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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(1): 133e-139e, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284960

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic became a global threat in a matter of weeks, with its future implications yet to be defined. New York City was swiftly declared the epicenter of the pandemic in the United States as case numbers grew exponentially in a matter of days, quickly threatening to overwhelm the capacity of the health care system. This burgeoning crisis led practitioners across specialties to adapt and mobilize rapidly. Plastic surgeons and trainees within the New York University Langone Health system faced uncertainty in terms of future practice, in addition to immediate and long-term effects on undergraduate and graduate medical education. The administration remained vigilant and adaptive, enacting departmental policies prioritizing safety and productivity, with early deployment of faculty for clinical support at the front lines. The authors anticipate that this pandemic will have far-reaching effects on the future of plastic surgery education, trends in the pursuit of elective surgical procedures, and considerable consequences for certain research endeavors. Undoubtedly, there will be substantial impact on the physical and mental well-being of health care practitioners across specialties. Coordinated efforts and clear lines of communication between the Department of Plastic Surgery and its faculty and trainees allowed a concerted effort toward the immediate challenge of tempering the spread of coronavirus disease of 2019 and preserving structure and throughput for education and research. Adaptation and creativity have ultimately allowed for early rebooting of in-person clinical and surgical practice. The authors present their coordinated efforts and lessons gleaned from their experience to inform their community's preparedness as this formidable challenge evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surgery, Plastic/trends , Academic Medical Centers/standards , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Graduate/standards , Education, Medical, Graduate/trends , Elective Surgical Procedures/education , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Faculty/organization & administration , Faculty/psychology , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , New York City/epidemiology , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/trends , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/education , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/standards , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/trends , Surgeons/organization & administration , Surgeons/psychology , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Surgery, Plastic/education , Surgery, Plastic/organization & administration , Surgery, Plastic/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Uncertainty , Universities/standards , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Universities/trends
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116425, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281193

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted US educational institutions. Given potential adverse financial and psychosocial effects of campus closures, many institutions developed strategies to reopen campuses in the fall 2020 semester despite the ongoing threat of COVID-19. However, many institutions opted to have limited campus reopening to minimize potential risk of spread of SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To analyze how Boston University (BU) fully reopened its campus in the fall of 2020 and controlled COVID-19 transmission despite worsening transmission in Boston, Massachusetts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multifaceted intervention case series was conducted at a large urban university campus in Boston, Massachusetts, during the fall 2020 semester. The BU response included a high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing facility with capacity to deliver results in less than 24 hours; routine asymptomatic screening for COVID-19; daily health attestations; adherence monitoring and feedback; robust contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation in on-campus facilities; face mask use; enhanced hand hygiene; social distancing recommendations; dedensification of classrooms and public places; and enhancement of all building air systems. Data were analyzed from December 20, 2020, to January 31, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of anterior nares specimens and sources of transmission, as determined through contact tracing. Results: Between August and December 2020, BU conducted more than 500 000 COVID-19 tests and identified 719 individuals with COVID-19, including 496 students (69.0%), 11 faculty (1.5%), and 212 staff (29.5%). Overall, 718 individuals, or 1.8% of the BU community, had test results positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of 837 close contacts traced, 86 individuals (10.3%) had test results positive for COVID-19. BU contact tracers identified a source of transmission for 370 individuals (51.5%), with 206 individuals (55.7%) identifying a non-BU source. Among 5 faculty and 84 staff with SARS-CoV-2 with a known source of infection, most reported a transmission source outside of BU (all 5 faculty members [100%] and 67 staff members [79.8%]). A BU source was identified by 108 of 183 undergraduate students with SARS-CoV-2 (59.0%) and 39 of 98 graduate students with SARS-CoV-2 (39.8%); notably, no transmission was traced to a classroom setting. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of COVID-19 transmission, BU used a coordinated strategy of testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine, with robust management and oversight, to control COVID-19 transmission in an urban university setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Universities/trends , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Contact Tracing/methods , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/methods , Universities/organization & administration
3.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 752-764, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In spring 2020, U.S. universities closed campuses to limit the transmission of COVID-19, resulting in an abrupt change in residence, reductions in social interaction, and in many cases, movement away from a heavy drinking culture. The present mixed-methods study explores COVID-19-related changes in college student drinking. We characterize concomitant changes in social and location drinking contexts and describe reasons attributed to changes in drinking. METHODS: We conducted two studies of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drinking behavior, drinking context, and reasons for both increases and decreases in consumption among college students. Study 1 (qualitative) included 18 heavy-drinking college students (Mage  = 20.2; 56% female) who completed semi-structured interviews. Study 2 (quantitative) included 312 current and former college students who reported use of alcohol and cannabis (Mage  = 21.3; 62% female) and who completed an online survey. RESULTS: In both studies, COVID-19-related increases in drinking frequency were accompanied by decreases in quantity, heavy drinking, and drunkenness. Yet, in Study 2, although heavier drinkers reduced their drinking, among non-heavy drinkers several indices of consumption increased or remained stable . Both studies also provided evidence of reductions in social drinking with friends and roommates and at parties and increased drinking with family. Participants confirmed that their drinking decreased due to reduced social opportunities and/or settings, limited access to alcohol, and reasons related to health and self-discipline. Increases were attributed to greater opportunity (more time) and boredom and to a lesser extent, lower perceived risk of harm and to cope with distress. CONCLUSION: This study documents COVID-19-related changes in drinking among college student drinkers that were attributable to changes in context, particularly a shift away from heavy drinking with peers to lighter drinking with family. Given the continued threat of COVID-19, it is imperative for researchers, administrators, and parents to understand these trends as they may have lasting effects on college student drinking behaviors.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities/trends , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Self Report , Young Adult
4.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 854-863, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been widespread concern that the COVID-19 pandemic may be a high-risk time for alcohol use among heavy drinking populations such as college students. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in college drinking have not yet accounted for typical drinking patterns within a semester. METHODS: To fill this gap, we evaluated how college student drinking patterns changed with the onset of restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic during spring 2020 relative to spring 2018 and 2019. Participants were 1,365 college students aged 19 and older, including 895 students who reported past-month alcohol use. Daily drinking data were extracted from an online Timeline Followback survey. RESULTS: Negative binomial hurdle models revealed that, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020, college student drinkers did not increase their drinking frequency as was typical in late spring semester, and the number of drinks per occasion declined substantially (28% reduction), greater than the change observed from early to late spring 2018 (3% reduction) or spring 2019 (8% increase). This reduction in drinking quantity in spring 2020 was larger for college student drinkers who moved residences because of the pandemic (49% reduction) than students who did not move (21% reduction). Perceptions in pandemic-related changes in drinking also revealed that 83.5% of college student drinkers self-reported that their drinking stayed the same or decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that, on average, college students drank less-not more-during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the importance of living situation in college student drinking behavior. More research is needed to assess alcohol use in other universities, as this information could be utilized in norms-based interventions to further reduce drinking in students who remain at risk.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Seasons , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities/trends , Adolescent , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 854-863, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been widespread concern that the COVID-19 pandemic may be a high-risk time for alcohol use among heavy drinking populations such as college students. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in college drinking have not yet accounted for typical drinking patterns within a semester. METHODS: To fill this gap, we evaluated how college student drinking patterns changed with the onset of restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic during spring 2020 relative to spring 2018 and 2019. Participants were 1,365 college students aged 19 and older, including 895 students who reported past-month alcohol use. Daily drinking data were extracted from an online Timeline Followback survey. RESULTS: Negative binomial hurdle models revealed that, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020, college student drinkers did not increase their drinking frequency as was typical in late spring semester, and the number of drinks per occasion declined substantially (28% reduction), greater than the change observed from early to late spring 2018 (3% reduction) or spring 2019 (8% increase). This reduction in drinking quantity in spring 2020 was larger for college student drinkers who moved residences because of the pandemic (49% reduction) than students who did not move (21% reduction). Perceptions in pandemic-related changes in drinking also revealed that 83.5% of college student drinkers self-reported that their drinking stayed the same or decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that, on average, college students drank less-not more-during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the importance of living situation in college student drinking behavior. More research is needed to assess alcohol use in other universities, as this information could be utilized in norms-based interventions to further reduce drinking in students who remain at risk.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Seasons , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities/trends , Adolescent , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Young Adult
6.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 752-764, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In spring 2020, U.S. universities closed campuses to limit the transmission of COVID-19, resulting in an abrupt change in residence, reductions in social interaction, and in many cases, movement away from a heavy drinking culture. The present mixed-methods study explores COVID-19-related changes in college student drinking. We characterize concomitant changes in social and location drinking contexts and describe reasons attributed to changes in drinking. METHODS: We conducted two studies of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drinking behavior, drinking context, and reasons for both increases and decreases in consumption among college students. Study 1 (qualitative) included 18 heavy-drinking college students (Mage  = 20.2; 56% female) who completed semi-structured interviews. Study 2 (quantitative) included 312 current and former college students who reported use of alcohol and cannabis (Mage  = 21.3; 62% female) and who completed an online survey. RESULTS: In both studies, COVID-19-related increases in drinking frequency were accompanied by decreases in quantity, heavy drinking, and drunkenness. Yet, in Study 2, although heavier drinkers reduced their drinking, among non-heavy drinkers several indices of consumption increased or remained stable . Both studies also provided evidence of reductions in social drinking with friends and roommates and at parties and increased drinking with family. Participants confirmed that their drinking decreased due to reduced social opportunities and/or settings, limited access to alcohol, and reasons related to health and self-discipline. Increases were attributed to greater opportunity (more time) and boredom and to a lesser extent, lower perceived risk of harm and to cope with distress. CONCLUSION: This study documents COVID-19-related changes in drinking among college student drinkers that were attributable to changes in context, particularly a shift away from heavy drinking with peers to lighter drinking with family. Given the continued threat of COVID-19, it is imperative for researchers, administrators, and parents to understand these trends as they may have lasting effects on college student drinking behaviors.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities/trends , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Self Report , Young Adult
7.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 522-531, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018033

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of xenophobic and racist incidents directed at Chinese Americans have escalated. The present study adds further understanding to potential psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing self-reported questionnaire data from two groups of Chinese students attending a public university in western United States: the group who participated in the study before the outbreak of COVID-19 (Pre-COVID, N = 134), and the group who participated at the beginning (during-COVID, N = 64). The aim of the study was to: (a) compare mean differences in perceived discrimination and anxiety between the two groups, (b) test whether COVID-19 moderated the link between perceived discrimination and anxiety, and (c) examine whether media exposure portraying Chinese individuals negatively mediated relations between COVID-19 and discrimination. Results showed that the During-COVID group reported higher perceived discrimination and anxiety than the Pre-COVID group. The link between perceived discrimination and anxiety was stronger for the During-COVID group. Mediation analyses suggested that negative Chinese media exposure partly accounted for the group difference in perceived discrimination. Results suggest that future studies on the psychosocial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic should consider the role of discrimination in understanding the mental health of Chinese American college students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Xenophobia/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Universities/trends , Xenophobia/trends , Young Adult
8.
Ann Anat ; 234: 151669, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this viewpoint representatives of the Teaching Commission of the Anatomical Society summarize their teaching experiences gained during the COVID-19 pandemic in the summer term of 2020 and derive first recommendations concerning face-to-face and remote teaching of anatomy for the future. METHODS: Representatives of the Teaching Commission of the Anatomical Society met virtually, exchanged experiences and summarized them in writing and answered a short questionnaire. RESULTS: The required transition to remote learning during summer term of 2020 was possible, but revealed technical shortcomings and major deficits concerning practical hands-on teaching. CONCLUSION: The Teaching Commission of the Anatomical Society recommends that universities should follow the idea of as much face-to-face teaching as possible and as much online teaching as necessary for future terms.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical/trends , Teaching/trends , Universities/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer-Assisted Instruction/trends , Germany , Learning/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking/trends , Video Recording
9.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(6): 725-730, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is well established that college students increase their drinking when they leave home. This study examined changes in drinking as a result of campus closure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), focusing on the influence of living situation. METHOD: A sample of 312 college students (mean age = 21.2 years; 62% female; 67% White) responded to an online survey regarding their drinking behavior before and after university closures because of COVID-19. Those participants who lived with peers pre-closure and moved home to live with parents post-closure were compared with those who remained living with peers or remained living with parents in terms of changes in frequency and quantity of drinking. RESULTS: A comparison of pre- to post-closure drinking indicated significant decreases in the typical number of drinks per week (from 11.5 to 9.9) and maximum drinks per day (from 4.9 to 3.3) and a slight increase in typical drinking days per week (from 3 to 3.2). Patterns of change significantly varied across groups. Those who moved from peers to parents showed significantly greater reductions in drinking days (from 3.1 to 2.7), number of drinks per week (from 13.9 to 8.5), and maximum drinks in one day (from 5.4 to 2.9) than those who remained living with peers or with parents. In contrast, the latter two groups significantly increased their frequency (from 3.0 to 3.7 days and 2.0 to 3.3 days, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Participants reduced their quantity of drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic. Returning to live with parents during emerging adulthood may be protective for heavy drinking.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Residence Characteristics , Students/psychology , Universities , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peer Group , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/trends , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Universities/trends , Young Adult
10.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(11): 1049-1052, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Academic physicians aim to provide clinical and surgical care to their patients while actively contributing to a growing body of scientific literature. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in procedural-based specialties across the United States witnessing a sharp decline in their clinical volume and surgical cases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic productivity. METHODS: The study compared the neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic output during the pandemic lockdown with the same time period in previous years. Editors from a sample of neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional journals provided the total number of original manuscript submissions, broken down by months, from the year 2016 to 2020. Manuscript submission was used as a surrogate metric for academic productivity. RESULTS: 8 journals were represented. The aggregated data from all eight journals as a whole showed that a combined average increase of 42.3% was observed on original submissions for 2020. As the average yearly percent increase using the 2016-2019 data for each journal exhibited a combined average increase of 11.2%, the rise in the yearly increase for 2020 in comparison was nearly fourfold. For the same journals in the same time period, the average percent of COVID-19 related publications from January to June of 2020 was 6.87%. CONCLUSION: There was a momentous increase in the number of original submissions for the year 2020, and its effects were uniformly experienced across all of our represented journals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Efficiency , Neurology/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/surgery , Universities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Humans , Neurosurgery/trends , Periodicals as Topic , Publishing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , Universities/trends
12.
Trends Genet ; 36(8): 543-544, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401366

ABSTRACT

Within the ivory tower of academia, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic stands to disproportionately impact the invisible workforce of postdoctoral researchers (postdocs). Faced with university closures, hiring freezes, and a general lack of support and benefits, an entire generation of postdocs and their knowledge and skills may be lost to academia without intervention.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Research/education , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Workforce/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Research/statistics & numerical data , Universities/trends , Workforce/trends
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e92, 2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133159

ABSTRACT

This paper applies a scenario planning approach, to outline some current uncertainties related to COVID-19 and what they might mean for plausible futures for which we should prepare, and to identify factors that we as individual faculty members and university institutions should be considering now, when planning for the future under COVID-19. Although the contextual focus of this paper is Canada, the content is likely applicable to other places where the COVID-19 epidemic curve is in its initial rising stage, and where universities are predominantly publicly funded institutions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Faculty/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Universities , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Forecasting , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities/trends
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