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1.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(5): 6, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231724
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 29: e941209, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241089

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI), or machine learning, is an ancient concept based on the assumption that human thought and reasoning can be mechanized. AI techniques have been used in diagnostic medicine for several decades, particularly in image analysis and clinical diagnosis. During the COVID-19 pandemic, AI was critical in genome sequencing, drug and vaccine development, identifying disease outbreaks, monitoring disease spread, and tracking viral variants. AI-driven approaches complement human-curated ones, including traditional public health surveillance. Preparation for future pandemics will require the combined efforts of collaborative surveillance networks, which currently include the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Center for Forecasting and Outbreak Analytics and the World Health Organization (WHO) Hub for Pandemic and Epidemic Intelligence, which will use AI combined with international cooperation to implement AI in surveillance programs. This Editorial aims to provide an update on the uses and limitations of AI in infectious disease surveillance and pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , United States , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Artificial Intelligence , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology
6.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted some dietary habits of Americans. OBJECTIVE: We examined characteristics associated with a high intake of sweet foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) during the COVID-19 pandemic among US adults. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: The SummerStyles survey data were collected in 2021 among 4034 US adults (≥18 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequencies were measured of consuming various sweet foods (chocolate/candy, doughnuts/sweet rolls/Danish/muffins/Pop-Tarts, cookies/cake/pie/brownies, and ice cream/frozen desserts) and SSB (regular sodas, sweetened coffee/tea drinks fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The responses were categorized into 0, >0 to <1, 1 to <2, and ≥2 times/day. The descriptive variables were sociodemographics, food insecurity, weight status, metropolitan status, census regions, and eating habit changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Multinomial regressions were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for being a high consumer of sweet foods and SSB after controlling for characteristics. RESULTS: During 2021, 15% of adults reported consuming sweet foods ≥2 times/day, and 30% reported drinking SSB ≥2 times/day. The factors that were significantly associated with greater odds of high sweet food intake (≥2 times/day) were lower household income (AOR = 1.53 for <$35,000 vs. ≥$100,000), often/sometimes experiencing food insecurity (AOR = 1.41 vs. never), and eating more sweet foods than usual since start of the pandemic (AOR = 2.47 vs. same as usual). The factors that were significantly associated with greater odds of high SSB intake (≥2 times/day) were males (AOR = 1.51), lower education (AOR = 1.98 for ≤high school; AOR = 1.33 for some college vs. college graduate), currently having children (AOR = 1.65), living in nonmetropolitan areas (AOR = 1.34), and drinking more SSB than usual since the pandemic began (AOR = 2.23 vs. same as usual). Younger age, Black race, and reductions in consumption during COVID-19 were related to lower sweet food and SSB intakes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, which identified high consumers of sweet foods or SSB, can be used to inform efforts to reduce consumers' added sugars intake during pandemic recovery and support their health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Energy Drinks , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Male , Child , Humans , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Female , Beverages , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutrition Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fruit
7.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286734, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Schools close in reaction to seasonal influenza outbreaks and, on occasion, pandemic influenza. The unintended costs of reactive school closures associated with influenza or influenza-like illness (ILI) has not been studied previously. We estimated the costs of ILI-related reactive school closures in the United States over eight academic years. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data on ILI-related reactive school closures from August 1, 2011 to June 30, 2019 to estimate the costs of the closures, which included productivity costs for parents, teachers, and non-teaching school staff. Productivity cost estimates were evaluated by multiplying the number of days for each closure by the state- and year-specific average hourly or daily wage rates for parents, teachers, and school staff. We subdivided total cost and cost per student estimates by school year, state, and urbanicity of school location. RESULTS: The estimated productivity cost of the closures was $476 million in total during the eight years, with most (90%) of the costs occurring between 2016-2017 and 2018-2019, and in Tennessee (55%) and Kentucky (21%). Among all U.S. public schools, the annual cost per student was much higher in Tennessee ($33) and Kentucky ($19) than any other state ($2.4 in the third highest state) or the national average ($1.2). The cost per student was higher in rural areas ($2.9) or towns ($2.5) than cities ($0.6) or suburbs ($0.5). Locations with higher costs tended to have both more closures and closures with longer durations. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, we found significant heterogeneity in year-to-year costs of ILI-associated reactive school closures. These costs have been greatest in Tennessee and Kentucky and been elevated in rural or town areas relative to cities or suburbs. Our findings might provide evidence to support efforts to reduce the burden of seasonal influenza in these disproportionately impacted states or communities.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Kentucky , Students , Schools
8.
JAMA ; 329(17): 1447-1448, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241051

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint recommends increasing US global health funding levels, outlines steps for ensuring optimal integration and coordination of activities, and discusses ways to elevate noncommunicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Healthcare Financing , International Cooperation , Global Health/economics , United States
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2315902, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240740

ABSTRACT

Importance: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) enrollees receive care for COVID-19 in both VHA and non-VHA (ie, community) hospitals, but little is known about the frequency or outcomes of care for veterans with COVID-19 in VHA vs community hospitals. Objective: To compare outcomes among veterans admitted for COVID-19 in VHA vs community hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used VHA and Medicare data from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021, on hospitalizations for COVID-19 in 121 VHA and 4369 community hospitals in the US among a national cohort of veterans (aged ≥65 years) enrolled in both the VHA and Medicare with VHA care in the year prior to hospitalization for COVID-19 based on the primary diagnosis code. Exposure: Admission to VHA vs community hospitals. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were 30-day mortality and 30-day readmission. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance observable patient characteristics (eg, demographic characteristics, comorbidity, mechanical ventilation on admission, area-level social vulnerability, distance to VHA vs community hospitals, and date of admission) between VHA and community hospitals. Results: The cohort included 64 856 veterans (mean [SD] age, 77.6 [8.0] years; 63 562 men [98.0%]) dually enrolled in the VHA and Medicare who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Most (47 821 [73.7%]) were admitted to community hospitals (36 362 [56.1%] admitted to community hospitals via Medicare, 11 459 [17.7%] admitted to community hospitals reimbursed via VHA's Care in the Community program, and 17 035 [26.3%] admitted to VHA hospitals). Admission to community hospitals was associated with higher unadjusted and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality compared with admission to VHA hospitals (crude mortality, 12 951 of 47 821 [27.1%] vs 3021 of 17 035 [17.7%]; P < .001; risk-adjusted odds ratio, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.21-1.55]; P < .001). Readmission within 30 days was less common after admission to community compared with VHA hospitals (4898 of 38 576 [12.7%] vs 2006 of 14 357 [14.0%]; risk-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.86-0.92]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that most hospitalizations for COVID-19 among VHA enrollees aged 65 years or older were in community hospitals and that veterans experienced higher mortality in community hospitals than in VHA hospitals. The VHA must understand the sources of the mortality difference to plan care for VHA enrollees during future COVID-19 surges and the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Male , Humans , Aged , United States/epidemiology , Medicare , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Veterans Health , Hospitalization , Hospitals
11.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1112575, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240527

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the health and wellbeing of older adult populations through increased morbidity, mortality, and social exclusion. However, the impact of COVID-19 on the health of older adults through food security has received relatively little attention, despite the strong impact of diet quality on the health and longevity of older adults. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify sociodemographic and socioeconomic predictors of self-reported food insecurity before and early in the COVID-19 pandemic among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. Methods: Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older adults in the United States, we examined the associations between sociodemographic and socioeconomic predictors of self-reported food insecurity between 2018 (N = 2,413) and June 2020 (N = 2,216) using population-weighted multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity doubled among participants from 2018 (4.83%) to June 2020 (9.54%). In 2018, non-Hispanic Black and rural residents were more likely to report food insecurity, while individuals with higher education and greater wealth were less likely to report food insecurity in adjusted models. In June 2020, those who were relatively younger, not working due to a disability, and renting were more likely to report food insecurity. Those with an increased number of functional limitations, a recent onset of a work-limiting disability, and those who were no longer homeowners experienced an elevated longitudinal risk for food insecurity. Conclusion: Future research should examine effective policies and interventions to address the disproportionate impacts of COVID-19 on populations at a heightened risk of experiencing food insecurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Food Supply , Diet , Food Insecurity
12.
JAMA ; 329(18): 1547-1548, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240399

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint discusses how and why cross-market hospital mergers are different than prototypical within-market mergers in their effects on patients and communities, why the trend may be accelerating, and future policy and research directions.


Subject(s)
Antitrust Laws , Economic Competition , Health Facility Merger , Economic Competition/legislation & jurisprudence , Economic Competition/trends , Hospitals , United States , Health Facility Merger/economics , Health Facility Merger/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Facility Merger/trends
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(6): 141-144, 2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240195

ABSTRACT

At its October 2022 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices* (ACIP) approved the Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule for Ages 19 Years or Older, United States, 2023. The 2023 adult immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes to the cover page, tables, notes, and appendix from the 2022 immunization schedule.† This schedule can be found on the CDC immunization schedule website (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules). Health care providers are advised to use the cover page, tables, notes, and appendix together to determine recommended vaccinations for patient populations. This adult immunization schedule is recommended by ACIP (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip) and approved by CDC (https://www.cdc.gov), the American College of Physicians (https://www.acponline.org), the American Academy of Family Physicians (https://www.aafp.org), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (https://www.acog.org), the American College of Nurse-Midwives (https://www.midwife.org), the American Academy of Physician Associates (https://www.aapa.org), the American Pharmacists Association (https://www.pharmacist.com), and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (https://shea-online.org).


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Immunization , Adult , Humans , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Immunization Schedule , United States , Vaccination
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 375, 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240087

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mentorship is an essential component of research capacity building for young researchers in the health sciences. The mentorship environment in resource-limited settings is gradually improving. This article describes mentees' experiences in a mentorship program for junior academicians amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Tanzania. METHODS: This is a survey study that examined the experiences of mentees who participated in a mentorship program developed as part of the Transforming Health Education in Tanzania (THET) project. The THET project was funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) under a consortium of three partnering academic institutions in Tanzania and two collaborating US-based institutions. Senior faculty members of respective academic institutions were designated as mentors of junior faculty. Quarterly reports submitted by mentees for the first four years of the mentorship program from 2018 to 2022 were used as data sources. RESULTS: The mentorship program included a total of 12 mentees equally selected from each of the three health training institutions in Tanzania. The majority (7/12) of the mentees in the program were males. All mentees had a master's degree, and the majorities (8/12) were members of Schools/Faculties of Medicine. Most mentors (9/10) were from Tanzania's three partnering health training institutions. All mentors had an academic rank of senior lecturer or professor. Despite the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the regular weekly meetings between mentors and mentees were not affected. By the fourth year of the mentorship program, more than three-quarters of mentees had published research related to the mentorship program in a peer-reviewed journal, over half had enrolled in Ph.D. studies, and half had applied for and won competitive grant awards. Almost all mentees reported being satisfied with the mentorship program and their achievements. CONCLUSION: The mentorship program enhanced the skills and experiences of the mentees as evidenced by the quality of their research outputs and their dissemination of research findings. The mentorship program encouraged mentees to further their education and enhanced other skills such as grant writing. These results support the initiation of similar mentorship programs in other institutions to expand their capacity in biomedical, social, and clinical research, especially in resource-limited settings, such as Sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mentors , United States , Male , Humans , Female , Universities , Tanzania , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
15.
Surg Endosc ; 37(8): 6558-6564, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19- pandemic significantly impacted metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) practices due to large-scale surgery cancellations along with staff and supply shortages. We analyzed sleeve gastrectomy (SG) hospital-level financial metrics before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Hospital cost-accounting software (MicroStrategy, Tysons, VA) was reviewed for revenues, costs, and profits per SG at an academic hospital (2017-2022). Actual figures were obtained, not insurance charge estimates or hospital projections. Fixed costs were obtained through surgery-specific allocation of inpatient hospital and operating-room costs. Direct variable costs were analyzed with sub-components including: (1) labor and benefits, (2) implants, (3) drug costs, and 4) medical/surgical supplies. The pre-COVID-19 period (10/2017-2/2020) and post-COVID-19 period (5/2020-9/2022) financial metrics were compared with student's t-test. Data from 3/2020 to 4/2020 were excluded due to COVID-19-related changes. RESULTS: A total of 739 SG patients were included. Average length of stay (LOS), Center for Medicaid and Medicare Case Mix Index (CMI), and percentage of patients with commercial insurance were similar pre vs. post-COVID-19 (p > 0.05). There were more SG performed per quarter pre-COVID-19 than post-COVID-19 (36 vs. 22; p = 0.0056). Pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 financial metrics per SG differed significantly for, respectively, revenues ($19,134 vs. $20,983) total variable cost ($9457 vs. $11,235), total fixed cost ($2036 vs. $4018), total profit ($7571 vs. $5442), and labor and benefits cost ($2535 vs. $3734; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The post-COVID-19 period was characterized by significantly increased SG fixed cost (i.e., building maintenance, equipment, overhead) and labor costs (increased contract labor), resulting in precipitous profit decline that crosses the break-even in calendar year quarter (CQ) 3, 2022. Potential solutions include minimizing contract labor cost and decreasing LOS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , Medicare , COVID-19/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Gastrectomy , Retrospective Studies , Obesity, Morbid/surgery
16.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 118(6): 1069-1079, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239981

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute infectious gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common reason for outpatient visits and hospitalizations in the United States. This study aimed to understand the demographic and clinical characteristics, common pathogens detected, health care resource utilization (HRU), and cost among adult outpatients with AGE visiting US health systems. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using one of the largest hospital discharge databases (PINC AI Healthcare Database) in the United States. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with a principal diagnosis of AGE during an outpatient visit between January 1, 2016, and June 30, 2021, were included. Pathogen detection analysis was performed in those with microbiology data available. RESULTS: Among 248,896 patients, the mean age was 44.3 years (range 18-89+ years), 62.9% were female, and 68.5% were White. More than half (62.0%) of the patients did not have any preexisting comorbidity, and only 18.3% underwent stool workup at the hospital. Most patients (84.7%) were seen in the emergency department, and most (96.4%) were discharged home. Within 30 days of discharge, 1.0% were hospitalized, and 2.8% had another outpatient visit due to AGE. The mean cost of the index visit plus 30-day AGE-related follow-up was $1,338 per patient, amounting to $333,060,182 for the total study population. Among patients with microbiology data available (n = 12,469), common pathogens detected were Clostridioides difficile (32.2%), norovirus (6.3%), and Campylobacter spp. (4.0%). DISCUSSION: AGE is a common and costly disease affecting adults of all ages and more females than males, including individuals with or without baseline conditions in a hospital-based outpatient setting. C. difficile was the most common pathogen detected.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Gastroenteritis , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Financial Stress , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9336, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239962

ABSTRACT

In the present work, we used daily diary methodology to investigate the influence of awe on stress, somatic health (e.g., pain symptoms), and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. We recruited a sample of community adults (N = 269) and a sample of healthcare professionals (N = 145) in the United States. Across both samples, we found that awe and well-being increased, and stress and somatic health symptoms decreased over the 22-day diary period. In daily level analyses, we found that the more daily awe people experienced, the less stress, less somatic health symptoms, and greater well-being they felt. Daily experiences of awe can benefit individuals during times of acute and chronic stress-such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , United States , Longitudinal Studies , Emotions , Pain
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol abuse. Its prevalence and associated risk factors are not well documented. Heavy drinking, on the other hand, has a well-documented association with bereavement. This report uses a cross-sectional, population-based survey to estimate prevalence of bingeing and its association with new bereavement. Bingeing is defined as 4 or more drinks (women) or 5 or more drinks (men) in a 2-4-h setting. For the first time in 2019, the Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) included a bereavement item: 'Have you experienced the death of a family member or close friend in the years 2018 or 2019?' METHODS: Georgia BRFSS is a complex sampling survey administered annually. It is designed to represent the 8.1 million people aged 18 years and older in the U.S. state of Georgia. Alcohol consumption patterns are routinely measured in the common core. In 2019, the state added a new item probing for bereavement in the prior 24 months predating the COVID-19 pandemic. Imputation and weighting techniques were applied to yield the population prevalence rates of new bereavement, bingeing, and their co-occurrence with other high-risk health behaviors and outcomes. Multivariate models, adjusted for age, gender, and race, were used to estimate the risk for other unhealthy behaviors posed by the co-occurrence of bereavement and bingeing. RESULTS: In Georgia, bereavement (45.8%), and alcohol consumption (48.8%) are common. Bereavement and alcohol use co-occurred among 1,796,817 people (45% of all drinkers) with a subset of 608,282 persons reporting bereavement combined with bingeing. The most common types of bereavement were death of a friend/neighbor (30.7%) or three plus deaths (31.8%). CONCLUSIONS: While bingeing is a known risk to public health, its co-occurrence with recent bereavement is a new observation. Public health surveillance systems need to monitor this co-occurrence to protect both individual and societal health. In a time of global bereavement, documenting its influence on binge drinking can support the work towards Sustainable Development Goal #3-Good health and Well-Being.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , United States , Georgia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethanol , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
19.
Kidney360 ; 4(5): 687-699, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239599

ABSTRACT

Collapsing Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has been reported relatively frequently in African American (AA) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it is associated almost always with Apolipoprotein L gen 1 (APOL1) high-risk variants. We reviewed the published literature from April 2020 to November 2022 searching for non-African American (non-AA) patients with FSGS associated with COVID-19 (eight White patients, six Hispanic patients, three Asian patients, one Indian patient, and one Asian Indian patient). The following histologic patterns were found: collapsing (n=11), not otherwise specified (n=5), tip (n=2), and perihilar (n=1). Fifteen of the 19 patients had AKI. The APOL1 genotype was reported in only six of the 19 non-AA patients. Three of them (two Hispanic patients and one White patient) with collapsing FSGS had high-risk APOL1 variants. The other three patients (two White patients and one Hispanic patient with the collapsing variant, tip variant, and not otherwise specified) had low-risk APOL1 variants. Among 53 African American patients with collapsing FSGS associated with COVID-19, 48 had high-risk APOL1 variants and five had low-risk APOL1 variants. We conclude that in non-AA patients, FSGS is a rare complication of COVID-19. FSGS associated with COVID-19 can occur rarely with low-risk APOL1 variants in non-AA and AA patients. Non-AA patients reported to be associated with high-risk APOL1 variants possibly reflect inaccuracy of self-reported race with AA admixture because of unknown ancestry. Given the importance of APOL1 in the pathogenesis of FSGS associated with viral infection and to avoid racial bias, it seems appropriate that APOL1 testing be considered in patients with FSGS associated with COVID-19, regardless of self-reported race.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/genetics , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype
20.
Int J Soc Determinants Health Health Serv ; 53(3): 311-322, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239578

ABSTRACT

Social protection can buffer the negative impacts of unemployment on health. Have stimulus packages introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic mitigated potential harms to health from unemployment? We performed a systematic review of the health effects of job loss during the first year of the pandemic. We searched three electronic databases and identified 49 studies for inclusion. Three United States-based studies found that stimulus programs mitigated the impact of job loss on food security and mental health. Furloughs additionally appeared to reduce negative impacts when they were paid. However, despite the implementation of large-scale stimulus packages to reduce economic harms, we observed a clear pattern that job losses were nevertheless significantly associated with negative impacts, particularly on mental health, quality of life, and food security. We also observe suggestive evidence that COVID-related job loss was associated with child maltreatment, worsening dental health, and poor chronic disease outcomes. Overall, although we did find evidence that income-support policies appeared to help protect people from the negative health consequences of pandemic-related job loss, they were not sufficient to fully offset the threats to health. Future research should ascertain how to ensure adequate access to and generosity of social protection programs during epidemics and economic downturns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Unemployment/psychology , Mental Health
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