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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 254-257, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089245

ABSTRACT

Universal masking is one of the prevention strategies recommended by CDC to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). As of February 1, 2021, 38 states and the District of Columbia had universal masking mandates. Mask wearing has also been mandated by executive order for federal property* as well as on domestic and international transportation conveyances.† Masks substantially reduce exhaled respiratory droplets and aerosols from infected wearers and reduce exposure of uninfected wearers to these particles. Cloth masks§ and medical procedure masks¶ fit more loosely than do respirators (e.g., N95 facepieces). The effectiveness of cloth and medical procedure masks can be improved by ensuring that they are well fitted to the contours of the face to prevent leakage of air around the masks' edges. During January 2021, CDC conducted experimental simulations using pliable elastomeric source and receiver headforms to assess the extent to which two modifications to medical procedure masks, 1) wearing a cloth mask over a medical procedure mask (double masking) and 2) knotting the ear loops of a medical procedure mask where they attach to the mask's edges and then tucking in and flattening the extra material close to the face (knotted and tucked masks), could improve the fit of these masks and reduce the receiver's exposure to an aerosol of simulated respiratory droplet particles of the size considered most important for transmitting SARS-CoV-2. The receiver's exposure was maximally reduced (>95%) when the source and receiver were fitted with modified medical procedure masks. These laboratory-based experiments highlight the importance of good fit to optimize mask performance. Until vaccine-induced population immunity is achieved, universal masking is a highly effective means to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2** when combined with other protective measures, such as physical distancing, avoiding crowds and poorly ventilated indoor spaces, and good hand hygiene. Innovative efforts to improve the fit of cloth and medical procedure masks to enhance their performance merit attention.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Masks/standards , /epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 250-253, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089244

ABSTRACT

Certain hazard controls, including physical barriers, cloth face masks, and other personal protective equipment (PPE), are recommended to reduce coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in the workplace (1). Evaluation of occupational hazard control use for COVID-19 prevention can identify inadequately protected workers and opportunities to improve use. CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health used data from the June 2020 SummerStyles survey to characterize required and voluntary use of COVID-19-related occupational hazard controls among U.S. non-health care workers. A survey-weighted regression model was used to estimate the association between employer provision of hazard controls and voluntary use, and stratum-specific adjusted risk differences (aRDs) among workers reporting household incomes <250% and ≥250% of national poverty thresholds were estimated to assess effect modification by income. Approximately one half (45.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.0%-50.3%) of non-health care workers reported use of hazard controls in the workplace, 55.5% (95% CI = 48.8%-62.2%) of whom reported employer requirements to use them. After adjustment for occupational group and proximity to others at work, voluntary use was approximately double, or 22.3 absolute percentage points higher, among workers who were provided hazard controls than among those who were not. This effect was more apparent among lower-income (aRD = 31.0%) than among higher-income workers (aRD = 16.3%). Employers can help protect workers from COVID-19 by requiring and encouraging use of occupational hazard controls and providing hazard controls to employees (1).


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Mandatory Programs/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Voluntary Programs/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Architectural Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 245-249, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089243

ABSTRACT

On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency concerning the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak (1). In response, many state and local governments issued shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, restricting nonessential activities outside residents' homes (2). CDC initially issued guidance recommending postponing routine adult vaccinations, which was later revised to recommend continuing to administer routine adult vaccines (3). In addition, factors such as disrupted operations of health care facilities and safety concerns regarding exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, resulted in delay or avoidance of routine medical care (4), likely further affecting delivery of routine adult vaccinations. Medicare enrollment and claims data of Parts A (hospital insurance), B (medical insurance), and D (prescription drug insurance) were examined to assess the change in receipt of routine adult vaccines during the pandemic. Weekly receipt of four vaccines (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13], 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV23], tetanus-diphtheria or tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine [Td/Tdap], and recombinant zoster vaccine [RZV]) by Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years during January 5-July 18, 2020, was compared with that during January 6-July 20, 2019, for the total study sample and by race and ethnicity. Overall, weekly administration rates of the four examined vaccines declined by up to 89% after the national emergency declaration in mid-March (1) compared with those during the corresponding period in 2019. During the first week following the national emergency declaration, the weekly vaccination rates were 25%-62% lower than those during the corresponding week in 2019. After reaching their nadirs of 70%-89% below 2019 rates in the second to third week of April 2020, weekly vaccination rates gradually began to recover through mid-July, but by the last study week were still lower than were those during the corresponding period in 2019, with the exception of PPSV23. Vaccination declined sharply for all vaccines studied, overall and across all racial and ethnic groups. While the pandemic continues, vaccination providers should emphasize to patients the importance of continuing to receive routine vaccinations and provide reassurance by explaining the procedures in place to ensure patient safety (3).


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 240-244, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089242

ABSTRACT

Telehealth can facilitate access to care, reduce risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), conserve scarce medical supplies, and reduce strain on health care capacity and facilities while supporting continuity of care. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)-funded health centers* expanded telehealth† services during the COVID-19 pandemic (1). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services eliminated geographic restrictions and enhanced reimbursement so that telehealth services-enabled health centers could expand telehealth services and continue providing care during the pandemic (2,3). CDC and HRSA analyzed data from 245 health centers that completed a voluntary weekly HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Survey§ for 20 consecutive weeks to describe trends in telehealth use. During the weeks ending June 26-November 6, 2020, the overall percentage of weekly health care visits conducted via telehealth (telehealth visits) decreased by 25%, from 35.8% during the week ending June 26 to 26.9% for the week ending November 6, averaging 30.2% over the study period. Weekly telehealth visits declined when COVID-19 cases were decreasing and plateaued as cases were increasing. Health centers in the South and in rural areas consistently reported the lowest average percentage of weekly telehealth visits over the 20 weeks, compared with health centers in other regions and urban areas. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, maintaining and expanding telehealth services will be critical to ensuring access to care while limiting exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/trends , Health Care Surveys , Humans , United States/epidemiology
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 70, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early months of the COVID-19 pandemic were fraught with much uncertainty and some resource constraint. We assessed the change in survival to hospital discharge over time for intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 during the first 3 months of the pandemic and the presence of any surge effects on patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using electronic medical record data for all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units from February 25, 2020, to May 15, 2020, at one of 26 hospitals within an integrated delivery system in the Western USA. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and severity of illness were measured along with medical therapies and hospital outcomes over time. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess temporal changes in survival to hospital discharge during the study period. RESULTS: Of 620 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU [mean age 63.5 years (SD 15.7) and 69% male], 403 (65%) survived to hospital discharge and 217 (35%) died in the hospital. Survival to hospital discharge increased over time, from 60.0% in the first 2 weeks of the study period to 67.6% in the last 2 weeks. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the risk-adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge increased over time (biweekly change, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.40, P = 0.02). Additionally, an a priori-defined explanatory model showed that after adjusting for both hospital occupancy and percent hospital capacity by COVID-19-positive individuals and persons under investigation (PUI), the temporal trend in risk-adjusted patient survival to hospital discharge remained the same (biweekly change, aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.38, P = 0.04). The presence of greater rates of COVID-19 positive/PUI as a percentage of hospital capacity was, however, significantly and inversely associated with survival to hospital discharge (aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: During the early COVID-19 pandemic, risk-adjusted survival to hospital discharge increased over time for critical care patients. An association was also seen between a greater COVID-19-positive/PUI percentage of hospital capacity and a lower survival rate to hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , United States/epidemiology
9.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 41-47, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic generated challenges to the delivery of safe, efficient, and high-quality cancer care. In ambulatory oncology, where most cancer care is delivered, these challenges required the rapid development of infrastructure. OBJECTIVES: This article describes challenges to the design and implementation of ambulatory oncology infrastructures that support clinical oncology care during a pandemic. METHODS: This article reviews clinical experiences in interprofessional, multicenter, academic, and community settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cohesive and efficient services, collaborative processes, and workflows; patient triage and symptom management; technology and equipment; and communication strategies are discussed. National ambulatory care guidelines and practice recommendations are included as applicable and available. FINDINGS: Continued treatment delivery and support for patients with cancer, as well as infrastructure to minimize viral exposure to patients and oncology healthcare workers, are essential when caring for this high-risk population.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/standards , Medical Oncology/standards , Neoplasms/nursing , Oncology Nursing/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Telemedicine/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
10.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 33-40, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding basic epidemiology and public health concepts is essential to the provision of safe care during a pandemic. These basic concepts and terms include containment, mitigation, predictive modeling, latent period, incubation period, reproduction number, case fatality rate, and test sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVES: Public health concepts and terms are defined, described in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and specific implications for oncology nursing practice are discussed. METHODS: A review of public health literature and reputable websites with a focus on COVID-19 data. This article defines epidemiologic and public health concepts and uses examples from the pandemic to illustrate oncology nursing implications. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic is changing oncology nursing care delivery. Oncology nurses need to understand these concepts to anticipate and advocate for optimal oncology care.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/education , Nurse Clinicians/education , Oncology Nursing/education , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/education , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , United States/epidemiology
11.
BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Thromboembolism/virology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
12.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(2): e84-e89, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083161

ABSTRACT

Childhood cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are on the rise as the pandemic continues to rage across the globe. Most children acquire infection from an adult household member. Children may stay asymptomatic, have a pre-symptomatic stage, or present with symptoms (fever, cough, and difficulty breathing being the most common). Nearly one-third of the pediatric cases (32%) in the United States occurred in children age 15 to 17 years. Children are also at risk of a postinfectious hyperinflammatory syndrome called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The risk of vertical transmission is low (2%) in newborns of mothers with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the gold standard for (SARS-CoV-2). Serology should be considered in a child with high clinical suspicion for COVID-19 when NAAT is negative and at least 2 weeks have passed since symptom onset and for assessment of MIS-C. Easy fatigability after COVID-19 infection is reported in adults; however, data in children are lacking. Implementation of early and robust containment strategies coupled with universal COVID-19 vaccination are vital to halt the spread. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(2):e84-e89.].


Subject(s)
/transmission , Pediatrics , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , /epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246300, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081298

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced activity behaviors worldwide. Given the accessibility of running as exercise, gaining information on running behaviors, motivations, and running-related injury (RRI) risk during the pandemic is warranted. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on running volume, behaviors, motives, and RRI changes from the year prior to the pandemic to the timeframe during social isolation restrictions. Runners of all abilities were recruited via social media to complete a custom Qualtrics survey. Demographics, running volume, behaviors, motivations, and injury status were assessed for the year prior to the pandemic, and during social isolation measures. Descriptive statistics and Student's t-tests were used to assess changes in running outcomes during the pandemic. Logistic regressions were used to assess the influence of demographics on running behaviors and injury. Adjusted RRI risk ratios were calculated to determine the odds of sustaining an injury during the pandemic. Alpha was set to.05 for all analyses. A total of 1147 runners (66% females, median age: 35 years) across 15 countries (96% United States) completed the survey. Runners reported increased runs per week (Mean Difference with Standard Error [MD]: 0.30 [0.05], p < .001), sustained runs (MD: 0.44 [0.05], p < .001), mileage (MD: 0.87 [0.33], p = .01), and running times of day (MD: 0.11 [0.03], p < .001) during the pandemic, yet reported less workouts (i.e. sprint intervals; MD: -0.33 [0.06], p < .001), and less motives (MD [SE]: -0.41 [0.04], p < .001). Behavior changes were influenced by running experience and age. There was 1.40 (CI: 1.18,1.61) times the RRI risk during the pandemic compared to prior to the social isolation period. The COVID-19 pandemic influenced runners' behaviors with increased training volume, decreased intensity and motivation, and heightened injury risk. These results provide insights into how physical activity patterns were influenced by large-scale social isolation directives associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Running/injuries , Running/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Pandemics , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology
14.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 76-84, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the environment of an infectious pandemic, vaccines are a primary public health strategy to prevent the spread of disease. With the COVID-19 pandemic, there is heightened interest in safe and effective vaccines and their use in the context of clinical oncology practice. OBJECTIVES: This article provides foundational information about vaccines in general and vaccines developed to protect against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the United States, as well as clinical nurse strategies to apply vaccines in clinical oncology practice. METHODS: The article is based on a review of public health literature and reputable websites about vaccines and their development in clinical care. FINDINGS: This foundational information about vaccines reviews their history and development, as well as the development of COVID-19 vaccines specifically, and discusses COVID-19 vaccines as part of clinical oncology care. Supporting best practices in clinical oncology care, nurses can provide factual, evidence-based information about vaccine safety, effectiveness, and safe administration.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Neoplasms/nursing , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Oncology Nursing/organization & administration , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 217-222, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079856

ABSTRACT

As of February 8, 2021, 59.3 million doses of vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had been distributed in the United States, and 31.6 million persons had received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (1). However, national polls conducted before vaccine distribution began suggested that many persons were hesitant to receive COVID-19 vaccination (2). To examine perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccine and intentions to be vaccinated, in September and December 2020, CDC conducted household panel surveys among a representative sample of U.S. adults. From September to December, vaccination intent (defined as being absolutely certain or very likely to be vaccinated) increased overall (from 39.4% to 49.1%); the largest increase occurred among adults aged ≥65 years. If defined as being absolutely certain, very likely, or somewhat likely to be vaccinated, vaccination intent increased overall from September (61.9%) to December (68.0%). Vaccination nonintent (defined as not intending to receive a COVID-19 vaccination) decreased among all adults (from 38.1% to 32.1%) and among most sociodemographic groups. Younger adults, women, non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, adults living in nonmetropolitan areas, and adults with lower educational attainment, with lower income, and without health insurance were most likely to report lack of intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine increased among adults aged ≥65 years by 17.1 percentage points (from 49.1% to 66.2%), among essential workers by 8.8 points (from 37.1% to 45.9%), and among adults aged 18-64 years with underlying medical conditions by 5.3 points (from 36.5% to 41.8%). Although confidence in COVID-19 vaccines increased during September-December 2020 in the United States, additional efforts to tailor messages and implement strategies to further increase the public's confidence, overall and within specific subpopulations, are needed. Ensuring high and equitable vaccination coverage across all populations is important to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and mitigate the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , /prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 212-216, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079855

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted predominantly by respiratory droplets generated when infected persons cough, sneeze, spit, sing, talk, or breathe. CDC recommends community use of face masks to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (1). As of October 22, 2020, statewide mask mandates were in effect in 33 states and the District of Columbia (2). This study examined whether implementation of statewide mask mandates was associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalization growth rates among different age groups in 10 sites participating in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) in states that issued statewide mask mandates during March 1-October 17, 2020. Regression analysis demonstrated that weekly hospitalization growth rates declined by 2.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-5.5) among adults aged 40-64 years during the first 2 weeks after implementing statewide mask mandates. After mask mandates had been implemented for ≥3 weeks, hospitalization growth rates declined by 5.5 percentage points among persons aged 18-39 years (95% CI = 0.6-10.4) and those aged 40-64 years (95% CI = 0.8-10.2). Statewide mask mandates might be associated with reductions in SARS-CoV-2 transmission and might contribute to reductions in COVID-19 hospitalization growth rates, compared with growth rates during <4 weeks before implementation of the mandate and the implementation week. Mask-wearing is a component of a multipronged strategy to decrease exposure to and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce strain on the health care system, with likely direct effects on COVID-19 morbidity and associated mortality.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 208-211, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079854

ABSTRACT

Approximately 41% of adults aged 18-24 years in the United States are enrolled in a college or university (1). Wearing a face mask can reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (2), and many colleges and universities mandate mask use in public locations and outdoors when within six feet of others. Studies based on self-report have described mask use ranging from 69.1% to 86.1% among adults aged 18-29 years (3); however, more objective measures are needed. Direct observation by trained observers is the accepted standard for monitoring behaviors such as hand hygiene (4). In this investigation, direct observation was used to estimate the proportion of persons wearing masks and the proportion of persons wearing masks correctly (i.e., covering the nose and mouth and secured under the chin*) on campus and at nearby off-campus locations at six rural and suburban universities with mask mandates in the southern and western United States. Trained student observers recorded mask use for up to 8 weeks from fixed sites on campus and nearby. Among 17,200 observed persons, 85.5% wore masks, with 89.7% of those persons wearing the mask correctly (overall correct mask use: 76.7%). Among persons observed indoors, 91.7% wore masks correctly. The proportion correctly wearing masks indoors varied by mask type, from 96.8% for N95-type masks and 92.2% for cloth masks to 78.9% for bandanas, scarves, and similar face coverings. Observed indoor mask use was high at these six universities with mask mandates. Colleges and universities can use direct observation findings to tailor training and messaging toward increasing correct mask use.


Subject(s)
Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/standards , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/psychology , Universities/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , /prevention & control , Humans , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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