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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1324-1329, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782537

ABSTRACT

Since February 12, 2020, approximately 6.5 million cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and 190,000 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths have been reported in the United States (1,2). Symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are milder in children compared with adults (3). Persons aged <21 years constitute 26% of the U.S. population (4), and this report describes characteristics of U.S. persons in that population who died in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as reported by public health jurisdictions. Among 121 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths reported to CDC among persons aged <21 years in the United States during February 12-July 31, 2020, 63% occurred in males, 10% of decedents were aged <1 year, 20% were aged 1-9 years, 70% were aged 10-20 years, 45% were Hispanic persons, 29% were non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, and 4% were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Among these 121 decedents, 91 (75%) had an underlying medical condition,* 79 (65%) died after admission to a hospital, and 39 (32%) died at home or in the emergency department (ED).† These data show that nearly three quarters of SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among infants, children, adolescents, and young adults have occurred in persons aged 10-20 years, with a disproportionate percentage among young adults aged 18-20 years and among Hispanics, Blacks, AI/ANs, and persons with underlying medical conditions. Careful monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infections, deaths, and other severe outcomes among persons aged <21 years remains particularly important as schools reopen in the United States. Ongoing evaluation of effectiveness of prevention and control strategies will also be important to inform public health guidance for schools and parents and other caregivers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1305-1309, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782534

ABSTRACT

After recognition of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid- to late February 2020, indicators of influenza activity began to decline in the Northern Hemisphere. These changes were attributed to both artifactual changes related to declines in routine health seeking for respiratory illness as well as real changes in influenza virus circulation because of widespread implementation of measures to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data from clinical laboratories in the United States indicated a 61% decrease in the number of specimens submitted (from a median of 49,696 per week during September 29, 2019-February 29, 2020, to 19,537 during March 1-May 16, 2020) and a 98% decrease in influenza activity as measured by percentage of submitted specimens testing positive (from a median of 19.34% to 0.33%). Interseasonal (i.e., summer) circulation of influenza in the United States (May 17-August 8, 2020) is currently at historical lows (median = 0.20% tests positive in 2020 versus 2.35% in 2019, 1.04% in 2018, and 2.36% in 2017). Influenza data reported to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) FluNet platform from three Southern Hemisphere countries that serve as robust sentinel sites for influenza from Oceania (Australia), South America (Chile), and Southern Africa (South Africa) showed very low influenza activity during June-August 2020, the months that constitute the typical Southern Hemisphere influenza season. In countries or jurisdictions where extensive community mitigation measures are maintained (e.g., face masks, social distancing, school closures, and teleworking), those locations might have little influenza circulation during the upcoming 2020-21 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The use of community mitigation measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, plus influenza vaccination, are likely to be effective in reducing the incidence and impact of influenza, and some of these mitigation measures could have a role in preventing influenza in future seasons. However, given the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainty of continued community mitigation measures, it is important to plan for seasonal influenza circulation in the United States this fall and winter. Influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months remains the best method for influenza prevention and is especially important this season when SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus might cocirculate (1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Australia/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1300-1304, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782533

ABSTRACT

Nursing homes are high-risk settings for outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). During the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. health departments worked to improve infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in nursing homes to prevent outbreaks and limit the spread of COVID-19 in affected facilities; however, limited resources have hampered health departments' ability to rapidly provide IPC support to all nursing homes within their jurisdictions. Since 2008, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has published health inspection results and quality ratings based on their Five-Star Quality Rating System for all CMS-certified nursing homes (3); these ratings might be associated with facility-level risk factors for COVID-19 outbreaks. On April 17, 2020, West Virginia became the first state to mandate and conduct COVID-19 testing for all nursing home residents and staff members to identify and reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in these settings (4). West Virginia's census of nursing home outbreaks was used to examine associations between CMS star ratings and COVID-19 outbreaks. Outbreaks, defined as two or more cases within 14 days (with at least one resident case), were identified in 14 (11%) of 123 nursing homes. Compared with 1-star-rated (lowest rated) nursing homes, the odds of a COVID-19 outbreak were 87% lower among 2- to 3-star-rated facilities (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.54) and 94% lower among 4- to 5-star-rated facilities (aOR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.006-0.39). Health departments could use star ratings to help identify priority nursing homes in their jurisdictions to inform the allocation of IPC resources. Efforts to mitigate outbreaks in high-risk nursing homes are necessary to reduce overall COVID-19 mortality and associated disparities. Moreover, such efforts should incorporate activities to improve the overall quality of life and care of nursing home residents and staff members and address the social and health inequities that have been recognized as a prominent feature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (5).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care/standards , Aged , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Humans , Nursing Homes/standards , Pandemics , Risk Assessment/methods , United States/epidemiology , West Virginia/epidemiology
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21279, 2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Student mental health in higher education has been an increasing concern. The COVID-19 pandemic situation has brought this vulnerable population into renewed focus. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to conduct a timely assessment of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of college students. METHODS: We conducted interview surveys with 195 students at a large public university in the United States to understand the effects of the pandemic on their mental health and well-being. The data were analyzed through quantitative and qualitative methods. RESULTS: Of the 195 students, 138 (71%) indicated increased stress and anxiety due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Multiple stressors were identified that contributed to the increased levels of stress, anxiety, and depressive thoughts among students. These included fear and worry about their own health and of their loved ones (177/195, 91% reported negative impacts of the pandemic), difficulty in concentrating (173/195, 89%), disruptions to sleeping patterns (168/195, 86%), decreased social interactions due to physical distancing (167/195, 86%), and increased concerns on academic performance (159/195, 82%). To cope with stress and anxiety, participants have sought support from others and helped themselves by adopting either negative or positive coping mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the long-lasting pandemic situation and onerous measures such as lockdown and stay-at-home orders, the COVID-19 pandemic brings negative impacts on higher education. The findings of our study highlight the urgent need to develop interventions and preventive strategies to address the mental health of college students.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs ; 49(5): 409-415, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779308

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions in health care in the perinatal period and women's childbirth experiences. Organizations that represent health care professionals have responded with general practice guidelines for pregnant women, but limited attention has been devoted to mental health in the perinatal period during a pandemic. Evidence suggests that in this context, significant psychological distress may have the potential for long-term psychological harm for mothers and infants. For infants, this risk may extend into early childhood. In this commentary, we present recommendations for practice, research, and policy related to mental health in the perinatal period. These recommendations include the use of a trauma-informed framework to promote social support and infant attachment, use of technology and telehealth, and assessment for mental health needs and experiences of violence.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Trauma/nursing , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
8.
9.
PM R ; 12(7): 714-720, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774485

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic is resulting in an accelerated conversion of in-person physician visits to virtual visits. As barriers to adoption of telemedicine are rapidly decreasing, it is important to recognize the need for practical and immediately deployable information that can improve doctor-patient interactions, facilitate accurate documentation, and increase confidence in the transition to virtual visits. In this article we aim to outline the components of an outpatient telemedicine visit for physiatrists, with a particular focus on an adapted virtual physical examination. Uses of telemedicine may include future large scale concerns such as natural disasters or climate change. We describe a general approach to the visit, review definitions of terms commonly used in telemedicine, and offer tips for optimizing the encounter.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapy Modalities/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Program Development , Role , United States
10.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(4): 302-312, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773436

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States led to nationwide stay-at-home orders and school closures. Declines in energy expenditure resulting from canceled physical education classes and reduced physical activity may elevate childhood obesity risk. This study estimated the impact of COVID-19 on childhood obesity. METHODS: A microsimulation model simulated the trajectory of a nationally representative kindergarten cohort's body mass index z-scores and childhood obesity prevalence from April 2020 to March 2021 under the control scenario without COVID-19 and under the 4 alternative scenarios with COVID-19-Scenario 1: 2-month nationwide school closure in April and May 2020; Scenario 2: Scenario 1 followed by a 10% reduction in daily physical activity in the summer from June to August; Scenario 3: Scenario 2 followed by 2-month school closure in September and October; and Scenario 4: Scenario 3 followed by an additional 2-month school closure in November and December. RESULTS: Relative to the control scenario without COVID-19, Scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 were associated with an increase in the mean body mass index z-scores by 0.056 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.055-0.056), 0.084 (95%CI: 0.084-0.085), 0.141 (95%CI: 0.140-0.142), and 0.198 (95%CI: 0.197-0.199), respectively, and an increase in childhood obesity prevalence by 0.640 (95%CI: 0.515-0.765), 0.972 (95%CI: 0.819-1.126), 1.676 (95%CI: 1.475-1.877), and 2.373 (95%CI: 2.135-2.612) percentage points, respectively. Compared to girls and non-Hispanic whites and Asians, the impact of COVID-19 on childhood obesity was modestly larger among boys and non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, respectively. CONCLUSION: Public health interventions are urgently called to promote an active lifestyle and engagement in physical activity among children to mitigate the adverse impact of COVID-19 on unhealthy weight gains and childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Body Height , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Comorbidity , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Energy Metabolism , Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Prevalence , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology
12.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(9): 1027-1036, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771247

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly disrupted traditional modes of operation in health care and education. In March 2020, institutions in the United States began to implement a range of policies to discourage direct contact and encourage social distancing. These measures have placed us in an unprecedented position where education can no longer occur at close quarters-most notably, around a multiheaded microscope-but must instead continue at a distance. This guide is intended to be a resource for pathologists and pathologists-in-training who wish to leverage technology to continue collaboration, teaching, and education in this era. The article is focused mainly on anatomic pathology; however, the technologies easily lend themselves to clinical pathology education as well. Our aim is to provide curated lists of various online resources that can be used for virtual learning in pathology, provide tips and tricks, and share our personal experience with these technologies. The lists include videoconferencing platforms; pathology Web sites; free online educational resources, including social media; and whole slide imaging collections. We are currently living through a unique situation without a precedent or guidebook, and we hope that this guide will enable the community of pathology educators worldwide to embrace the opportunities that 21st century technology provides.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pathology/education , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Humans , United States
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 721-769, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The US faces remarkable food and nutrition challenges. A new federal effort to strengthen and coordinate nutrition research could rapidly generate the evidence base needed to address these multiple national challenges. However, the relevant characteristics of such an effort have been uncertain. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to provide an objective, informative summary of 1) the mounting diet-related health burdens facing our nation and corresponding economic, health equity, national security, and sustainability implications; 2) the current federal nutrition research landscape and existing mechanisms for its coordination; 3) the opportunities for and potential impact of new fundamental, clinical, public health, food and agricultural, and translational scientific discoveries; and 4) the various options for further strengthening and coordinating federal nutrition research, including corresponding advantages, disadvantages, and potential executive and legislative considerations. METHODS: We reviewed government and other published documents on federal nutrition research; held various discussions with expert groups, advocacy organizations, and scientific societies; and held in-person or phone meetings with >50 federal staff in executive and legislative roles, as well as with a variety of other stakeholders in academic, industry, and nongovernment organizations. RESULTS: Stark national nutrition challenges were identified. More Americans are sick than are healthy, largely from rising diet-related illnesses. These conditions create tremendous strains on productivity, health care costs, health disparities, government budgets, US economic competitiveness, and military readiness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has further laid bare these strains, including food insecurity, major diet-related comorbidities for poor outcomes from COVID-19 such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, and insufficient surveillance on and coordination of our food system. More than 10 federal departments and agencies currently invest in critical nutrition research, yet with relatively flat investments over several decades. Coordination also remains suboptimal, documented by multiple governmental reports over 50 years. Greater harmonization and expansion of federal investment in nutrition science, not a silo-ing or rearrangement of existing investments, has tremendous potential to generate new discoveries to improve and sustain the health of all Americans. Two identified key strategies to achieve this were as follows: 1) a new authority for robust cross-governmental coordination of nutrition research and other nutrition-related policy and 2) strengthened authority, investment, and coordination for nutrition research within the NIH. These strategies were found to be complementary, together catalyzing important new science, partnerships, coordination, and returns on investment. Additional complementary actions to accelerate federal nutrition research were identified at the USDA. CONCLUSIONS: The need and opportunities for strengthened federal nutrition research are clear, with specific identified options to help create the new leadership, strategic planning, coordination, and investment the nation requires to address the multiple nutrition-related challenges and grasp the opportunities before us.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nutrition Disorders/complications , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Research/standards , Cost of Illness , Health Care Costs , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Humans , Military Personnel , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics , Nutrition Disorders/economics , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , United States Department of Agriculture/economics , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economics
18.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 35(4): 196-197, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657165

ABSTRACT

Annually, the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) sets advocacy goals. The goals include legislative and policy priorities. This article sets forth current NASN legislative priorities and results of advocacy that benefit students. The NASN Board of Directors are instrumental in moving policy priorities forward. In addition, this article shares NASN advocacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Prejudice/legislation & jurisprudence , Prejudice/prevention & control , School Health Services/standards , School Nursing/standards , Tobacco Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoking/prevention & control , Adolescent , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Lunch , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , United States
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