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2.
Lancet ; 400(10364): 1677-1678, 2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184640
3.
J Biol Chem ; 298(9): 102298, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180105

ABSTRACT

Integrating research into the classroom environment is an influential pedagogical tool to support student learning, increase retention of STEM students, and help students identify as scientists. The evolution of course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) has grown from individual faculty incorporating their research in the teaching laboratory into well-supported systems to sustain faculty engagement in CUREs. To support the growth of protein-centric biochemistry-related CUREs, we cultivated a community of enthusiastic faculty to develop and adopt malate dehydrogenase (MDH) as a CURE focal point. The MDH CURE Community has grown into a vibrant and exciting group of over 28 faculty from various institutions, including community colleges, minority-serving institutions, undergraduate institutions, and research-intensive institutions in just 4 years. This collective has also addressed important pedagogical questions on the impact of CURE collaboration and the length of the CURE experience in community colleges, undergraduate institutions, and research-intensive institutions. This work provided evidence that modular or partial-semester CUREs also support student outcomes, especially the positive impact it had on underrepresented students. We are currently focused on expanding the MDH CURE Community network by generating more teaching and research materials, creating regional hubs for local interaction and increasing mentoring capacity, and offering mentoring and professional development opportunities for new faculty adopters.


Subject(s)
Biochemistry , Malate Dehydrogenase , Students , Biochemistry/education , Faculty , Humans , Universities
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 395-409, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205390

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho traz o relato de experiência da criação de um perfil no Instagram, realizado pela Câmara de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão (CENPEX) da Faculdade Ciências da Vida (FCV) de Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, como meio de disseminar informações científicas ao público interno e externo à FCV. Diante da impossibilidade de se realizar atividades extensionistas no formato presencial, devido à pandemia da Covid-19, o ensino da FCV foi interrompido de modo presencial em março de 2020 e passou a ser remoto. Desta forma, foi criado, pela CENPEX, um projeto de extensão e pesquisa voltado para divulgação científica nas redes sociais envolvendo temáticas na área de saúde, meio ambiente, sustentabilidade e direitos humanos. O grupo de extensão e pesquisa, composto por professores e pesquisadores da FCV, selecionou alunos de diferentes cursos da faculdade e os direcionou à criação de um perfil no Instagram denominado @cenpexfcv que passou a ter o papel principal de difundir informações científicas confiáveis. O objetivo foi de conscientizar a população em geral no entendimento de diferentes temáticas relacionadas especialmente à Covid- 19, em virtude da pandemia, de modo a combater fake news. O perfil disponibiliza posts, animações, informativos, folders, enquetes e lives com profissionais especialistas, que buscam sanar as dúvidas dos seguidores. Ao longo dos oito meses de projetos, já foram montadas 94 formas interativas de divulgação, que, quantitativamente, tem mostrado o crescimento no engajamento, considerado como um aspecto positivo do projeto. Dessa forma, pode-se inferir que o uso de mídias sociais, como o Instagram, quando utilizada de forma direcionada e com informações fidedignas, podem contribuir efetivamente para o desenvolvimento da divulgação científica.


This work presents an experience report of the creation of a profile on Instagram, carried out by the Chamber of Teaching, Research and Extension (CENPEX) of the Faculdade Ciências da Vida (FCV) at Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, as a means of disseminating scientific information to the internal and external public to FCV. Faced with the impossibility of carrying out extension activities in in-campus format, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the face-to-face teaching of FCV was interrupted in March 2020 and became remote. In this way, CENPEX created an extension and research project aimed at scientific dissemination on social networks involving themes in the area of health, environment, sustainability and human rights. The extension and research group, made up of FCV professors and researchers, selected students from different courses at the faculty and directed them to create an Instagram profile called @cenpexfcv, which took on the main role of disseminating reliable scientific information. The objective was to raise the awareness of the general population in understanding different issues related especially to Covid-19, due to the pandemic, in order to combat fake news. The profile provides posts, animations, newsletters, folders, polls and lives with specialist professionals, who seek to resolve the doubts of the followers. Over the eight months of the project, 94 interactive forms of dissemination have already been set up, which, quantitatively, have shown the growth in engagement, considered as a positive aspect of the project. Thus, it can be inferred that the use of social media, such as Instagram, when used in a targeted way and with reliable information, can effectively contribute to the development of scientific dissemination.


Este trabajo trae el informe de la experiencia de la creación de un perfil en Instagram, realizado por la Cámara de Enseñanza, Investigación y Extensión (CENPEX) de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida (FCV) de Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, como medio de difusión de información científica al público interno y externo a la FCV. Ante la imposibilidad de realizar actividades de extensión en formato presencial, debido a la pandemia del Covid-19, la enseñanza en la FCV se interrumpió en modalidad presencial en marzo de 2020 y pasó a ser a distancia. Así, se creó, por parte del CENPEX, un proyecto de extensión e investigación enfocado a la divulgación científica en redes sociales que involucra temas en el área de salud, medio ambiente, sostenibilidad y derechos humanos. El grupo de extensión e investigación, compuesto por profesores e investigadores de la FCV, seleccionó a estudiantes de diferentes cursos de la facultad y los orientó a la creación de un perfil en Instagram llamado @cenpexfcv que comenzó a tener como función principal la difusión de información científica confiable. El objetivo era sensibilizar a la población en general en la comprensión de diferentes temas relacionados especialmente con Covid-19, debido a la pandemia, para combatir las fake news. El perfil ofrece posts, animaciones, boletines, carpetas, encuestas y vidas con expertos profesionales, que buscan responder a las preguntas de los seguidores. A lo largo de los ocho meses de proyecto, ya se han reunido 94 formas interactivas de difusión, lo que, cuantitativamente, ha demostrado el crecimiento del compromiso, considerado como un aspecto positivo del proyecto. Por lo tanto, se puede deducir que el uso de las redes sociales, como Instagram, cuando se utiliza de forma selectiva y con información fiable, puede contribuir eficazmente al desarrollo de la divulgación científica.


Subject(s)
Information Dissemination , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Disinformation , Universities , Education, Distance , Projects , Scientific and Technical Activities , Social Networking , Social Media
5.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 19(4): [1-4], dez. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2204417

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Refletir sobre o ensino remoto como possibilidade de novas experiências e desafios em tempos de pandemia da Covid-19. MÉTODO: Análise reflexiva sobre as novas experiências e desafios no ensino remoto durante a pandemia da covid-19. RESULTADO: O ensino remoto traz a oportunidade de integrar aulas de maneira síncrona (em tempo real) através webconferência e atividades assíncronas (não se efetivam em tempo real) que possibilitam o uso de ferramentas interativas de aprendizagem estimuladas pelo professor, mediador do conhecimento, em especial da Enfermagem. CONCLUSÃO: Recomenda-se que o professor promova a interatividade permitindo que o aluno, usufruindo dos recursos disponíveis no ambiente virtual de aprendizagem, possa compor elementos dos conteúdos discutidos com experiências positivas de aprendizagem.


OBJETIVO: Reflexionar sobre la enseñanza remota como una posibilidad para nuevas experiencias y desafíos en tiempos de la pandemia del Covid-19. MÉTODO: Análisis reflexivo de nuevas experiencias y desafíos en educación remota durante la pandemia del covid-19. RESULTADO: La enseñanza remota brinda la oportunidad de integrar clases de forma sincrónica (en tiempo real) a través de conferencias web y actividades asincrónicas (no realizadas en tiempo real) que permiten el uso de herramientas de aprendizaje interactivas estimuladas por el docente, mediador del conocimiento, en especial de la Enfermería. CONCLUSIÓN: Se recomienda que el docente promueva la interactividad permitiendo al alumno, mediante el aprovechamiento de los recursos disponibles en el entorno virtual de aprendizaje, componer elementos del contenido discutido con experiencias positivas de aprendizaje.


OBJECTIVE: To reflect on remote teaching as a possibility for new experiences and challenges in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A reflective analysis on the new experiences and challenges in remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Remote teaching brings the opportunity of integrating classes in a synchronous manner (in real-time) through web conferences and asynchronous activities (not in real-time) which allows for the use of interactive learning tools stimulated by the professor, knowledge mediator, especially in Nursing. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that the professor promotes interactivity allowing the student, while enjoying the available resource in the virtual learning environment, to compose elements of the contents that are discussed with positive learning experiences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Universities , Coronavirus Infections , Educational Technology/education , Education, Distance , Education, Nursing , Pandemics , Faculty/education , Learning
6.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268063, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to identify the drivers of willingness to receive new vaccines against emerging and epidemic diseases. A discrete choice experiment is the ideal approach to evaluating how individuals weigh multiple attributes simultaneously. We assessed the degree to which six attributes were associated with willingness to be vaccinated among university students in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a single-profile discrete choice experiment at Makerere University in 2019. Participants were asked whether or not they would be vaccinated in 8 unique scenarios where attributes varied by disease risk, disease severity, advice for or against vaccination from trusted individuals, recommendations from influential figures, whether the vaccine induced indirect protection, and side effects. We calculated predicted probabilities of vaccination willingness using mixed logistic regression models, comparing health professional students with all other disciplines. FINDINGS: Of the 1576 participants, 783 (49.8%) were health professional students and 685 (43.5%) were female. Vaccination willingness was high (78%), and higher among health students than other students. We observed the highest vaccination willingness for the most severe disease outcomes and the greatest exposure risks, along with the Minister of Health's recommendation or a vaccine that extended secondary protection to others. Mild side effects and recommendations against vaccination diminished vaccination willingness. INTERPRETATION: Our results can be used to develop evidence-based messaging to encourage uptake for new vaccines. Future vaccination campaigns, such as for COVID-19 vaccines in development, should consider acknowledging individual risk of exposure and disease severity and incorporate recommendations from key health leaders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Students , Uganda , Universities , Vaccination
7.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(11): 824-830, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152266

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Concerns have been raised about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with lived experience of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Yet, few efforts have explored this. Accordingly, using a mixed-methods approach, we sought to examine whether emerging adults who have self-injured experienced changes in NSSI urges and behavior during the pandemic and what may have accounted for these changes. To do so, university students with lived experience of NSSI completed online questions asking about NSSI and self-reported changes in urges and behavior since the onset of COVID-19. They then answered open-ended questions asking what contributed to these changes and how they have coped during this timeframe. Approximately 80% of participants reported no change or a decrease in NSSI urges and behavior. Participants discussed removal from stressors (e.g., social stress) that previously evoked NSSI, as well as having time for self-care and to develop resilience as accounting for this. Nevertheless, some participants reported challenges amid the pandemic (i.e., exacerbated stress, isolation); approximately one fifth of participants reported increases in NSSI urges and behavior. Our findings add to recent evidence that many individuals with prior mental health difficulties, including NSSI, can demonstrate resilience in the face of collective adversity. Research and clinician implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adult , Humans , Universities , Pandemics , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Students
8.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(10): 798-805, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151803

ABSTRACT

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake continues to increase across sub-Saharan Africa and emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutations poses significant challenges to management of treatment-experienced patients with virologic failure. In Zambia, new third-line ART (TLART) guidelines including use of dolutegravir (DTG) were introduced in 2018. We assessed virologic suppression, immunologic response, and HIV drug-resistant mutations (DRMs) among patients on TLART at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. We conducted a retrospective review of patients enrolled at UTH on TLART for >6 months between January 2010 and June 30, 2021. CD4 and HIV viral load (VL) at TLART initiation and post-initiation were assessed to determine virologic and immunologic outcomes. Regression analysis using bivariate and multivariate methods to describe baseline characteristics, virologic, and immunologic response to TLART was performed. A total of 345 patients met inclusion criteria; women comprised 57.6% (199/345) of the cohort. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 30 (interquartile range: 17.3-36.8). In 255 (73.8%) patients with at least two VLs, VL decreased from mean of 3.45 log10 copies/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 2.02) to 1.68 log10 copies/mL (SD: 1.79). Common ARVs prescribed included DTG (89.9%), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (68.7%), and darunavir boosted with ritonavir (66.4%); 170 (49.3%) patients had genotypes; mutations consisted of 88.8% nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 86.5% non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and 55.9% protease inhibitor. VL suppression to <1,000 copies/mL was achieved in 225 (78.9%) patients. DRM frequency ranged from 56% to 89% depending on drug class. Treatment-experienced patients receiving TLART in Zambia achieved high rates of suppression despite high proportions of HIV mutations illustrating TLART effectiveness in the DTG era.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Male , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Universities , Zambia , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hospitals, Teaching , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2455-2462, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141584

ABSTRACT

We evaluated daily rapid antigen test (RAT) data from 323 COVID-19-positive university students in Connecticut, USA, during an Omicron-dominant period. Day 5 positivity was 47% for twice-weekly screeners and 26%-28% for less-frequent screeners, approximately halving each subsequent day. Testing negative >10 days before diagnosis (event time ratio (ETR) 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.96]) and prior infection >90 days (ETR 0.50 [95% CI 0.33-0.76]) were significantly associated with shorter RAT positivity duration. Symptoms before or at diagnosis (ETR 1.13 [95% CI 1.02-1.25]) and receipt of 3 vaccine doses (ETR 1.20 [95% CI 1.04-1.39]) were significantly associated with prolonged positivity. Exit RATs enabled 53%-74% of students to leave isolation early when they began isolation at the time of the first positive test, but 15%-22% remained positive beyond the recommended isolation period. Factors associated with RAT positivity duration should be further explored to determine relationships with infection duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Universities , Policy , Students
10.
Can J Diet Pract Res ; 83(4): 212-224, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141557

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Dietitians of Canada (DC) National Conference brought together our nutrition and dietetics community for a successful virtual event on September 15 & 16, 2022. We have had three virtual conferences due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but that has not prevented us from sharing our experiences and research. This year the Canadian Foundation for Dietetic Research (CFDR) showcased a wide variety of experience sharing and research abstracts through the online conference platform. There were 33 Early Bird (EB) research abstracts, in which five were selected for live presentations during the conference, and ten Late Breaking research abstracts. Thirty-one posters were presented virtually at the conference. Thank you for all of the abstract submissions! A sincere thank you to the Abstract Review Committee members for their support, dedication and commitment. Early Bird Abstract Review Committee: Susan Campisi (University of Toronto); Pauline Darling (University of Ottawa); Andrea Glenn (University of Toronto); Mahsa Jessri (University of British Columbia); Shelley Vanderhout (University of Toronto). Late Breaking Abstract Review Committee: Lesley Andrade (University of Waterloo); Carla D'Andreamatteo (Consultant, Winnipeg); Pauline Darling (University of Ottawa); Laura Forbes (University of Guelph); Billie Jane Hermosura (University of Ottawa); Christine Nash (University Health Network). Thanks to the DC Conference team, all of the moderators and conference attendees for supporting the virtual and poster research presentations. Please consider submitting an abstract for the 2023 CFDR Research Showcase. Looking forward to seeing all of you at the 2023 Dietitians of Canada Conference in Montreal, QC, from May 24-26, 2023. Warm regards, Christina Lengyel, PhD, RD Chair, 2022 EB/LB Abstract Committees Professor Food and Human Nutritional Sciences University of Manitoba Ravi Sidhu Managing Director Development & Operations CFDR.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Canada , Universities
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277883, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dissociative experiences are psychological manifestations characterized by a loss of connection and continuity between thoughts, emotions, environment, behavior, and identity. Lebanon has been facing indescribable events in the last few years, including the COVID-19 pandemic, the Beirut explosion, a crushing economic crisis with the highest inflation rate the country has known in over three decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dissociative experiences and post-traumatic stress symptoms from the economic crisis, the Beirut blast, the COVID-19 pandemic, and other mental health issues in a sample of Lebanese university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 419 active university students (18-35 years) from all over Lebanon (May and August 2021). The respondents received the online soft copy of a survey by a snowball sampling technique through social media and messaging apps. The questionnaire included sociodemographic data, the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES-II), the PTSD Checklist Specific Version (PCL-S), the Financial Wellbeing Scale, the Beirut Distress Scale, the Lebanese Anxiety Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the DES fitted best according to CFI, RMSEA and χ2/df values, but modestly according to TLI. The two factors were absorption and amnesia/depersonalization. Higher stress (Beta = 0.95) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.29) and from the economic crisis (Beta = 0.23) were significantly associated with more absorption. A personal history of depression (Beta = 6.03), higher stress (Beta = 0.36) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.27) and from the COVID-19 pandemic (Beta = 0.16) were significantly associated with more amnesia/depersonalization. CONCLUSION: Significant rates of dissociative experiences and their sub-manifestations (amnesia/depersonalization and absorption) were found among Lebanese university students, with remarkable co-occurrence of a traumatic/stressful pattern, whether on an individual (history of PTSD) or a collective level (Post-traumatic manifestations from Beirut blast, COVID-19 pandemic and/or economic crisis), or whether correlated to an acute single event or to certain chronic stressors, or even to a personal history of depression. Such findings must raise the attention to serious mental and psychosocial alteration in the Lebanese national identity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Explosions , Economic Recession , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Amnesia , Students/psychology
12.
Clin Trials ; 19(6): 690-696, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138991

ABSTRACT

Master protocol studies typically use an overarching protocol to answer several questions by guiding a variety of sub-studies. These sub-studies can incorporate multiple diseases, therapies, or both. Although this innovative approach offers many benefits, including the ability to deliver clinical research that is more patient-centric and efficient, several common barriers curtail widespread adoption. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) convened industry representatives, regulatory agencies, patient groups, and academic institutions to identify emerging best practices and develop resources designed to help sponsors and other stakeholders overcome these challenges. We first identify some broad changes needed in the clinical trials ecosystem to facilitate mainstream adoption of master protocol studies, and we subsequently summarize CTTI's resources designed to support this effort.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Humans , Universities
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064301, 2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to first assess the knowledge and perception of first-year university students in Iraq about COVID-19 in general and SARS-CoV-2 latest variant of concern, and to evaluate the attitudes towards protection measures including vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly enrolled students at the American University of Iraq-Baghdad. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to test an association between the outcomes measured on a 5-point Likert scale and the binary and the categorical independent variables, respectively. χ2 test was used to test the association between nominal categorical variables, while Kendall's τ-b was used for ordinal variables. PARTICIPANTS: Students (n=432) were invited to fill out a survey specifically tailored to assess their knowledge, perception and attitude towards Omicron variant and COVID-19 vaccines acceptance. 363 students enrolled in various majors participated in this study. RESULTS: Assessment of COVID-19 knowledge and perception revealed that students still lack reliable info and data about FDA-approved treatment options (70.5%), SARS-CoV-2 variants (96.5%) and approved vaccines. Students' attitude and practices towards recommended safety measures should be reassessed to better manage the pandemic. Adherence level was shown to be associated with the belief in its capacity to effectively manage the new variant. Interestingly, 85% of the students have received at least one dose of approved vaccine. A significant positive correlation was detected between the level of adherence to recommended precautions and the intention to take a third booster shot if proven effective. CONCLUSIONS: Students' reliable knowledge about COVID-19 pandemic including the various strains and approved vaccines should be improved to better manage the pandemic and set foundations for a more appropriate approach when another pandemic occurs. Special workshops should be organised to ensure that students and the public have a more trusted source of information about COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , United States , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Universities , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Iraq , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students , Perception
14.
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143024

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted European universities' educational process. With the vaccination rollout, in-class instruction broadly resumed beginning in September 2021. In order to mitigate the risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, European universities apply COVID-19 containment protocols. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the COVID-19 containment protocol that Greek universities implemented in order to fully reopen in the fall of 2021 and for the entire academic year 2021-2022. A case study was conducted at the Department of Industrial Management and Technology, University of Piraeus (Athens' port), Greece. Data were collected from November 2021 to July 2022 and a quantitative statistical analysis (descriptive and inferential) was performed. A total of 330 unique (and 43 reinfections) COVID-19 cases were confirmed, including 241 undergraduate students, 73 postgraduate, and 2 doctoral students, 10 faculty, and 4 administrative personnel. Contact tracing reported four confirmed and eight potential cases of in-classroom transmission. The person in charge of implementing the COVID-19 containment protocol in the department ordered more than 6000 rapid tests during this period. The Department of Industrial Management and Technology at the University of Piraeus used a rigorously monitored and coordinated strategy of vaccine promotion, screening/testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine in order to control COVID-19 transmission. The results show, on one hand, that the protocol's implementation is effective and leads to in-classroom transmission minimization and, on the other hand, verify the hypothesis that the department's confirmed COVID-19 cases are less (with a mean percentage difference of 50%) than the community's respective 18-39 age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Greece/epidemiology , Universities , Quarantine/methods
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 935405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142316

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with computer vision syndrome in medical students at a private university in Paraguay. Methods: A survey study was conducted in 2021 in a sample of 228 medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico, Paraguay. The dependent variable was CVS, measured with the Computer Visual Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q). Its association with covariates (hours of daily use of notebook, smartphone, tablet and PC, taking breaks when using equipment, use of preventive visual measures, use of glasses, etc.) was examined. Results: The mean age was 22.3 years and 71.5% were women. CVS was present in 82.5% of participants. Higher prevalence of CVS was associated with wearing a framed lens (PR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). In contrast, taking a break when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced 7% (PR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) and 6% (PR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99) the prevalence of CVS, respectively. Conclusion: Eight out of 10 students experienced CVS during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of framed lenses increased the presence of CVS, while taking breaks when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced CVS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Students, Medical , Adult , Computers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ergonomics , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Paraguay/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome , Universities , Young Adult
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e26840, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 in China occurred around the Chinese New Year (January 25, 2020), and infections decreased continuously afterward. General adoption of preventive measures during the Chinese New Year period was crucial in driving the decline. It is imperative to investigate preventive behaviors among Chinese university students, who could have spread COVID-19 when travelling home during the Chinese New Year break. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated levels of COVID-19-related personal measures undertaken during the 7-day Chinese New Year holidays by university students in China, and associated COVID-19-related cognitive factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous web-based survey was conducted during the period from February 1 to 10, 2020. Data from 23,863 students (from 26 universities, 16 cities, 13 provincial-level regions) about personal measures (frequent face-mask wearing, frequent handwashing, frequent home staying, and an indicator that combined the 3 behaviors) were analyzed (overall response rate 70%). Multilevel multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Only 28.0% of respondents (6684/23,863) had left home for >4 hours, and 49.3% (11,757/23,863) had never left home during the 7-day Chinese New Year period; 79.7% (19,026/23,863) always used face-masks in public areas. The frequency of handwashing with soap was relatively low (6424/23,863, 26.9% for >5 times/day); 72.4% (17,282/23,863) had frequently undertaken ≥2 of these 3 measures. COVID-19-related cognitive factors (perceptions on modes of transmission, permanent bodily damage, efficacy of personal or governmental preventive measures, nonavailability of vaccines and treatments) were significantly associated with preventive measures. Associations with frequent face-mask wearing were stronger than those with frequent home staying. CONCLUSIONS: University students had strong behavioral responses during the very early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Levels of personal prevention, especially frequent home staying and face-mask wearing, were high. Health promotion may modify cognitive factors. Some structural factors (eg, social distancing policy) might explain why the frequency of home staying was higher than that of handwashing. Other populations might have behaved similarly; however, such data were not available to us.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Masks , Physical Distancing , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e26330, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 led to the COVID-19 pandemic starting in January 2020. The Swiss Federal Council prescribed a lockdown of nonessential businesses. Students and employees of higher education institutions had to install home offices and participate in online lectures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this survey study was to evaluate lifestyle habits, such as physical activity (PA), sitting time, nutritional habits (expressed as median modified Mediterranean Diet Score [mMDS]), alcohol consumption habits, and sleeping behavior during a 2-month period of confinement and social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey participants were students and employees of a Swiss university of applied sciences. METHODS: All students and employees from Bern University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Professions (ie, nursing, nutrition and dietetics, midwifery, and physiotherapy divisions) were invited to complete an anonymous online survey during the COVID-19 confinement period. Information on the lifestyle dimensions of PA, sitting time, nutritional and alcohol consumption habits, and sleep behavior was gathered using adaptations of validated questionnaires. Frequency analyses and nonparametric statistical methods were used for data analysis. Significance was set at 5% α level of error. RESULTS: Prevalence of non-health-enhancing PA was 37.1%, with participants of the division of physiotherapy showing the lowest prevalence. Prevalence of long sitting time (>8 hours/day) was 36.1%. The median mMDS was 9, where the maximal score was 15, with participants of the division of nutrition and dietetics being more adherent to a Mediterranean diet as compared to the other groups. Prevalence of nonadherence to the Swiss alcohol consumption recommendations was 8.3%. Prevalence of low sleeping quality was 44.7%, while the median sleeping duration was 8 hours, which is considered healthy for adult populations. CONCLUSIONS: In the group analysis, differences in PA, sitting time, and mMDS were observed between different divisions of health professions as well as between Bachelor of Science students, Master of Science students, and employees. Therefore, public health messages regarding healthy lifestyle habits during home confinement should be more group specific. The results of this study may provide support for the implementation of group-specific health promotion interventions at universities in pandemic conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04502108; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04502108.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/psychology , Faculty/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Quarantine , Sleep , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24292, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Significant uncertainty has existed about the safety of reopening college and university campuses before the COVID-19 pandemic is better controlled. Moreover, little is known about the effects that on-campus students may have on local higher-risk communities. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the range of potential community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality under various university reopening plans and uncertainties. METHODS: We developed campus-only, community-only, and campus × community epidemic differential equations and agent-based models, with inputs estimated via published and grey literature, expert opinion, and parameter search algorithms. Campus opening plans (spanning fully open, hybrid, and fully virtual approaches) were identified from websites and publications. Additional student and community exposures, infections, and mortality over 16-week semesters were estimated under each scenario, with 10% trimmed medians, standard deviations, and probability intervals computed to omit extreme outliers. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to inform potential effective interventions. RESULTS: Predicted 16-week campus and additional community exposures, infections, and mortality for the base case with no precautions (or negligible compliance) varied significantly from their medians (4- to 10-fold). Over 5% of on-campus students were infected after a mean of 76 (SD 17) days, with the greatest increase (first inflection point) occurring on average on day 84 (SD 10.2 days) of the semester and with total additional community exposures, infections, and mortality ranging from 1-187, 13-820, and 1-21 per 10,000 residents, respectively. Reopening precautions reduced infections by 24%-26% and mortality by 36%-50% in both populations. Beyond campus and community reproductive numbers, sensitivity analysis indicated no dominant factors that interventions could primarily target to reduce the magnitude and variability in outcomes, suggesting the importance of comprehensive public health measures and surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality resulting from reopening campuses are highly unpredictable regardless of precautions. Public health implications include the need for effective surveillance and flexible campus operations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Universities/organization & administration , COVID-19/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Risk Assessment , Uncertainty , United States/epidemiology
20.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123770

ABSTRACT

Poor diet quality is commonly reported in young adults. This study aimed to measure the diet quality of students attending a large Australian university (including domestic and international students), and to examine the effect of food security status and other key factors likely to impact their diet quality. Using the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall Australian version, a cross-sectional survey collected dietary recalls from domestic and international students in one university in Sydney. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013) which gives a score out of 100. Food security status was measured by the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Differences in the mean HEIFA-2013 scores by student characteristics were determined by analysis of covariance. A total of 141 students completed one dietary recall. The mean HEIFA-2013 score for students was low (mean 52.4, 95% CI 50.0-54.8). Food-insecure students had a poorer diet quality (mean 43.7, 95% CI 35.7-51.8) than their food-secure peers (mean 53.2, 95% CI 50.8-55.7, p = 0.027). The mean HEIFA-2013 score was similar in domestic (mean 52.5, 95% CI 49.9-55.2) and international students (mean 51.9, 95% CI 46.3-57.5, p = 0.845). Those reporting self-perceived excellent cooking skills and higher cooking frequency had better diet quality. Interventions to improve food and nutrition knowledge and skills and address food insecurity may help tertiary education students cook more frequently and achieve better diet quality.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Food Supply , Young Adult , Humans , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Australia , Diet , Meals , Students , Cooking , Food Insecurity
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