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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456083

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher educational institutions worldwide switched to emergency distance learning in early 2020. The less structured environment of distance learning forced students to regulate their learning and motivation more independently. According to self-determination theory (SDT), satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and social relatedness affects intrinsic motivation, which in turn relates to more active or passive learning behavior. As the social context plays a major role for basic need satisfaction, distance learning may impair basic need satisfaction and thus intrinsic motivation and learning behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between basic need satisfaction and procrastination and persistence in the context of emergency distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in a cross-sectional study. We also investigated the mediating role of intrinsic motivation in this relationship. Furthermore, to test the universal importance of SDT for intrinsic motivation and learning behavior under these circumstances in different countries, we collected data in Europe, Asia and North America. A total of N = 15,462 participants from Albania, Austria, China, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Kosovo, Lithuania, Poland, Malta, North Macedonia, Romania, Sweden, and the US answered questions regarding perceived competence, autonomy, social relatedness, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, persistence, and sociodemographic background. Our results support SDT's claim of universality regarding the relation between basic psychological need fulfilment, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, and persistence. However, whereas perceived competence had the highest direct effect on procrastination and persistence, social relatedness was mainly influential via intrinsic motivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Motivation , Procrastination , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personal Autonomy , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257729, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435620

ABSTRACT

Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, discussions about online learning referred to the use of e-learning platforms and social networks as auxiliary tools in the educational process. Due to the pandemic, universities were forced to adopt an exclusive online teaching process and most universities today use platforms dedicated to online learning such as Moodle platforms. In this context, we were interested in analyzing the attitude of students regarding the way social networks could be integrated into the educational process, and if the positive attitude of students towards social networks and their use for academic purposes, proven in previous studies, remains positive under the conditions generated by the pandemic. In this regard, the present study aimed at identifying the attitude of Romanian students towards the use of Facebook and Instagram as educational tools and the circumstances in which students believe these platforms could be used by them and their teachers. An online survey was conducted on 872 students from public higher education institutions in Romania. Based on the exploratory factor analysis and the parametric test, the empirical results show that students have a slightly positive attitude towards using Facebook in the educational process, but they have a more reticent, less positive attitude towards using Instagram. Thus, the most appropriate contexts in which these platforms could be used are represented by extracurricular activities. A higher preference for the use of Facebook rather than Instagram, was identified among master and PhD students. No major differences were revealed in student subgroups sorted by gender or study domain.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Learning/physiology , Male , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257052, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416884

ABSTRACT

There remains a great challenge to minimize the spread of epidemics, especially in high-density communities such as colleges and universities. This is particularly true on densely populated, residential college campuses. To construct class and residential networks data from a four-year, residential liberal arts college with 5539 students were obtained from SUNY College at Geneseo, a rural, residential, undergraduate institution in western NY, USA. Equal-sized random networks also were created for each day. Different levels of compliance with mask use (none to 100%), mask efficacy (50% to 100%), and testing frequency (daily, or every 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, or 105 days) were assessed. Tests were assumed to be only 90% accurate and positive results were used to isolate individuals. The effectiveness of contact tracing, and the effect of quarantining neighbors of infectious individuals, was tested. The structure of the college course enrollment and residence networks greatly influenced the dynamics of the epidemics, as compared to the random networks. In particular, average path lengths were longer in the college networks compared to random networks. Students in larger majors generally had shorter average path lengths than students in smaller majors. Average transitivity (clustering) was lower on days when students most frequently were in class (MWF). Degree distributions were generally large and right skewed, ranging from 0 to 719. Simulations began by inoculating twenty students (10 exposed and 10 infectious) with SARS-CoV-2 on the first day of the fall semester and ended once the disease was cleared. Transmission probability was calculated based on an R0 = 2.4. Without interventions epidemics resulted in most students becoming infected and lasted into the second semester. On average students in the college networks experienced fewer infections, shorter duration, and lower epidemic peaks when compared to the dynamics on equal-sized random networks. The most important factors in reducing case numbers were the proportion masking and the frequency of testing, followed by contact tracing and mask efficacy. The paper discusses further high-order interactions and other implications of non-pharmaceutical interventions for disease transmission on a residential college campus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , New York/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Students , Young Adult
4.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(9): 1078-1084, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386076

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious and has caused significant medical/socioeconomic impacts. Other than vaccination, effective public health measures, including contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine, is critical for deterring viral transmission, preventing infection progression and resuming normal activities. Viral transmission is affected by many factors, but the viral load and vitality could be among the most important ones. Although in vitro studies have indicated that the amount of virus isolated from infected individuals affects the successful rate of virus isolation, whether the viral load carried at the individual level would determine the transmissibility was unknown. We examined whether the cycle threshold (Ct) value, a measurement of viral load by RT-PCR assay, could differentiate the spreaders from the non-spreaders in a population of college students. Our results indicate that while at the population level the Ct value is lower, suggesting a higher viral load, in the symptomatic spreaders than that in the asymptomatic non-spreaders, there is a significant overlap in the Ct values between the two groups. Thus, Ct value, or the viral load, at the individual level could not predict the transmissibility. Instead, a sensitive method to detect the presence of virus is needed to identify asymptomatic individuals who may carry a low viral load but can still be infectious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Universities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/virology , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Public Health , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Students/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load , Young Adult
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355019

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions sent college students online and off campus, potentially reducing access to healthy food. The objective of this cross-sectional, internet-based study was to use qualitative and quantitative survey methods to evaluate whether COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Texas, USA affected college students' ability to buy food, how/what they shopped for, how they prepared food, what they ate, how they felt about eating, and overall dietary quality (assessed using Healthy Eating Index [HEI] scores). Survey responses from 502 students (87.5% female; 59.6% nonwhite, mean age 27.5 ± 0.4 years, >50% graduate students) were analyzed. The qualitative analysis of open-ended questions revealed 110 codes, 17 subthemes, and six themes. Almost all students experienced changes in at least one area, the most common being changes in shopping habits. Participants with low or very low food security had lower HEI scores compared to food secure students (p = 0.047). Black students were more likely to report changes in their ability to buy food (p = 0.035). The COVID-19 restrictions varied in their impact on students' ability to access sufficient healthy food, with some students severely affected. Thus, universities should establish procedures for responding to emergencies, including identifying at-risk students and mobilizing emergency funds and/or food assistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/standards , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Feeding Behavior , Female , Food Assistance , Food Security , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students , Texas/epidemiology , Universities/statistics & numerical data
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26776, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354338

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus (COVID-19) disease outbreak was a public health emergency of international concern which eventually evolved into a pandemic. Nigeria was locked down in March, 2020 as the country battled to contain the spread of the disease. By August 2020, phase-by-phase easing of the lockdown was commenced and university students will soon return for academic activities. This study undertakes some epidemiological analysis of the Nigerian COVID-19 data to help the government and university administrators make informed decisions on the safety of personnel and students.The COVID-19 data on confirmed cases, deaths, and recovered were obtained from the website of the Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) from April 2, 2020 to August 24, 2020. The infection rate, prevalence, ratio, cause-specific death rate, and case recovery rate were used to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the pandemic in Nigeria. Exponential smoothing was adopted in modeling the time series data and forecasting the pandemic in Nigeria up to January 31, 2021.The results indicated that the pandemic had infection rate of at most 3 infections per 1 million per day from April to August 2020. The death rate was 5 persons per 1 million during the period of study while recovery rate was 747 persons per 1000 infections. Analysis of forecast data showed steady but gradual decrease in the daily infection rate and death rate and substantial increase in the recovery rate, 975 recoveries per 1000 infections.In general, the epidemiological attributes of the pandemic from the original data and the forecast data indicated optimism in the decrease in the rate of infection and death in the future. Moreover, the infection rate, prevalence and death rate in January 2021 coincided with the predictions based on the analysis. Therefore, the Nigerian government is encouraged to allow universities in the country to reopen while university administrators set up the necessary protocols for strict adherence to safety measures.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , COVID-19/mortality , Forecasting/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria , Prevalence , Universities/organization & administration , Universities/statistics & numerical data
7.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(9): 1078-1084, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349527

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious and has caused significant medical/socioeconomic impacts. Other than vaccination, effective public health measures, including contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine, is critical for deterring viral transmission, preventing infection progression and resuming normal activities. Viral transmission is affected by many factors, but the viral load and vitality could be among the most important ones. Although in vitro studies have indicated that the amount of virus isolated from infected individuals affects the successful rate of virus isolation, whether the viral load carried at the individual level would determine the transmissibility was unknown. We examined whether the cycle threshold (Ct) value, a measurement of viral load by RT-PCR assay, could differentiate the spreaders from the non-spreaders in a population of college students. Our results indicate that while at the population level the Ct value is lower, suggesting a higher viral load, in the symptomatic spreaders than that in the asymptomatic non-spreaders, there is a significant overlap in the Ct values between the two groups. Thus, Ct value, or the viral load, at the individual level could not predict the transmissibility. Instead, a sensitive method to detect the presence of virus is needed to identify asymptomatic individuals who may carry a low viral load but can still be infectious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Universities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/virology , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Public Health , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Students/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to explore factors influencing the study engagement of health and social professions students during the COVID-19 pandemic. While antecedents of study engagement have been studied previously, the factors influencing engagement under pandemic conditions have not yet been investigated. Furthermore, there is a particular need for research among students in health and social professions programs, as these students are particularly affected by the pandemic. As theoretical basis, the study draws on the demands-resources-theory. It is hypothesized that pandemic-related study and personal resources drive engagement during the pandemic, and that pandemic-related demands negatively influence engagement. METHOD: The study uses a cross-sectional survey to explore the hypothesized effects. The sample consists of 559 university students of health and social professions in Germany. The study was carried out in July 2020, towards the end of the first digital semester and after the first peak in COVID-19 cases. Data are analyzed using linear multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings show that the demands-resources-theory is suitable to explain study engagement even under pandemic conditions. Suitable digital learning formats and social support are identified as important study resources for study engagement during major life events, while emotional resilience, active self-care and academic self-efficacy are identified as important personal resources. CONCLUSIONS: Under pandemic conditions academic institutions should focus on providing beneficial teaching formats and innovative ways to support students lacking social networks. Besides, they should consider developing means to help students structuring daily life as well as establishing initiatives to strengthen students' self-efficacy beliefs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Occupations/education , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251580, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285197

ABSTRACT

This mixed-method study examined the experiences of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic through surveys, experience sampling data collected over two academic quarters (Spring 2019 n1 = 253; Spring 2020 n2 = 147), and semi-structured interviews with 27 undergraduate students. There were no marked changes in mean levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, or loneliness between 2019 and 2020, or over the course of the Spring 2020 term. Students in both the 2019 and 2020 cohort who indicated psychosocial vulnerability at the initial assessment showed worse psychosocial functioning throughout the entire Spring term relative to other students. However, rates of distress increased faster in 2020 than in 2019 for these individuals. Across individuals, homogeneity of variance tests and multi-level models revealed significant heterogeneity, suggesting the need to examine not just means but the variations in individuals' experiences. Thematic analysis of interviews characterizes these varied experiences, describing the contexts for students' challenges and strategies. This analysis highlights the interweaving of psychosocial and academic distress: Challenges such as isolation from peers, lack of interactivity with instructors, and difficulty adjusting to family needs had both an emotional and academic toll. Strategies for adjusting to this new context included initiating remote study and hangout sessions with peers, as well as self-learning. In these and other strategies, students used technologies in different ways and for different purposes than they had previously. Supporting qualitative insight about adaptive responses were quantitative findings that students who used more problem-focused forms of coping reported fewer mental health symptoms over the course of the pandemic, even though they perceived their stress as more severe. These findings underline the need for interventions oriented towards problem-focused coping and suggest opportunities for peer role modeling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Housing , Students/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Psychological Distress , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(1): 133e-139e, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284960

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic became a global threat in a matter of weeks, with its future implications yet to be defined. New York City was swiftly declared the epicenter of the pandemic in the United States as case numbers grew exponentially in a matter of days, quickly threatening to overwhelm the capacity of the health care system. This burgeoning crisis led practitioners across specialties to adapt and mobilize rapidly. Plastic surgeons and trainees within the New York University Langone Health system faced uncertainty in terms of future practice, in addition to immediate and long-term effects on undergraduate and graduate medical education. The administration remained vigilant and adaptive, enacting departmental policies prioritizing safety and productivity, with early deployment of faculty for clinical support at the front lines. The authors anticipate that this pandemic will have far-reaching effects on the future of plastic surgery education, trends in the pursuit of elective surgical procedures, and considerable consequences for certain research endeavors. Undoubtedly, there will be substantial impact on the physical and mental well-being of health care practitioners across specialties. Coordinated efforts and clear lines of communication between the Department of Plastic Surgery and its faculty and trainees allowed a concerted effort toward the immediate challenge of tempering the spread of coronavirus disease of 2019 and preserving structure and throughput for education and research. Adaptation and creativity have ultimately allowed for early rebooting of in-person clinical and surgical practice. The authors present their coordinated efforts and lessons gleaned from their experience to inform their community's preparedness as this formidable challenge evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surgery, Plastic/trends , Academic Medical Centers/standards , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Graduate/standards , Education, Medical, Graduate/trends , Elective Surgical Procedures/education , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Faculty/organization & administration , Faculty/psychology , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , New York City/epidemiology , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/trends , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/education , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/standards , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/trends , Surgeons/organization & administration , Surgeons/psychology , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Surgery, Plastic/education , Surgery, Plastic/organization & administration , Surgery, Plastic/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Uncertainty , Universities/standards , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Universities/trends
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183677

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to surprising and unexpected experiences for Saudi university students. Precautionary and preventive measures taken to contain this pandemic impacted the social and educational aspects of these students' lives. All Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) students were invited to participate in an online survey on 30 impacts, both positive and negative, of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives. Social impact theory (SIT) was applied to illustrate these impacts. The survey yielded 1,360 responses. The results showed high to moderate levels of agreement regarding students' perceptions of the positive and negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives, with social aspects impacted more than educational ones; and no statistically significant gender differences. Weak correlations were found between the social aspects and the educational aspects of students' lives in relation to the impact of the pandemic, although all aspects were correlated positively. The SIT framework provided insights into how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted students' lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(3): 344-353, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission in educational settings is crucial for ensuring the safety of staff and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks among staff and students in educational settings during the summer half-term (June-July, 2020) in England. METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional analysis, Public Health England initiated enhanced national surveillance in educational settings in England that had reopened after the first national lockdown, from June 1 to July 17, 2020. Educational settings were categorised as early years settings (<5-year-olds), primary schools (5-11-year-olds; only years 1 and 6 allowed to return), secondary schools (11-18-year-olds; only years 10 and 12), or mixed-age settings (spanning a combination of the above). Further education colleges were excluded. Data were recorded in HPZone, an online national database for events that require public health management. RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 event rates and case rates were calculated for staff and students, and direction of transmission was inferred on the basis of symptom onset and testing dates. Events were classified as single cases, coprimary cases (at least two confirmed cases within 48 h, typically within the same household), and outbreaks (at least two epidemiologically linked cases, with sequential cases diagnosed within 14 days in the same educational setting). All events were followed up for 28 days after educational settings closed for the summer holidays. Negative binomial regression was used to correlate educational setting events with regional population, population density, and community incidence. FINDINGS: A median of 38 000 early years settings (IQR 35 500-41 500), 15 600 primary schools (13 450-17 300), and 4000 secondary schools (3700-4200) were open each day, with a median daily attendance of 928 000 students (630 000-1 230 000) overall. There were 113 single cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, nine coprimary cases, and 55 outbreaks. The risk of an outbreak increased by 72% (95% CI 28-130) for every five cases per 100 000 population increase in community incidence (p<0·0001). Staff had higher incidence than students (27 cases [95% CI 23-32] per 100 000 per day among staff compared with 18 cases [14-24] in early years students, 6·0 cases [4·3-8·2] in primary schools students, and 6·8 cases [2·7-14] in secondary school students]), and most cases linked to outbreaks were in staff members (154 [73%] staff vs 56 [27%] children of 210 total cases). Probable direction of transmission was staff to staff in 26 outbreaks, staff to student in eight outbreaks, student to staff in 16 outbreaks, and student to student in five outbreaks. The median number of secondary cases in outbreaks was one (IQR 1-2) for student index cases and one (1-5) for staff index cases. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 infections and outbreaks were uncommon in educational settings during the summer half-term in England. The strong association with regional COVID-19 incidence emphasises the importance of controlling community transmission to protect educational settings. Interventions should focus on reducing transmission in and among staff. FUNDING: Public Health England.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Disease Transmission, Infectious , England/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data
13.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 25(2): 172-179, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153007

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Quarantine, although essential during contagious outbreaks, has been correlated with poor psychological outcomes in the general population. Such outcomes include low mood, suicide, and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Studies have mostly looked at the mental health of general citizens, healthcare workers, or infected survivors, with limited research targeting university students. This study aimed to understand the psychological distress experienced by self-quarantined undergraduate university students in Lebanon during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Undergraduate students enrolled at the American University of Beirut were invited to participate in a 47-item online questionnaire. 73 participants completed the questionnaire. Demographic data, data about COVID-19 exposure, stressors during quarantine, understanding the rationale, compliance, and difficulties associated with quarantine, and levels of psychological distress were analysed. RESULTS: 75.3% of the participants were considered as having a high risk of developing acute stress. Undergoing quarantine for more than 14 days, having a chronic medical illness, inadequate access to supplies, and fear of infection were all significantly associated with an increased risk of acute stress. CONCLUSION: Despite being a necessary preventive measure during infectious disease outbreaks, quarantine can be associated with negative psychological effects, particularly in undergraduate students. Providing preventive and effective interventions is of utmost necessity.KEY POINTSDuring COVID-19, three-quarter of students had high risk for acute stress.Females had higher odds of high-risk acute stress compared to males.Having a chronic medical condition was associated with high risk acute stress.Long quarantine and lack of supplies were associated with high risk acute stress.Providing interventions to protect the mental health of students is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150541

ABSTRACT

Measures implemented in many countries to contain the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a change in lifestyle with unpredictable consequences on physical and mental health. We aimed at identifying the variables associated with psychological distress during the lockdown between April and May 2020 in the Italian academic population. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional online survey (IO CONTO 2020) within five Italian universities. Among about 240,000 individuals invited to participate through institutional communications, 18 120 filled the questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured by the self-administered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The covariates collected included demographic and lifestyle characteristics, trust in government, doctors and scientists. Associations of covariates with influenza-like symptoms or positive COVID-19 test and with psychological distress were assessed by multiple regression models at the local level; a meta-analysis of the results was then performed. Severe levels of anxiety or depression were reported by 20% of the sample and were associated with being a student or having a lower income, irrespective of their health condition and worries about contracting the virus. The probability of being severely anxious or depressed also depended on physical activity: compared to those never exercising, the highest OR being for those who stopped during lockdown (1.53; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.84) and the lowest for those who continued (0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.95). Up to 21% of severe cases of anxiety or depression might have been avoided if during lockdown participants had continued to exercise as before. Socioeconomic insecurity contributes to increase mental problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic and to the measures to contain it. Maintaining or introducing an adequate level of physical activity is likely to mitigate such detrimental effects. Promoting safe practice of physical activity should remain a public health priority to reduce health risks during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(3): 258-267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether students in minority race categories are more likely to experience race-related bias and hatred in their lifetime and since the onset of COVID-19, after controlling the effect of demographic and other variables. METHODS: This quantitative study used primary data from the survey of 1249 college students at one of the universities in Georgia during April and May 2020. We performed multinomial logistic regression, computing 2 models for the 2 ordinal dependent variables concerning students' experience of race-related bias and hatred-(a) during their lifetime and (b) since the onset of COVID-19 in March 2020-both measured as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," and "fairly often or very often." RESULTS: During their lifetime, 47.5% of students had experienced some level of bias or hatred, ranging from "rarely" to "very often." Since the onset of COVID-19 on March 2 in Georgia, in a short period of 1 to 2 months, 17.6% of students reported experiencing race-related bias or hatred. Univariate statistics revealed substantial differences in race-related bias and hatred by race, experienced during students' lifetime as well as since the onset of COVID-19. Results of multinomial logistic regression showed that the odds of having experienced bias or hatred during their lifetime were significantly higher (P < .05) for the Black students than for White students (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 75.8, for very often or often vs never; AOR = 42 for sometimes vs never). Compared with White students, the odds of hatred and bias were also significantly higher for students who were Asian, multiple races, or another non-White race. The odds of having experienced race-related bias and hatred since the onset of COVID-19 were also higher for Black Asian, multiple races, and other non-White students. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds critical scientific evidence about variation in the perception of bias and hatred that should draw policy attention to race-related issues experienced by college students in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Minority Groups/psychology , Racism/psychology , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 114-117, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112896

ABSTRACT

During September 3-November 16, 2020, daily confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported to the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) increased at a rate of 24% per week, from a 7-day average of 674 (August 28-September 3) to 6,426 (November 10-16) (1). The growth rate during this interval was the highest to date in Wisconsin and among the highest in the United States during that time (1). To characterize potential sources of this increase, the investigation examined reported outbreaks in Wisconsin that occurred during March 4-November 16, 2020, with respect to their setting and number of associated COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Laboratories , Long-Term Care , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Wisconsin/epidemiology
18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 117-126, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062493

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many universities evacuated their campuses, requiring students to vacate on campus residences. The psychological outcomes of students who relocated during the pandemic remains unknown. We examined mandated relocation experiences related to self-reported worry, grief, loneliness, and depressive, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data obtained from April 9 to August 4, 2020 on 791 young adults (ages 18-30 years) who were enrolled at a U.S. university. The CARES 2020 Project (COVID-19 Adult Resilience Experiences Study) is an online survey of young adults' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recruitment relied on snowball sampling. Participants were asked if they were required to relocate from campus and among those who did, their experiences in moving. COVID-19-related worry and grief, loneliness, and depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: Approximately one-third of students reported being mandated to relocate. Students mandated to relocate reported more COVID-19-related grief, loneliness, and generalized anxiety symptoms compared to those who did not even after controlling for the severity level of local COVID-19 outbreaks. Students who had to leave behind valuable personal belongings reported more COVID-19-related worries, grief, and depressive, generalized anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Students who were mandated to relocate reported worse psychological outcomes compared to students who were not mandated to relocate. Our findings have implications for addressing the psychological impact of evacuating college campuses during public health emergencies and other disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
19.
Work ; 68(1): 45-67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sanitary emergency due to COVID-19 virus obliged people to face up several changes in their everyday life becauseWorld Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines and countries' Health Systems imposed lockdown of activities and social distancing to flatten the infection curve. One of these rapid changes involved students and professors that had to turn the traditional "in presence" classes into online courses facing several problems for educational delivery. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to investigate the factors that affected both teaching/learning effectiveness and general human comfort and wellbeing after the sudden transition from classrooms to eLearning platforms due to COVID-19 in Italy. METHODS: A workshop, involving students and experts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, has been performed to identify aspects/factors that could influence online learning. Then, from workshop output and literature studies, a survey composed of two questionnaires (one for students and one for teachers) has been developed and spread out among Italian universities students and professors. RESULTS: 700 people answered the questionnaires. Data have been analysed and discussed to define the most important changes due to the new eLearning approach. Absence of interactions with colleagues and the necessity to use several devices were some of the aspects coming out from questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows an overview of factors influencing both teaching/learning effectiveness and general human comfort and wellbeing. Results could be considered as a basis for future investigation and optimization about the dependencies and correlations among identified factors and the characteristics of the products/interaction/environment during eLearning courses.


Subject(s)
Child Health/standards , Education, Distance/standards , Quarantine/trends , Students/statistics & numerical data , Transfer, Psychology/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/methods , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities/organization & administration , Universities/statistics & numerical data
20.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245352, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029173

ABSTRACT

In February and March, 2020, environmental surface swab samples were collected from the handle of the main entry door of a major university building in Florida, as part of a pilot surveillance project screening for influenza. Samples were taken at the end of regular classroom hours, between the dates of February 1-5 and February 19-March 4, 2020. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was isolated from the door handle on four of the 19 days sampled. Both SARS-CoV-2 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were detected in a sample collected on February 21, 2020. Based on sequence analysis, the Florida SARS-CoV-2 strain (designated UF-11) was identical to strains being identified in Washington state during the same time period, while the earliest similar sequences were sampled in China/Hubei between Dec 30th 2019 and Jan 5th 2020. The first human case of COVID-19 was not officially reported in Florida until March 1st. In an analysis of sequences from COVID-19 patients in this region of Florida, there was only limited evidence of subsequent dissemination of the UF-11 strain. Identical or highly similar strains, possibly related through a common transmission chain, were detected with increasing frequency in Washington state between end of February and beginning of March. Our data provide further documentation of the rapid early spread of SARS-CoV-2 and underscore the likelihood that closely related strains were cryptically circulating in multiple U.S. communities before the first "official" cases were recognized.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Florida , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Surface Properties , Time Factors
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