Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(49)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541317

ABSTRACT

The development of COVID-19 vaccines was an important breakthrough for ending the pandemic. However, people refusing to get vaccinated diminish the level of community protection afforded to others. In the United States, White evangelicals have proven to be a particularly difficult group to convince to get vaccinated. Here we investigate whether this group can be persuaded to get vaccinated. To do this, we leverage data from two survey experiments, one fielded prior to approval of COVID-19 vaccines (study 1) and one fielded after approval (study 2). In both experiments, respondents were randomly assigned to treatment messages to promote COVID-19 vaccination. In study 1, we find that a message that emphasizes community interest and reciprocity with an invocation of embarrassment for choosing not to vaccinate is the most effective at increasing uptake intentions, while values-consistent messaging appears to be ineffective. In contrast, in study 2 we observe that this message is no longer effective and that most messages produce little change in vaccine intent. This inconsistency may be explained by the characteristics of White evangelicals who remain unvaccinated vis à vis those who got vaccinated. These results demonstrate the importance of retesting messages over time, the apparent limitations of values-targeted messaging, and document the need to consider heterogeneity even within well-defined populations. This work also cautions against drawing broad conclusions from studies carried out at a single point in time during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Persuasive Communication , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , COVID-19/history , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , History, 21st Century , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Seasons , Text Messaging , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Vaccination/methods , /statistics & numerical data
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134147, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508585

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority groups, and race and ethnicity have been associated with disease severity. However, the association of socioeconomic determinants with racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate the association of race and ethnicity with COVID-19 outcomes and to examine the association between race, ethnicity, COVID-19 outcomes, and socioeconomic determinants. Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, medRxiv, bioRxiv, Embase, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 databases was performed for studies published from January 1, 2020, to January 6, 2021. Study Selection: Studies that reported data on associations between race and ethnicity and COVID-19 positivity, disease severity, and socioeconomic status were included and screened by 2 independent reviewers. Studies that did not have a satisfactory quality score were excluded. Overall, less than 1% (0.47%) of initially identified studies met selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Associations were assessed using adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs), combined prevalence, and metaregression. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main measures were RRs, ORs, and combined prevalence values. Results: A total of 4 318 929 patients from 68 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, 370 933 patients (8.6%) were African American, 9082 (0.2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native, 101 793 (2.4%) were Asian American, 851 392 identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.7%), 7417 (0.2%) were Pacific Islander, 1 037 996 (24.0%) were White, and 269 040 (6.2%) identified as multiracial and another race or ethnicity. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, African American individuals (RR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.38-9.07; P = .008) and Hispanic individuals (RR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.28-17.20; P = .02) were the most likely to test positive for COVID-19. Asian American individuals had the highest risk of intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.60-2.34, P < .001). The area deprivation index was positively correlated with mortality rates in Asian American and Hispanic individuals (P < .001). Decreased access to clinical care was positively correlated with COVID-19 positivity in Hispanic individuals (P < .001) and African American individuals (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, members of racial and ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 positivity and disease severity. Furthermore, socioeconomic determinants were strongly associated with COVID-19 outcomes in racial and ethnic minority populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Prevalence , /statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology
5.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 303-312, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442725

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic swept the nation by surprise, leaving a deep-seated impact on individuals' social, mental, and physical health. Despite there being disparities between Black and White/non-Hispanic individuals, minimal research has been conducted to explore the effects of the virus on marginalized groups. This study aimed to investigate Black adolescents' perceptions of their experiences with COVID-19, including the challenges they encountered, the coping strategies they employed, and their use of religious/spiritual and school-based support. Twelve Black youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years were interviewed during the early stages of the pandemic (June and July of 2020). Participants struggled with adjusting to the changes in their daily routines, navigating virtual learning, and emerging mental health difficulties (e.g., anxiety). To cope with these challenges, participants relied on emotion and problem-focused coping strategies, including strategies that were religious/spiritual in nature. Participants also relied on social support from family, school personnel, and their religious community, though they lamented about the varied support received from the latter two. Findings from this research support calls for mental health providers to employ culturally affirming mental health services and engage in interagency collaboration to support Black youth. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent Behavior/ethnology , African Americans/ethnology , Behavioral Symptoms/psychology , COVID-19 , Religion and Psychology , Social Support , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Schools , United States/ethnology
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e400-e406, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) varies by race and ethnicity. This study assessed whether disparities in MIS-C in the United States by race and ethnicity exceed known disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence. METHODS: We compared the distribution of race and ethnicity among patients with MIS-C (<21 years of age, termed children) with onset March 2020 to February 2021 to that of children with COVID-19 and in the general population. Analysis was restricted to 369 counties with high completeness of race and ethnicity reporting for MIS-C and COVID-19. For each racial and ethnic group, observed numbers of patients with MIS-C were compared with expected numbers (observed/expected ratio) in children with COVID-19 and in the general population within these counties. RESULTS: Compared with children in the general population, MIS-C was more frequent among Hispanic (139% of expected) and non-Hispanic Black children (183%) and less frequent among non-Hispanic White (64%) and non-Hispanic Asian children (48%). Compared with children with COVID-19, MIS-C was more frequent in non-Hispanic Black children (207% of expected) and less frequent in non-Hispanic White children (68%); however, frequency was not different among Hispanic (102%) and non-Hispanic Asian (74%) children. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in MIS-C by race and ethnicity exist, even after controlling for COVID-19 disparities and geographic variations. The high proportion of MIS-C among Hispanic children and low proportion among non-Hispanic Asian children align with COVID-19 rates, while the high proportion among non-Hispanic Black children and low proportion among non-Hispanic White children are not explainable by COVID-19 rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Public Health Surveillance , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/history , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
7.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 665-676, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339699

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to understand COVID-19 information seeking among Korean immigrant women in comparison to their flu/cold information seeking. In particular, the study aimed to examine: (1) the levels of information sought regarding both COVID-19 and the flu/cold, and (2) the content of information discussed at each level. Methods: We analyzed the posts on Missy USA--one of the largest Korean online communities for married Korean immigrant women. Two sets of data, one for COVID-19 (n=726) and the other for the flu/cold (n=50), were analyzed with codes at different levels, which were adapted from the social-ecological model. Results: Applying the social-ecological model, we found that about 80% of information regarding the flu/cold and about 60% of COVID-19 information was concentrated at individual, interpersonal, and organizational levels. Information seeking at the community level was more frequent for COVID-19 than for the flu/cold. Conclusions: Our finding that Korean immigrant women primarily sought information regarding COVID-19 serves as a theoretical contribution at the transnational level, which might be relevant for immigrant women during the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Consumer Health Information , Emigrants and Immigrants , Influenza, Human , Information Seeking Behavior , Social Media , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/ethnology , United States/ethnology
8.
Fertil Steril ; 116(4): 1128-1138, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore early disparate impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility preferences DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Online survey questionnaire PATIENT(S): A total of 440 female participants who were trying to conceive (TTC) in the past year or currently are TTC. INTERVENTION(S): No interventions administered. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Change in fertility preference RESULT(S): Approximately 1 in 3 participants reported changing their fertility preferences because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of those that reported changing their fertility preferences, 23.9% reported TTC earlier and 61.6% reported TTC later. Preliminary findings show the odds of changing fertility preferences in black or African American women were 5.45 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-19.90) times that of white women and in nonheterosexual women were 2.76 (95% CI, 1.41-5.42) times that of heterosexual women. Furthermore, every 1 unit increase in state anxiety and depressive symptoms was associated with a 26% (95% CI, 3%-54%) or 17% (95% CI, 5%-31%) increase in odds of pushing back TTC, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): This exploratory study highlights how the fertility preferences of racial and ethnic minorities, sexual minorities, and those experiencing mental health issues may be disparately influenced by the pandemic. Research is needed to examine further the disparate effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility preferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Fertility/physiology , Infertility, Female/ethnology , Infertility, Female/therapy , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infertility, Female/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , United States/ethnology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Limited evidence suggests that higher levels of serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) protect against SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) infection. Black women commonly experience 25(OH)D insufficiency and are overrepresented among COVID-19 cases. We conducted a prospective analysis of serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to COVID-19 infection among participants in the Black Women's Health Study. METHODS: Since 1995, the Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 U.S. Black women through biennial mailed or online questionnaires. Over 13,000 study participants provided a blood sample in 2013-2017. 25(OH)D assays were performed in a certified national laboratory shortly after collection of the samples. In 2020, participants who had completed the online version of the 2019 biennial health questionnaire were invited to complete a supplemental online questionnaire assessing their experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including whether they had been tested for COVID-19 infection and the result of the test. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of 25(OH)D level with COVID-19 positivity, adjusting for age, number of people living in the household, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 5,081 eligible participants whose blood sample had been assayed for 25(OH)D, 1,974 reported having had a COVID-19 test in 2020. Relative to women with 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/l) or more, multivariable-adjusted ORs for COVID-19 infection in women with levels of 20-29 ng/mL (50-72.5 nmol/l) and <20 ng/mL (<50 nmol/l) were, respectively, 1.48 (95% CI 0.95-2.30) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.72) (p trend 0.02). CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that U.S. Black women with lower levels of 25(OH)D are at increased risk of infection with COVID-19. Further work is needed to confirm these findings and determine the optimal level of 25(OH)D for a beneficial effect.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Vitamin D/blood
10.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(10): 1467-1473, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320053

ABSTRACT

Importance: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, racial/ethnic minority communities disproportionately experienced poor outcomes; however, the association of the pandemic with prostate cancer (PCa) care is unknown. Objective: To assess the association between race and PCa care delivery for Black and White patients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, regional, collaborative, retrospective cohort study compared prostatectomy rates between Black and White patients with untreated nonmetastatic PCa during the COVID-19 pandemic (269 patients from March 16 to May 15, 2020) and prior (378 patients from March 11 to May 10, 2019). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostatectomy rates. Results: Of the 647 men with nonmetastatic PCa, 172 (26.6%) were non-Hispanic Black men, and 475 (73.4%) were non-Hispanic White men. Black men were significantly less likely to undergo prostatectomy during the pandemic compared with White patients (1 of 76 [1.3%] vs 50 of 193 [25.9%]; P < .001), despite similar COVID-19 risk factors, biopsy Gleason grade groups, and comparable prostatectomy rates prior to the pandemic (17 of 96 [17.7%] vs 54 of 282 [19.1%]; P = .75). Black men had higher median prostate-specific antigen levels prior to biopsy (8.8 ng/mL [interquartile range, 5.3-15.2 ng/mL] vs 7.2 ng/mL [interquartile range, 5.1-11.1 ng/mL]; P = .04). A linear combination of regression coefficients with an interaction term for year demonstrated an odds ratio for likelihood of surgery of 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01-0.35; P = .002) for Black patients and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.81-2.44; P = .23) for White patients during the pandemic compared with prior to the pandemic. Changes in surgical volume varied by site (from a 33% increase to complete shutdown), with sites that experienced the largest reduction in cancer surgery caring for a greater proportion of Black patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large multi-institutional regional collaborative cohort study, the odds of PCa surgery were lower among Black patients compared with White patients during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although localized PCa does not require immediate treatment, the lessons from this study suggest systemic inequities within health care and are likely applicable across medical specialties. Public health efforts are needed to fully recognize the unintended consequence of diversion of cancer resources to the COVID-19 pandemic to develop balanced mitigation strategies as viral rates continue to fluctuate.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prostatectomy/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , /statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , United States/ethnology
12.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 798-801, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243531

ABSTRACT

The glaring racial inequities in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the devastating loss of Black lives at the hands of police and racist vigilantes have catalyzed a global reckoning about deeply rooted systemic racism in society. Many medical training institutions in the United States have participated in this discourse by denouncing racism, expressing solidarity with people of color, and reexamining their diversity and inclusion efforts. Yet, the stagnant progress in recruiting, retaining, and supporting racial/ethnic minority trainees and faculty at medical training institutions is well documented and reflects unaddressed systemic racism along the academic pipeline. In this article, the authors draw upon their experiences as early-career physicians of color who have led and supported antiracism efforts within their institutions to highlight key barriers to achieving meaningful progress. They describe common pitfalls of diversity and inclusion initiatives and call for an antiracist approach to systems change. The authors then offer 9 recommendations that medical training institutions can implement to critically examine and address racist structures within their organizations to actualize racial equity and justice.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Preceptorship/methods , Racism/prevention & control , African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cultural Diversity , Decision Making/ethics , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Preceptorship/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Inclusion , Social Justice , United States/ethnology
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8738, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199319

ABSTRACT

Factors contributing to racial inequities in outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain poorly understood. We compared by race the risk of 4 COVID-19 health outcomes--maximum length of hospital stay (LOS), invasive ventilation, hospitalization exceeding 24 h, and death--stratified by Elixhauser comorbidity index (ECI) ranking. Outcomes and ECI scores were constructed from retrospective data obtained from the Cerner COVID-19 De-Identified Data cohort. We hypothesized that racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes would exist despite comparable ECI scores among non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and NH Whites. Compared with NH Whites, NH Blacks had longer hospital LOS, higher rates of ventilator dependence, and a higher mortality rate; AI/ANs, higher odds of hospitalization for ECI = 0 but lower for ECI ≥ 5, longer LOS for ECI = 0, a higher risk of death across all ECI categories except ECI ≥ 5, and higher odds of ventilator dependence; Hispanics, a lower risk of death across all ECI categories except ECI = 0, lower odds of hospitalization, shorter LOS for ECI ≥ 5, and higher odds of ventilator dependence for ECI = 0 but lower for ECI = 1-4. Our findings contest arguments that higher comorbidity levels explain elevated COVID-19 death rates among NH Blacks and AI/ANs compared with Hispanics and NH Whites.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States/ethnology
14.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(3): 785-792, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153242

ABSTRACT

Widespread uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine is critical to halt the pandemic. At present, little is known about factors that will affect vaccine uptake, especially among diverse racial/ethnic communities that have experienced the highest burden of COVID. We administered an online survey to a Qualtrics respondent panel of women ages 27-45 years (N = 396) to assess vaccine intentions and attitudes, and trusted vaccine information sources. 56.8% intended to be vaccinated and 25.5% were unsure. In bivariate analyses, a greater percentage of non-Latina White (NLW) and Chinese women reported that they would be vaccinated, compared with Latina and non-Latina Black (NLB) women (p < 0.001). Those who were uninsured, unemployed and those with lower incomes were less likely to say that they would be vaccinated. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, NLB women remained significantly less likely to report that they would be vaccinated compared with NLW women (adjusted odds ratio: 0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.23, 0.94), controlling for age, marital status, income, education, employment, and insurance status. When analyses were additionally controlled for beliefs in vaccine safety and efficacy, racial/ethnic differences were no longer significant (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 1.34). Given that NLB women were less likely to report the intention to be vaccinated, targeted efforts will be needed to promote vaccine uptake. It will be critical to emphasize that the vaccine is safe and effective; this message may be best delivered by trusted community members.


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Mass Vaccination/ethnology , /ethnology , Adult , Female , Humans , Intention , Middle Aged , United States/ethnology , Women
15.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(3): e75-e80, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this evidence-based theoretically informed article was to provide an overview of how and why the COVID-19 outbreak is particularly detrimental for the health of older Black and Latinx adults. METHODS: We draw upon current events, academic literature, and numerous data sources to illustrate how biopsychosocial factors place older adults at higher risk for COVID-19 relative to younger adults, and how structural racism magnifies these risks for black and Latinx adults across the life course. RESULTS: We identify 3 proximate mechanisms through which structural racism operates as a fundamental cause of racial/ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 burden among older adults: (a) risk of exposure, (b) weathering processes, and (c) health care access and quality. DISCUSSION: While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented crisis, the racial/ethnic health inequalities among older adults it has exposed are longstanding and deeply rooted in structural racism within American society. This knowledge presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers and policymakers as they seek to address the needs of older adults. It is imperative that federal, state, and local governments collect and release comprehensive data on the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths by race/ethnicity and age to better gauge the impact of the outbreak across minority communities. We conclude with a discussion of incremental steps to be taken to lessen the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 among older Black and Latinx adults, as well as the need for transformative actions that address structural racism in order to achieve population health equity.


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , Aging/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racism/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066045

ABSTRACT

Crises lay bare the social fault lines of society. In the United States, race, gender, age, and education have affected vulnerability to COVID-19 infection. Yet, consequences likely extend far beyond morbidity and mortality. Temporarily closing the economy sent shock waves through communities, raising the possibility that social inequities, preexisting and current, have weakened economic resiliency and reinforced disadvantage, especially among groups most devastated by the Great Recession. We address pandemic precarity, or risk for material and financial insecurity, in Indiana, where manufacturing loss is high, metro areas ranked among the hardest hit by the Great Recession nationally, and health indicators stand in the bottom quintile. Using longitudinal data (n = 994) from the Person to Person Health Interview Study, fielded in 2019-2020 and again during Indiana's initial stay-at-home order, we provide a representative, probability-based assessment of adverse economic outcomes of the pandemic. Survey-weighted multivariate regressions, controlling for preexisting inequality, find Black adults over 3 times as likely as Whites to report food insecurity, being laid off, or being unemployed. Residents without a college degree are twice as likely to report food insecurity (compared to some college), while those not completing high school (compared to bachelor's degree) are 4 times as likely to do so. Younger adults and women were also more likely to report economic hardships. Together, the results support contentions of a Matthew Effect, where pandemic precarity disproportionately affects historically disadvantaged groups, widening inequality. Strategically deployed relief efforts and longer-term policy reforms are needed to challenge the perennial and unequal impact of disasters.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics/economics , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology
18.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(1): 100495, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966583

ABSTRACT

The United States currently has one of the highest numbers of cumulative COVID-19 cases globally, and Latino and Black communities have been disproportionately affected. Understanding the community-level factors that contribute to disparities in COVID-19 case and death rates is critical to developing public health and policy strategies. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. counties and found that a 10% point increase in the Black population was associated with 324.7 additional COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population and 14.5 additional COVID-19 deaths per 100,000. In addition, we found that a 10% point increase in the Latino population was associated with 293.5 additional COVID-19 cases per 100,000 and 7.6 additional COVID-19 deaths per 100,000. Independent predictors of higher COVID-19 case rates included average household size, the share of individuals with less than a high school diploma, and the percentage of foreign-born non-citizens. In addition, average household size, the share of individuals with less than a high school diploma, and the proportion of workers that commute using public transportation independently predicted higher COVID-19 death rates within a community. After adjustment for these variables, the association between the Latino population and COVID-19 cases and deaths was attenuated while the association between the Black population and COVID-19 cases and deaths largely persisted. Policy efforts must seek to address the drivers identified in this study in order to mitigate disparities in COVID-19 cases and deaths across minority communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Community Participation/methods , Mortality/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mortality/trends , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology
20.
J Infect Dis ; 222(10): 1607-1611, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863299

ABSTRACT

We investigated individual behaviors taken by white, African American, and Latino United States (US) households in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and likelihood of using digital tools for symptom surveillance/reporting. We analyzed cross-sectional week 1 data (April 2020) of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Impact Survey in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. In general, all groups engaged in the same prevention behaviors, but whites reported being more likely to use digital tools to report/act on symptoms and seek testing, compared with African Americans and Latinos. Individual behaviors may not explain COVID-19 case disparities, and digital tools for tracking should focus on uptake among race/ethnic minorities.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Attitude to Health/ethnology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , /psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Probability , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL