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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613807

ABSTRACT

Due to the demanding changes caused in the population by the COVID-19 pandemic, including a persisting experience of fear and social isolation, multiple studies have focused on the protective role of several psychological characteristics on mental health. Emotional intelligence and social support are commonly linked to mental health and well-being. The present study aims to analyze the mediator role of emotional intelligence and social support on university students' mental health, taking into consideration the role of gender differences. An online questionnaire was administered to a sample of 923 university students during the COVID-19 lockdown in Portugal. Significant gender differences were found on mental health symptoms, emotional intelligence, and social support. A double mediation model was computed to verify if gender influences on mental health were mediated by emotional intelligence and social support. The results show indirect effects of gender on mental health. However, as both mediators mediate in the opposite direction, the total indirect effects become null. Thus, a strong direct effect of gender on mental health remains. The results of the present study have theoretical implications on protective factors of mental health by gender and practical implications for psychological intervention in university counselling services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Emotional Intelligence , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Universities
2.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 45(1): 98-106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612704

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are effective measures that can mitigate the high burden of diseases. However, vaccine refusal poses serious challenges for achieving coverage for population immunity. With the availability of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, limited information is available about the university students' acceptability and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. This article reports study findings regarding factors that influence university students' decision of acceptability to the COVID-19 vaccine in Jordan. Results highlight the continued need for clear and consistent information about the vaccine by health care decision-makers and university administrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Jordan , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 548, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a cyclic sequence of physical and behavioral symptoms that arise in the second half of the menstrual cycle. The extreme type of PMS is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). The current study aims at examining 1) the effects of childhood maltreatment and current life's stressful events on PMDD, and 2) the mediating role of depression in these associations among Lebanese university female students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lebanese students were recruited using a snowball technique from all national universities in Lebanon via an auto-administrated online survey. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the structural relationship between childhood maltreatment and life's stressful events, depression and PMDD. RESULTS: Higher life's stressful events (Beta = 0.18; p < 0.001), physical (Beta = 0.19; p < 0.001), sexual (Beta = 0.18; p < 0.001) and psychological (Beta = 0.33; p < 0.001) abuse were significantly associated with higher depression. Moreover, higher sexual (Beta = 0.11; p = 0.021) and psychological (Beta = 0.11; p = 0.040) abuse and higher depression (Beta = 0.37; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher PMDD. The indirect relationships between psychological abuse/sexual abuse, depression and PMDD showed that depression mediated the association between both psychological (Beta = 0.22; p = 0.001) and sexual (Beta = 0.38; p = 0.004) abuse and PMDD. CONCLUSION: This work presents a unique analysis using the structural equation model that enlightens the effect of childhood maltreatment, particularly sexual and psychological abuse on PMMD symptoms, with depression playing the role of a mediating factor. It would be interesting to test, in future studies, whether there are other mediating factors besides depression that could be indirect indicators of PMDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Pandemics , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 529, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic as a global mental health crisis has affected everyone, including students. The present study aimed to determine and investigate the relationship between health locus of control and perceived stress in students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran) during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study examined 250 students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. We performed simple random sampling and utilized the demographic information form, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLCS) by Wallston, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen to collect data. We analyzed data using the SPSS, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the hierarchical regression model with an error level of 5%. RESULTS: The mean perceived stress was 30.74 ± 8.09, and 92.4% of the students had moderate and high stress levels. Among the components of the health locus of control, the internal health locus of control (IHLC) had the highest mean in students (27.55 ± 3.81). Furthermore, the internal health locus of control (R = - 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant inverse relationship, with perceived stress and the chance health locus of control (CHLC) (R = 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant direct relationship. In the final regression model, the health locus of control and all the variables predicted 22.7% of the perceived stress variation in students during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the internal health locus of control was associated with a reduction of perceived stress, and the powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) was related to its increase in students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the uncertain future, in the present work, universities are suggested to design web-based educational interventions alongside the curriculum to further strengthen the internal health locus of control and thus help reduce their perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internal-External Control , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Universities
5.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1252-E1259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, universities transitioned to primarily online delivery, and it is important to understand what implications the transition back to in-person activities may have on spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the student population. The specific aim of our study was to provide insights into the effect of timetabling decisions on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a population of undergraduate engineering students. METHODS: We developed an agent-based modelling simulation that used a Canadian first-year undergraduate engineering program with an enrolment of 180 students in 5 courses of 12.7 weeks in length. Each course involved 150 minutes of lectures and 110 minutes of tutorials or laboratories per week. We considered several online and in-person timetabling scenarios with different scheduling frequencies and section sizes, in combination with surveillance and testing interventions. The study was conducted from May 1 to Aug. 31, 2021. RESULTS: When timetabling interventions were applied, we found a reduction in the mean number of students who were infected and that a containment of widespread outbreaks could be achieved. Timetables with online lectures and small (1/6 class capacity) tutorial or laboratory sections reduced the mean number of students who were infected by 83% and reduced the risk of large outbreaks that occurred with in-person lectures. We also found that spread of SARS-CoV-2 was less sensitive to class size than to contact frequency when a biweekly timetable was implemented (i.e., alternating online and in-person sections on a biweekly basis). Including a contact-tracing policy and randomized testing to the timetabling interventions helped to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 further. Vaccination coverage had the largest effect on reducing the number of students who were infected. INTERPRETATION: Our modelling showed that by taking advantage of timetabling opportunities and applying appropriate interventions (contact tracing, randomized testing and vaccination), SARS-CoV-2 infections may be averted and disruptions (case isolations) reduced. However, given the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, transitions from online to in-person classes should proceed cautiously from small biweekly classes, for example, to manage risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decision Making, Organizational , Engineering/education , Infection Control/methods , Universities , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Humans , Students , Time Factors , Universities/organization & administration , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140602, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597867

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the 2020-2021 academic year, many institutions of higher education reopened to residential students while pursuing strategies to mitigate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on campus. Reopening guidance emphasized polymerase chain reaction or antigen testing for residential students and social distancing measures to reduce the frequency of close interpersonal contact, and Connecticut colleges and universities used a variety of approaches to reopen campuses to residential students. Objective: To characterize institutional reopening strategies and COVID-19 outcomes in 18 residential college and university campuses across Connecticut. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data on COVID-19 testing and cases and social contact from 18 college and university campuses in Connecticut that had residential students during the 2020-2021 academic year. Exposures: Tests for COVID-19 performed per week per residential student. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cases per week per residential student and mean (95% CI) social contact per week per residential student. Results: Between 235 and 4603 residential students attended the fall semester across each of 18 institutions of higher education in Connecticut, with fewer residential students at most institutions during the spring semester. In census block groups containing residence halls, the fall student move-in resulted in a 475% (95% CI, 373%-606%) increase in mean contact, and the spring move-in resulted in a 561% (95% CI, 441%-713%) increase in mean contact compared with the 7 weeks prior to move-in. The association between test frequency and case rate per residential student was complex; institutions that tested students infrequently detected few cases but failed to blunt transmission, whereas institutions that tested students more frequently detected more cases and prevented further spread. In fall 2020, each additional test per student per week was associated with a decrease of 0.0014 cases per student per week (95% CI, -0.0028 to -0.00001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that, in the era of available vaccinations and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, colleges and universities should continue to test residential students and use mitigation strategies to control on-campus COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Universities , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Interaction , Young Adult
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 627, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research indicates that mental health worsened during the Coronavirus crisis, in particular among women and university students. However, few longitudinal studies have so far investigated the changes in mental health outcomes across three subsequent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study aims to examine changes in mental health among university students. METHODS: A total of 1,961university students from Poland, at mean age 23.23 years (SD = 3.16, 57.47% of women) were included in this repeated cross-sectional study across three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic: W1 (n = 657), W2 (n = 654), and W3 (n = 650). They completed the online survey with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), General Self-Rated Health (GSRH), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), as well as sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of people at high risk of anxiety and perceived stress, poorer physical health, and low life satisfaction changed significantly across three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that both the wave (W1W2, W1>W3), and genders (menW3, W2>W3), and was significantly worse in women than in men. The level of life satisfaction also decreased significantly in W3 (W1>W3, W2>W3), but did not differ between men and women. High GAD risk was presented two times more frequently among women and people who subjectively assessed their health as poor, three times more likely in participants dissatisfied with their lives, and seven times more probably in persons with high-stress levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study consistently indicate (using parametric and non-parametric statistical analysis) that there are significant differences in mental health problems across three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. It suggests that pandemic waves should be considered in future review studies and meta-analyses. Furthermore, these findings indicate a potential role for prevention and intervention programs aimed at alleviating life satisfaction and subjective assessment of health and improving coping skills to reduce stress and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261230, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581758

ABSTRACT

The systematic screening of asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals is a powerful tool for controlling community transmission of infectious disease on college campuses. Faced with a paucity of testing in the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many universities developed molecular diagnostic laboratories focused on SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing on campus and in their broader communities. We established the UC Santa Cruz Molecular Diagnostic Lab in early April 2020 and began testing clinical samples just five weeks later. Using a clinically-validated laboratory developed test (LDT) that avoided supply chain constraints, an automated sample pooling and processing workflow, and a custom laboratory information management system (LIMS), we expanded testing from a handful of clinical samples per day to thousands per day with the testing capacity to screen our entire campus population twice per week. In this report we describe the technical, logistical, and regulatory processes that enabled our pop-up lab to scale testing and reporting capacity to thousands of tests per day.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Humans , Universities
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 774237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581112

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the association of myopia and other risk factors with anxiety and depression among Chinese university freshmen during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Tianjin Medical University from October 2020 to December 2020. Ophthalmic examination of the eyes was performed by an experienced ophthalmologist. Detailed information on depression, anxiety, and other risk factors was collected via the Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The overall prevalence of anxiety and depression in our study was 10.34 and 25.13%, respectively. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia as 92.02 and 26.7%, respectively. There were significant associations between anxiety and spectacle power [odds ratios (OR) = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81-0.98, P = 0.019], sphere equivalent (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81- 0.98, P = 0.025), sleep time (OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35-0.79, P = 0.002), and body mass index (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86-0.99, P = 0.047). In the multivariable linear regression models, spectacle power (ß = -0.43; 95% CI: -0.68 to -0.19, P = 0.001) and sphere equivalent (ß = -0.36; 95% CI: -0.60 to -0.11, P = 0.005) were negatively associated with anxiety scores, whereas axial length (ß = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.02-1.07, P = 0.044) was positively correlated with anxiety scores. Every 1 h decrease in sleep time was associated with a 0.12-point increase in depression score. Conclusion: Myopia was associated with anxiety and anxiety scores. The greater the degree of myopia, the higher the anxiety score. However, myopia was not found to be associated with depression. The results highlight the importance of providing psychological support to students with myopia during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580855

ABSTRACT

There is a dearth of evidence synthesis on the prevalence of anxiety among university students even though the risk of psychological disorders among this population is quite high. We conducted a quantitative systematic review to estimate the global prevalence of anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search for cross-sectional studies on PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021. A total of 36 studies were included, using a random-effects model to calculate the pooled proportion of anxiety. A meta-analysis of the prevalence estimate of anxiety yielded a summary prevalence of 41% (95% CI = 0.34-0.49), with statistically significant evidence of between-study heterogeneity (Q = 80801.97, I2 = 100%, p ≤ 0.0001). A subgroup analysis reported anxiety prevalence in Asia as 33% (95% CI:0.25-0.43), the prevalence of anxiety in Europe as 51% (95% CI: 0.44-0.59), and the highest prevalence of anxiety in the USA as 56% (95% CI: 0.44-0.67). A subgroup gender-based analysis reported the prevalence of anxiety in females as 43% (95% CI:0.29-0.58) compared to males with an anxiety prevalence of 39% (95% CI:0.29-0.50). University students seem to have a high prevalence of anxiety, indicating an increased mental health burden during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580783

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many changes in the education sector worldwide, and school curricula have had to adapt to a non-face-to-face modality. However, international studies have concluded that this modality has affected the academic performance of students. The present study aimed to compare the academic performance of a sample of college students from before the start of quarantine with their current performance, and to test whether various demographic factors influenced these changes in conjunction with alcohol consumption. With a non-experimental, comparative and longitudinal design, we applied an ad hoc questionnaire, in conjunction with the AUDIT questionnaire, in a sample of college students (n = 341), and we also obtained data of academic average and failed subjects. The demographic factors that influenced academic performance were sex (p < 0.01), age (p < 0.01) and alcohol consumption (p = 0.001). Most students showed an improvement in their academic average during the quarantine period. Women without failed subjects and low-risk alcohol consumption obtained a better average in this period. In conclusion sex, age and alcohol consumption level were factors associated with academic performance during the quarantine period due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and women had a higher academic average than men did.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580724

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led world authorities to adopt extraordinary measures to counteract the spread of the virus. The Italian government established a national lockdown from 9 March to 3 May 2020, forcing people in their homes and imposing social distancing. During the pandemic emergency, university students emerged as a vulnerable category. Indeed, higher rates of sleep problems and mental disorders were reported in this population. However, these outcomes were derived from cross-sectional investigations adopting retrospective assessments. Retrospective evaluations suffer from different biases, putatively leading to erroneous outcomes. To overcome this limitation, we adopted a between-subject approach comparing a sample of 240 Italian undergraduate university students assessed in 2016 (mean age ± standard deviation, 20.39 ± 1.42, range 18-25; 80.42% females), with an age/gender-matched sample of university students assessed during the third week of lockdown in Spring 2020. We evaluated sleep quality, insomnia symptoms, and depressive symptomatology using validated questionnaires. We found worse sleep quality, a delayed bedtime, and more severe insomnia and depression symptoms in the students sampled under COVID-19 restrictive measures. We suggest paying special attention to this at-risk population during the current pandemic emergency and applying preventive and supportive interventions to limit the exacerbation of sleep and psychological problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Students , Universities
14.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1905918, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576028

ABSTRACT

In the USA, numerous summer programs are available for undergraduate students that seek to increase the number of individuals from groups underrepresented in medicine (URM) that matriculate to medical school. These programs have typically been conducted at research-focused institutions, involving hands-on-research and various enrichment experiences. For 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the suspension of on-campus student activities at American universities, necessitating a switch to a virtual format for these URM-focused programs. Outcomes, however, from these programs conducted virtually, necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, have not been reported. The Penn Access Summer Scholars (PASS) program at the Perelman School of Medicine (PSOM) targets URM undergraduates, providing two consecutive summers of mentored research and enrichment experiences, with the goal of enabling participants' matriculation to PSOM. PASS has been an 8 week on-campus experience, but during summer 2020, virtual programming of 6 weeks was provided due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in the 2020 virtual offering of PASS completed pre- and post-program surveys that included 5-point Likert-style and open-ended questions to determine the impact of the programing on self-assessments of research skills, familiarity with the physician identity, and preparedness to be a PSOM student. Post-program, participants also assessed program administration and content. With respect to program objectives, participants reported significant increases in their self-reported confidence in conducting research, understanding of physician identity, and sense of preparedness for medical school. The educational value of the program content, their level of engagement in the program and the overall quality of the program were rated as excellent or outstanding by large majorities of respondents. Content analyses of participant comments were consistent with these quantitative results. Therefore, a premedical summer enrichment program targeting URM undergraduates can be successfully conducted virtually to achieve program objectives and may increase the availability to these initiatives.


Subject(s)
Mentors , Minority Groups , Research/education , Students, Premedical , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pennsylvania , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical , Self Report , Universities
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E101, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575161

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than 700,000 COVID-19 cases have been linked to American colleges and universities since the beginning of the pandemic. However, studies are limited on the effects of the pandemic on college-aged young adults and its association with their COVID-19 vaccination status and intent. METHODS: Using the Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey (HPS), a large, nationally representative survey fielded from April 14 through May 24, 2021, we assessed the effects of the pandemic (COVID-19 infection, mental health, food and financial security) on COVID-19 vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) and intentions toward vaccination among college-aged young adults in the United States (N = 6,758). We examined factors associated with vaccination coverage and intent, and reasons for not getting vaccinated. RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth (19.6%) of college-aged young adults had a previous diagnosis of COVID-19, 43.5% and 39.1% reported having anxiety or depression, respectively, 10.9% reported that they sometimes or often did not have enough food to eat, and 22.6% and 12.3% found it somewhat or very difficult, respectively, to pay for household expenses. Of college-aged young adults, 63.1% had received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, 15.4% probably would be vaccinated or were unsure about getting the vaccine, and 14.0% probably will not or definitely will not get vaccinated. Adults who were non-Hispanic Black (vs non-Hispanic White) or had food or financial insecurities (vs did not) were less likely to be vaccinated or intend to be vaccinated. Among adults who probably will not or definitely will not be vaccinated, more than one-third said that they did not believe a vaccine was needed. CONCLUSION: Ensuring high and equitable vaccination coverage among college-aged young adults is critical for safely reopening in-person learning and resuming prepandemic activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Intention , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Universities , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , Young Adult
16.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E575-E585, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573623

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is impacting social, economic and political patterns globally. To contain its spread, Nigeria like many other countries, imposed drastic measures such as lockdown/curfew. Objectives: This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) about COVID-19 pandemic among members of staff of a university community in Nigeria. University staff members contribute to national development through dissemination of specialized knowledge and skills and guiding the young generation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous, self-designed, online KAP questionnaire was conducted from April 18 to May 31, 2020. The questionnaire consisted of ten knowledge questions regarding the transmission and prevention of COVID-19. The questions on attitude (15) and perception (10) assessed respondents' behaviour towards adherence to government policies and views on government efforts to contain the infection respectively. Results: A total of 125 (teaching) and 102 (non-teaching) staff responded. Approximately 59.1% of the respondents were males. The mean knowledge and positive attitude levels were 70.8% (SD ± 9.6%) and 83.1% (SD ± 13.07 %) respectively. Significant differences in the knowledge mean scores were observed for demographic categories such as educational qualification (p = 0.001), staff work category (p ≤ 0.000), work background (p ≤ 0.000), and type of lockdown (p = 0.027). Most of the respondents (85.3%) opined that COVID-19 was a biological weapon and viewed the lockdown as necessary (81.5%). However, they thought that the Nigerian government was not doing enough to mitigate COVID-19 spread. Conclusions: The perception of COVID-19 in the university community bear implications across public health initiatives, compliance with precautionary behaviour and bilateral relations with foreign nations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2262, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional study was performed to examine life satisfaction differences between university students from nine countries during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-national comparison of the association between life satisfaction and a set of variables was also conducted. METHODS: Participants in the study were 2349 university students with a mean age of 23 years (M = 23.15, SD = 4.66). There was a predominance of women (69.26%) and individuals studying at the bachelor level (78%). The research was conducted between May and July 2020 in nine countries: Slovenia (n=209), the Czech Republic (Czechia)(n=308), Germany (n=267), Poland (n=301), Ukraine (n=310), Russia (n=285), Turkey (n=310), Israel (n=199), and Colombia (n=153). Participants completed an online survey involving measures of satisfaction with life (SWLS), exposure to COVID-19, perceived negative impact of coronavirus (PNIC) on students' well-being, general self-reported health (GSRH), physical activity (PA), and some demographics (gender, place of residence, level of study). A one-way ANOVA was used to explore cross-national differences in life satisfaction. The χ2 independence test was performed separately in each country to examine associations between life satisfaction and other variables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify life satisfaction predictors among a set of demographic and health-related variables in each of the nine countries. RESULTS: The level of life satisfaction varied between university students from the nine countries. The results for life satisfaction and the other variables differed between countries. Numerous associations were noted between satisfaction with life and several variables, and these showed cross-national differences. Distinct predictors of life satisfaction were observed for each country. However, poor self-rated physical health was a predictor of low life satisfaction independent of the country. CONCLUSIONS: The association between life satisfaction and subjective assessment of physical health seems to be universal, while the other variables are related to cross-cultural differences. Special public health attention should be focused on psychologically supporting people who do not feel healthy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Young Adult
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138904, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567895
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2137189, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567892

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 posed an unprecedented threat to residential colleges in the fall of 2020. While there were mathematical models of COVID-19 transmission, there were no established or tested protocols of COVID-19 testing or mitigation for school administrators to follow. Objective: To investigate the association of a multifaceted COVID-19 mitigation strategy using social, behavioral, and educational interventions and a program of frequent testing with prevalence of disease spread. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted as a retrospective review of COVID-19 positivity from August 16, 2020, to April 30, 2021, at Delaware State University, a publicly funded historically Black university. Participants included all students, faculty, and staff members with a campus presence. Positivity rates after use of mitigation strategies and testing on campus were compared with those of the surrounding community. Data were analyzed from July through September 2021. Exposures: Mitigation strategies included education and outreach about social distancing, masking, and handwashing, and a COVID-19 testing plan consisted of twice-weekly polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening using anterior nasal samples (fall and early spring semester) and then saliva-based samples (middle to late spring semester). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative tests, infections, daily quarantine, and isolation residence hall occupancy were measured, and comparisons were made with statewide COVID-19 positivity rates. Results: The campus cohort included 2320 individuals (1575 resident students, 415 nonresident students, and 330 faculty or staff members). There were 1488 (64.1%) women and 832 (35.9%) men; mean (SD) age was 27.5 (12.9) years. During the fall semester, 36 500 COVID-19 PCR tests were performed. Weekly positivity rates ranged from 0 of 372 tests to 16 of 869 tests (1.8%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 0.5% [0.5%]; 168 positive results and 36 312 negative results). During the same period, statewide positivity ranged from 589 of 25 120 tests (2.3%) to 5405 of 54 596 tests (9.9%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 4.8% [2.6%]). In the spring semester, 39 045 PCR tests were performed. Weekly positivity rates ranged from 4 of 2028 tests (0.2%) to 36 of 900 tests (4.0%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 0.8% [0.9%]; 267 positive results and 38 767 negative results). During the same period, statewide positivity ranged from 1336 of 37 254 tests (3.6%) to 3630 of 42 458 tests (8.5%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 5.1% [1.3%]). Compared with statewide rates, campus positivity rates were mean (SD) 4.4 (2.6) percentage points lower during the fall semester (P < .001) and mean (SD) 5.6 (1.6) percentage points lower during the spring semester (P < .001). Total daily quarantine and isolation residence hall occupancy ranged from 0 to 43 students in the fall and 1 to 47 students during the spring. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the combination of campuswide mitigation policies and twice-weekly COVID-19 PCR screening was associated with a significant decrease in COVID-19 positivity at a residential historically Black university campus compared with the surrounding community. Given the socioeconomic demographics of many students at historically Black colleges and universities, keeping these resident campuses open is critical not only to ensure access to educational resources, but also to provide housing and food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Education , Mass Screening/methods , Students , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Delaware/epidemiology , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(5): 2028-2031, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545672

ABSTRACT

This viewpoint article describes an effective model for creating and sustaining an affinity group for undergraduate and graduate students from racial and ethnic backgrounds historically underrepresented in the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association who are enrolled in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) programs at predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The Speech-Language Therapy & Audiology Minority Program (STAMP) at Nazareth College is an affinity group and mentorship program for undergraduate and graduate students, CSD program alumni, and area professionals who identify as minorities. Affinity groups have been shown to increase the sense of belonging of minority students at PWIs. At Nazareth College, we have observed this as students who participate in STAMP have reported that the program contributes to their feeling of belonging in the CSD department and at the institution and provides them with a safe place where they can share and discuss their experiences as minorities at a PWI. Additionally, our students have reported that participating in this affinity group supports their academic and clinical success and helps them manage their stress. By sharing our model for creating an affinity group for underrepresented CSD students at a PWI, we hope to encourage the establishment and support of groups like STAMP in CSD programs across the country. Considerations for departments considering starting their own affinity groups are discussed. STAMP, and other affinity groups, have the potential to grow by facilitating constructive discussion and collective action toward issues that significantly impact students from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds.


Subject(s)
Minority Groups , Communication , Humans , Students , United States , Universities
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