patient's diabetes is not well managed (2). The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected diabetes care and management, and whether this varies across age groups, is currently unknown. To evaluate access to and use of health care, as well as experiences, attitudes, and behaviors about COVID-19 prevention and vaccination, a nonprobability, Internet-based survey was administered to 5,261 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during February-March 2021. Among respondents, 760 (14%) adults who reported having diabetes currently managed with medication were included in the analysis. Younger adults (aged 18-29 years) with diabetes were more likely to report having missed medical care during the past 3 months (87%; 79) than were those aged 30-59 years (63%; 372) or ≥60 years (26%; 309) (p<0.001). Overall, 44% of younger adults reported difficulty accessing diabetes medications. Younger adults with diabetes also reported lower intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination (66%) compared with adults aged ≥60 years§ (85%; p = 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts to enhance access to diabetes care for adults with diabetes and deliver public health messages emphasizing the importance of diabetes management and COVID-19 prevention, including vaccination, are warranted, especially in younger adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(10): 1375-1385, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522100

ABSTRACT

Background: Nearly half of U.S. women experienced new or worsening health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) (food, housing, utilities and transportation difficulties, and interpersonal violence) early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine racial/ethnic disparities in pandemic-related changes in HRSRs among women. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (04/2020) of 3200 women. Pre- and early pandemic HRSRs were described by race/ethnicity. Weighted, multivariable logistic regression models generated odds of incident and worsening HRSRs by race/ethnicity. Results: The majority of Black, East or Southeast (E/SE) Asian, and Hispanic women reported ≥1 prepandemic HRSR (51%-56% vs. 38% of White women, p < 0.001). By April 2020, 68% of Black, E/SE Asian, and Hispanic women and 55% of White women had ≥1 HRSR (p < 0.001). For most HRSRs, the odds of an incident or worsening condition were similar across racial/ethnic groups, except Black, E/SE Asian and Hispanic women had 2-3.6 times the odds of incident transportation difficulties compared with White women. E/SE Asian women also had higher odds of worsening transportation difficulties compared with White women (adjusted odds ratios = 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-5.6). In the early pandemic, 1/19 Hispanic, 1/28 E/SE Asian, 1/36 Black and 1/100 White women had all 5 HRSRs (extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability). Conclusions: Prepandemic racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs persisted and prevalence rates increased for all groups early in the pandemic. Disparities in transportation difficulties widened. White women were much less likely than others to experience extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability. An equitable COVID-19 response requires attention to persistent and widening racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs among women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnic Groups , Continental Population Groups , Cross-Sectional Studies , European Continental Ancestry Group , Female , Hispanic Americans , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(45): 13255-13259, 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521683

ABSTRACT

This is the second special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) that reviews the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) technical program from a national meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS). The 260th meeting was virtually held on August 17-20, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although it was the first-ever all online meeting in ACS history, a total of 311 abstracts were submitted to the AGFD technical program for oral and poster presentations and 34 technical sessions were held in 22 symposia, which covered a broad range of food and agricultural topics. The very first virtual ACS meeting was successful with the high quality of presentations, the number of online audiences, and seamless technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Agriculture , Food , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
14.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(11): 877-879, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520622
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(7): e27621, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The national severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) surveillance system in Yemen was established in 2010 to monitor SARI occurrence in humans and provide a foundation for detecting SARI outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: To ensure that the objectives of national surveillance are being met, this study aimed to examine the level of usefulness and the performance of the SARI surveillance system in Yemen. METHODS: The updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines were used for the purposes of our evaluation. Related documents and reports were reviewed. Data were collected from 4 central-level managers and stakeholders and from 10 focal points at 4 sentinel sites by using a semistructured questionnaire. For each attribute, percent scores were calculated and ranked as follows: very poor (≤20%), poor (20%-40%), average (40%-60%), good (60%-80%), and excellent (>80%). RESULTS: As rated by the evaluators, the SARI surveillance system achieved its objectives. The system's flexibility (percent score: 86%) and acceptability (percent score: 82%) were rated as "excellent," and simplicity (percent score: 74%) and stability (percent score: 75%) were rated as "good." The percent score for timeliness was 23% in 2018, which indicated poor timeliness. The overall data quality percent score of the SARI system was 98.5%. Despite its many strengths, the SARI system has some weaknesses. For example, it depends on irregular external financial support. CONCLUSIONS: The SARI surveillance system was useful in estimating morbidity and mortality, monitoring the trends of the disease, and promoting research for informing prevention and control measures. The overall performance of the SARI surveillance system was good. We recommend expanding the system by promoting private health facilities' (eg, private hospitals and private health centers) engagement in SARI surveillance, establishing an electronic database at central and peripheral sites, and providing the National Central Public Health Laboratory with the reagents needed for disease confirmation.


Subject(s)
Sentinel Surveillance , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , United States , Yemen/epidemiology
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 772236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518583

ABSTRACT

Background: The mental health of racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. has been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the extent to which disruptions in employment and housing, coronavirus-specific forms of victimization and racial bias independently and conjointly contributed to mental health risk among Asian, Black, and Latinx adults in the United States during the pandemic. Methods: This study reports on data from 401 Asian, Black, and Latinx adults (age 18-72) who participated in a larger national online survey conducted from October 2020-June 2021, Measures included financial and health information, housing disruptions and distress in response to employment changes, coronavirus related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias, depression and anxiety. Results: Asian participants had significantly higher levels of COVID-related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias than Black and Latinx. Young adults (<26 years old) were more vulnerable to depression, anxiety, and coronavirus victimization distress than older respondents. Having at least one COVID-related health risk, distress in response to changes in employment and housing disruptions, pandemic related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias were positively and significantly related to depression and anxiety. Structural equation modeling indicated COVID-related increases in racial bias mediated the effect of COVID-19 related victimization distress on depression and anxiety. Conclusions: COVID-19 has created new pathways to mental health disparities among racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. by exacerbating existing structural and societal inequities linked to race. Findings highlight the necessity of mental health services sensitive to specific challenges in employment and housing and social bias experienced by people of color during the current and future health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crime Victims , Racism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Employment , Housing , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 739076, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518570

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) rapidly initiated COVID-19 surveillance by leveraging existing hospital networks to assess disease burden among hospitalized inpatients and inform prevention efforts. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance Platform for Enteric and Respiratory Infectious Organisms at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (SUPERNOVA) is a network of five United States Veterans Affairs Medical Centers which serves nearly 400,000 Veterans annually and conducts laboratory-based passive and active monitoring for pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis and acute respiratory illness among hospitalized Veterans. This paper presents surveillance methods for adapting the SUPERNOVA surveillance platform to prospectively evaluate COVID-19 epidemiology during a public health emergency, including detecting, characterizing, and monitoring patients with and without COVID-19 beginning in March 2020. To allow for case-control analyses, patients with COVID-19 and patients with non-COVID-19 acute respiratory illness were included. Results: SUPERNOVA included 1,235 participants with COVID-19 and 707 participants with other acute respiratory illnesses hospitalized during February through December 2020. Most participants were male (93.1%), with a median age of 70 years, and 45.8% non-Hispanic Black and 32.6% non-Hispanic White. Among those with COVID-19, 28.2% were transferred to an intensive care unit, 9.4% received invasive mechanical ventilation, and 13.9% died. Compared with controls, after adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, COVID-19 case-patients had significantly higher risk of mortality, respiratory failure, and invasive mechanical ventilation, and longer hospital stays. Discussion: Strengths of the SUPERNOVA platform for COVID-19 surveillance include the ability to collect and integrate multiple types of data, including clinical and illness outcome information, and SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test results from respiratory and serum specimens. Analysis of data from this platform also enables formal comparisons of participants with and without COVID-19. Surveillance data collected during a public health emergency from this key U.S. population of Veterans will be useful for epidemiologic investigations of COVID-19 spectrum of disease, underlying medical conditions, virus variants, and vaccine effectiveness, according to public health priorities and needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Adult , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e31337, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the inability of health systems to leverage existing system infrastructure in order to rapidly develop and apply broad analytical tools that could inform state- and national-level policymaking, as well as patient care delivery in hospital settings. The COVID-19 pandemic has also led to highlighted systemic disparities in health outcomes and access to care based on race or ethnicity, gender, income-level, and urban-rural divide. Although the United States seems to be recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic owing to widespread vaccination efforts and increased public awareness, there is an urgent need to address the aforementioned challenges. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to inform the feasibility of leveraging broad, statewide datasets for population health-driven decision-making by developing robust analytical models that predict COVID-19-related health care resource utilization across patients served by Indiana's statewide Health Information Exchange. METHODS: We leveraged comprehensive datasets obtained from the Indiana Network for Patient Care to train decision forest-based models that can predict patient-level need of health care resource utilization. To assess these models for potential biases, we tested model performance against subpopulations stratified by age, race or ethnicity, gender, and residence (urban vs rural). RESULTS: For model development, we identified a cohort of 96,026 patients from across 957 zip codes in Indiana, United States. We trained the decision models that predicted health care resource utilization by using approximately 100 of the most impactful features from a total of 1172 features created. Each model and stratified subpopulation under test reported precision scores >70%, accuracy and area under the receiver operating curve scores >80%, and sensitivity scores approximately >90%. We noted statistically significant variations in model performance across stratified subpopulations identified by age, race or ethnicity, gender, and residence (urban vs rural). CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the possibility of developing decision models capable of predicting patient-level health care resource utilization across a broad, statewide region with considerable predictive performance. However, our models present statistically significant variations in performance across stratified subpopulations of interest. Further efforts are necessary to identify root causes of these biases and to rectify them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Information Exchange , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Dermatol Surg ; 47(7): 931-933, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reallocation of health care resources to focus on the acute care needs of COVID-19 patients leads to a delay and deferral of outpatient surgical procedures such as Mohs surgery. OBJECTIVE: Planning for the resumption of regular outpatient surgical care and preparing for future surges in COVID-19 cases requires identifying surrogate markers of health care demand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: United States national and state-based Google search data for "Mohs surgery" and other common elective surgical and cosmetic procedures were evaluated. These were compared with national and state-wide COVID-19 case number and death data from the Johns Hopkins University. Pearson correlation coefficients were generated to assess the association between COVID-19 cases and deaths with Google search trends. RESULTS: Search volume for "Mohs surgery" and other elective surgical and cosmetic procedures significantly decreased as the number of new deaths from COVID-19 increased. Statistically significant inverse correlation was noted between "Mohs surgery" search volume and new COVID-19 deaths on a national and state-based level. CONCLUSION: Search metric analysis may be used as part of a big data model to help predict health care demand during the reopening phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cosmetic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Mohs Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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