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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e934955, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The SARS-CoV-2 viral infection is associated with respiratory and multi-organ systemic disease. It has been shown to affect the central nervous system and produce varied neurological symptoms, including ischemic strokes, seizures, and encephalitis. Neurological manifestations of this viral infection are thought to be due to neurotropic reactions on the central nervous system or post-infectious immune-mediated damage. This report presents a case of bilateral tremor of the upper limbs more than 6 weeks after a diagnosis of COVID-19, with confirmed volumetric brain loss shown by follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with 3-dimensional volumetric NeuroQuant image analysis. CASE REPORT We report a case of new-onset tremors in a 62-year-old man after SARS-CoV-2 infection. MRI of the brain was performed shortly after the onset of tremors, and a follow-up MRI after 2 months showed evidence of rapid parenchymal volume, loss of midbrain substance, and increased cerebrospinal fluid volume within 2 months of the initial examination. CONCLUSIONS This case report shows central neurological effects of COVID-19, which can be evaluated by quantitative volumetric MRI analysis, although further studies are warranted to determine how this type of brain imaging can be used to evaluate the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tremor/etiology , Tremor/pathology , Upper Extremity
2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(4): e35462, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prevalent autoimmune disease that usually involves problems of the hand or wrist. Current evidence recommends a multimodal therapy including exercise, self-management, and educational strategies. To date, the efficacy of this approach, as delivered using a smartphone app, has been scarcely investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the short- and medium-term efficacy of a digital app (CareHand) that includes a tailored home exercise program, together with educational and self-management recommendations, compared with usual care, for people with RA of the hands. METHODS: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted between March 2020 and February 2021, including 36 participants with RA of the hands (women: 22/36, 61%) from 2 community health care centers. Participants were allocated to use the CareHand app, consisting of tailored exercise programs, and self-management and monitoring tools or to a control group that received a written home exercise routine and recommendations, as per the usual protocol provided at primary care settings. Both interventions lasted for 3 months (4 times a week). The primary outcome was hand function, assessed using the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ). Secondary measures included pain and stiffness intensity (visual analog scale), grip strength (dynamometer), pinch strength (pinch gauge), and upper limb function (shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire). All measures were collected at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. Furthermore, the MHQ and self-reported stiffness were assessed 6 months after baseline, whereas pain intensity and scores on the shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire were collected at the 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups. RESULTS: In total, 30 individuals, corresponding to 58 hands (CareHand group: 26/58, 45%; control group: 32/58, 55%), were included in the analysis; 53% (19/36) of the participants received disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment. The ANOVA demonstrated a significant time×group effect for the total score of the MHQ (F1.62,85.67=9.163; P<.001; η2=0.15) and for several of its subscales: overall hand function, work performance, pain, and satisfaction (all P<.05), with mean differences between groups for the total score of 16.86 points (95% CI 8.70-25.03) at 3 months and 17.21 points (95% CI 4.78-29.63) at 6 months. No time×group interaction was observed for the secondary measures (all P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adults with RA of the hands who used the CareHand app reported better results in the short and medium term for overall hand function, work performance, pain, and satisfaction, compared with usual care. The findings of this study suggest that the CareHand app is a promising tool for delivering exercise therapy and self-management recommendations to this population. Results must be interpreted with caution because of the lack of efficacy of the secondary outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04263974; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04263974. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-020-04713-4.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Mobile Applications , Self-Management , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Female , Humans , Pain , Self-Management/methods , Upper Extremity
3.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(6): 489-496, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793405
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e051808, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR)-based intervention on the symptoms and rehabilitation management in patients with breast cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. STUDY SELECTION: We included all eligible randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies (published in English and Chinese). PARTICIPANTS: Patients with breast cancer (≥18 years) undergoing cancer treatment. INTERVENTIONS: Any intervention administered to improve the symptoms and rehabilitation of patients with breast cancer. The control group was given conventional care. OUTCOMES: All outcomes were as follows: pain, fatigue, anxiety, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and range of motion of upper limb in patients with breast cancer. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and SinoMed, four electronic databases, covering the database establishment period to January 2022. REVIEW METHODS: Two reviewers independently extracted content and data consistent with the prespecified framework and assessed risk bias. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool data across trials. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager V.5.4. RESULTS: A total of eight studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this study. The combined effect size showed that VR was positive for improving patients' anxiety(standard mean differenc (SMD)=-2.07, 95% CI= (-3.81 to -0.34), I2=95%) and abduction of upper limbs (MD=15.54, 95% CI= (12.79 to 18.29), I2=0%), but fatigue (SMD=-0.92, 95% CI= (-4.47 to 2.62), I2=99%) was not. Qualitative analysis showed VR improved patients' depressive symptoms, pain and cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: VR technology has a good effect on symptoms and rehabilitation management of patients with breast cancer, but the quality of evidence is low, and the sample size is small. To date, there are few intervention studies, therefore, giving precise recommendation or conclusion is difficult. We have a favourable view of this, and more clinical studies are needed in the future to improve the credibility of the results.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Virtual Reality , Activities of Daily Living , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Female , Humans , Upper Extremity
6.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(3): 404-409, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750287

ABSTRACT

The study reports real world data in type 2 and 3 SMA patients treated for at least 2 years with nusinersen. Increase in motor function was observed after 12 months and during the second year. The magnitude of change was variable across age and functional subgroup, with the largest changes observed in young patients with higher function at baseline. When compared to natural history data, the difference between study cohort and untreated patients swas significant on both Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale and Revised Upper Limb Module both at 12 months and at 24 months.


Subject(s)
Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Cohort Studies , Humans , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/drug therapy , Oligonucleotides/pharmacology , Oligonucleotides/therapeutic use , Upper Extremity
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(6)2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742615

ABSTRACT

The interruption of rehabilitation activities caused by the COVID-19 lockdown has significant health negative consequences for the population with physical disabilities. Thus, measuring the range of motion (ROM) using remotely taken photographs, which are then sent to specialists for formal assessment, has been recommended. Currently, low-cost Kinect motion capture sensors with a natural user interface are the most feasible implementations for upper limb motion analysis. An active range of motion (AROM) measuring system based on a Kinect v2 sensor for upper limb motion analysis using Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scoring is described in this paper. Two test groups of children, each having eighteen participants, were analyzed in the experimental stage, where upper limbs' AROM and motor performance were assessed using FMA. Participants in the control group (mean age of 7.83 ± 2.54 years) had no cognitive impairment or upper limb musculoskeletal problems. The study test group comprised children aged 8.28 ± 2.32 years with spastic hemiparesis. A total of 30 samples of elbow flexion and 30 samples of shoulder abduction of both limbs for each participant were analyzed using the Kinect v2 sensor at 30 Hz. In both upper limbs, no significant differences (p < 0.05) in the measured angles and FMA assessments were observed between those obtained using the described Kinect v2-based system and those obtained directly using a universal goniometer. The measurement error achieved by the proposed system was less than ±1° compared to the specialist's measurements. According to the obtained results, the developed measuring system is a good alternative and an effective tool for FMA assessment of AROM and motor performance of upper limbs, while avoiding direct contact in both healthy children and children with spastic hemiparesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Hemiplegia , Humans , Range of Motion, Articular , Upper Extremity
8.
Am J Emerg Med ; 55: 20-26, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709474

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, there were substantial changes in United States (U.S.) emergency department (ED) volumes and acuity of patient presentation compared to more recent years. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence of specific upper extremity (UE) injuries presenting to U.S. EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyze trends across age groups and rates of hospital admission compared to years prior. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database was queried to identify patients who presented to U.S. EDs for an UE orthopaedic injury between 2016 and 2020. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used to assess for differences in ED presentation volume and hospital admissions between pre-pandemic (2016 through 2019) and during-pandemic (2020) times. RESULTS: These queries returned 285,583 cases, representing a total estimate of 10,452,166 injuries presenting to EDs across the U.S. The mean incidence of UE orthopaedic injuries was 640.2 (95% CI, 638.2-642.3) injuries per 100,000 person-years, with the greatest year to year decrease in incidence occurring between 2019 and 2020 (20.1%). The largest number of estimated admissions occurred in 2020, with a total 135,018 admissions (95% CI, 131,518-138,517), a 41.6% increase from the average number of admissions between 2016 and 2019. CONCLUSION: There was a 20.1% decrease in the incidence of UE orthopaedic injuries presenting to EDs after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic with a concomitant 41.2% increase in the number of hospital admissions from the ED in 2020 compared to recent pre-pandemic years. We speculate that at least some elective, semi-elective or urgent ambulatory surgeries were canceled or delayed due to the pandemic and were subsequently directed to the ED for admission. Regardless of the cause of increased UE orthopaedic admissions, policy planners and administrators should be aware of the additional stresses placed on already burdened ED and inpatient services. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III - Retrospective Cohort Study.


Subject(s)
Arm Injuries , COVID-19 , Arm Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Upper Extremity
9.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 58(3): 405-411, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A history of falls is an important risk factor for future falls, including for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who often experience falls and subsequent injuries. This may be even more pronounced during the current COVID-19 pandemic because of the extreme shortage of hospital admission and restricted access to important services. Therefore, the ability of detecting a history of falls that can be applied to wheelchair users and ambulatory individuals with SCI in various settings are essential. AIM: To investigate the discriminative ability of three clinical measures-the handgrip (HG) test, Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) III and Upper Limb Loading During a Seated Push-Up Test (ULL-SPUT)-in discriminating individuals with SCI with and without a history of falls over the past six months. DESIGN: A 6-month retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Inpatient tertiary rehabilitation center. POPULATION: One hundred and fourteen wheelchair users and ambulatory individuals with SCI. METHODS: The participants were interviewed and assessed for their demographics, SCI characteristics and fall data over the past six months, with data confirmation from related events, their caregivers and medical records. Subsequently, they were assessed using the HG test, SCIM III, and ULL-SPUT. RESULTS: In total, 29 participants (25%) fell during the past six months (with the number of falls ranging from 1-20, with minor consequences after the falls). Among the three clinical measures assessed in this study, the ULL-SPUT data of faller participants were significantly higher than those of non-fallers (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The limited rehabilitation length and increased staying home and social isolation prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic may have reduced the fall rates of the participants. The findings suggest a higher likelihood of falls among wheelchair users and ambulatory individuals with SCI who have good mobility as determined using ULL-SPUT data. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Apart from being an important rehabilitation strategy, the present findings suggest an additional benefit of ULL-SPUT to identify individuals with SCI with a likelihood of future falls. The measurement can be done easily using digital bathroom scales placing over a flat and smooth surface. Therefore, it would enable the timely initiation of fall prevention strategies in various clinical, community, home and research settings; particularly in this COVID-19 pandemic of limited beds and hospital services for these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spinal Cord Injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Upper Extremity
10.
Trials ; 23(1): 129, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Encouraging upper limb use and increasing intensity of practice in rehabilitation are two important goals for optimizing upper limb recovery post stroke. Feedback from novel wearable sensors may influence practice behaviour to promote achieving these goals. A wearable sensor can potentially be used in conjunction with a virtually monitored home program for greater patient convenience, or due to restrictions that preclude in-person visits, such as COVID-19. This trial aims to (1) determine the efficacy of a virtual behaviour change program that relies on feedback from a custom wearable sensor to increase use and function of the upper limb post stroke; and (2) explore the experiences and perceptions of using a program coupled with wearable sensors to increase arm use from the perspective of people with stroke. METHODS: This mixed-methods study will utilize a prospective controlled trial with random allocation to immediate or 3-week delayed entry to determine the efficacy of a 3-week behaviour change program with a nested qualitative description study. The intervention, the Virtual Arm Boot Camp (V-ABC) features feedback from a wearable device, which is intended to increase upper limb use post stroke, as well as 6 virtual sessions with a therapist. Sixty-four adults within 1-year post stroke onset will be recruited from seven rehabilitation centres. All outcomes will be collected virtually. The primary outcome measure is upper limb use measured by grasp counts over 3 days from the wearable sensor (TENZR) after the 3-week intervention. Secondary outcomes include upper limb function (Arm Capacity and Movement Test) and self-reported function (Hand Function and Strength subscale from the Stroke Impact Scale). Outcome data will be collected at baseline, post-intervention and at 2 months retention. The qualitative component will explore the experiences and acceptability of using a home program with a wearable sensor for increasing arm use from the point of view of individuals with stroke. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with participants after they have experienced the intervention. Qualitative data will be analysed using content analysis. DISCUSSION: This study will provide novel information regarding the efficacy and acceptability of virtually delivered programs to improve upper extremity recovery, and the use of wearable sensors to assist with behaviour change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04232163 . January 18, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke Rehabilitation , Adult , Arm , Hand Strength , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
11.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(4): e367-e372, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To minimize in-person visits during the COVID-19 pandemic, a new fracture care protocol for children with complete and stable, nondisplaced or minimally displaced upper extremity (UE) fractures has been implemented. This protocol involves immobilization with a bivalved cast, which allows for home cast removal during a telemedicine visit, and no follow-up radiographs, thus eliminating the requirement for a return to clinic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes and parent satisfaction of this new abbreviated fracture care protocol. METHODS: Between May 2020 and April 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic, children with complete and stable, nondisplaced or minimally displaced UE fractures were treated with a bivalved cast and 1 follow-up telemedicine visit for home cast removal. A prospective longitudinal study of these patients was performed. The PROMIS Upper Extremity questionnaire was administered at enrollment and 3 months follow-up. Parents completed a satisfaction survey after home cast removal. Demographic data and information regarding complications were collected. A historical cohort of controls treated with standard cast in 2019 was used for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 56 patients with a mean age of 8±3 years (range 2 to 15) were prospectively enrolled in this study. Parent-reported PROMIS Upper Extremity scores showed a significant increase from 24.9 (95% confidence interval=20.8-29.1) at enrollment to 51.6 (95% confidence interval=50.8-52.5) at 3 months follow-up (P<0.001). Results of the satisfaction survey (n=39) showed all parents were either very satisfied (85%) or satisfied (15%). In addition, 10% of parents would have initially preferred to come into clinic for cast removal and 90% of parents would prefer this new treatment plan in the future. Patients in the abbreviated care cohort returned to clinic for a median 1 in-person visits, compared with 2 for historical controls (n=183, P<0.001). Abbreviated care patients received fewer (1.0) radiographs than controls (2.0, P<0.001). Complication rate did not differ between the groups (P=0.77). CONCLUSIONS: Complete and stable, nonminimally or minimally displaced UE fractures can be cared for safely and effectively in a single in-person visit, with a telemedicine cast removal visit. Parents are satisfied with this abbreviated protocol and prefer it to additional in-person visits. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitals , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Outpatients , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Upper Extremity
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 4965-4968, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566214

ABSTRACT

If patients are at risk of self-removal of a catheter, it is necessary to check the condition of the catheter frequently. If this is the only way to prevent self-removal, physical restraint of the patient is required. Furthermore, it is currently necessary to reduce human-to-human contact to prevent COVID-19 infection. Therefore, the development of a sensor system to prevent self-removal of a catheter and reduce human-to-human contact is urgent. The purpose of this study is to examine a sensor system that detects the contact of a patient's hand to a peripheral intravenous catheter in order to prevent self-removal in patients with dementia. This study analyzes the use of a capacitance sensor and an energization sensor to detect the contact of a patient's hand to a catheter. Additionally, the time required from the start of peeling the sensor sheet to the removal of the needle was measured. As the results, the capacitance sensor was difficult to use in a clinical setting because the connection between the seat and cable could be unstable depending on the condition of the connections. The energization sensor was able to recognize the contact of a hand to the catheter by detecting its contact with the sensor. It took at least 28 seconds from detection of the hand contact to the beginning of needle removal. Therefore, it is possible for the caregiver to visit the patient's bedside and stop the self-removal when the sensor sheet detects hand contact. This study is the first step in developing the system that prevents self-removal by detecting hand contact and requires several more steps for clinical use. In the future, we will conduct surveys on more subjects and clinical trials on elderly with dementia to examine accuracy, precision, and repeatability. Using the energization sensor, a self-removal prevention system for dementia patients will be further developed.Clinical Relevance- Developing this self-removal prevention system in the future will allow many dementia patients to no longer be physically restrained, and it will make it possible to remotely detect their actions to prevent self-removal while also minimizing the risk of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Catheters , Hand , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Upper Extremity
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260743, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outpatient rehabilitation was temporarily suspended because of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and there was a risk that patients' activities of daily living (ADLs) would decrease and physical functions unmaintained. Therefore, we investigated the ADLs and motor functions of chronic stroke patients whose outpatient rehabilitation was temporarily interrupted. METHODS: In this observational study, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and Barthel Index (BI) scores of 49 stroke hemiplegic patients at 6 and 3 months before rehabilitation interruptions were retrospectively determined and were prospectively investigated on resumption of outpatient rehabilitation. Presence or absence of symptoms and difficulties caused by the interruption period (IP) was investigated using a binomial method. Deltas were analyzed using a generalized linear model (GLM) according to the survey period. Age, sex, severity of FMA-UE immediately post-resumption and post-onset period were used as covariates. For survey items showing significant model fit, the 95% confidence interval of minimum detectable change (MDC95) was calculated, and the amount of change was compared. Questionnaire responses were tested via proportion ratio. Statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The FMA-UE part A and total scores were significantly model fit depending on periods. The estimated FMA-UE total score decreased by 1.64 (z = -2.38, p = 0.02) during the 3-month IP. No fits were observed by GLM in other parts of the FMA-UE, ARAT, or BI. The calculated MDC95 was 3.58 for FMA-UE part A and 4.50 for FMA-UE overall. Answers to questions regarding sleep disturbance and physical pain were significantly biased toward "no" in the psychosomatic function items (p<0.05). There was no bias in the distribution of answers to questions regarding joint stiffness, muscle weakness, muscle stiffness, and difficulty in moving arms and hands. All 16 questions regarding activities and participation items were significantly biased toward answers "no" (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The FMA-UE part A and total scores were affected. Patients complained of subjective symptoms related to upper limb paralysis after the IP. Since ADLs of patients were maintained, the therapist can recommend that patients not receiving outpatient treatments be evaluated in relation to the shoulder, elbow, and forearm and instructed on self-training to maintain motor function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Outpatients/psychology , Stroke/physiopathology , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Strength , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke Rehabilitation , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 285-288, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525691

ABSTRACT

The arterial revascularization procedure is still a challenging issue in Covid-19 associated limb ischemia. Herein we aimed to present a case of a 64 year-old woman with acute ischemic signs in upper extremity who was diagnosed as a probable Covid-19 case incidentally after admission. Although late admission and failed recurrent embolectomies lead to an eventful course, intra-arterial thrombolysis seemed to present a benefitable treatment option for our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Middle Aged , Regional Blood Flow , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(11): 2324-2332, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526675

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of motor imagery (MI) training on strength and power performances of professional athletes during a period of detraining caused by the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Thirty male professional basketball players (age, 26.1 ± 6.2 yr) were randomly assigned to three counterbalanced groups: two MI training groups, who completed imagery training by mentally rehearsing upper and lower limb resistance training exercises loaded with either 85% of one repetition maximum (85%1RM) or optimum power loads (OPL), or a control group. For six consecutive weeks, although all groups completed two weekly sessions of high-intensity running, only the MI groups performed three additional MI sessions a week. Maximal strength and power output were measured through 1RM and OPL assessments in the back squat and bench press exercises with a linear positioning transducer. Vertical jump and throwing capabilities were assessed with the countermovement jump and the seated medicine ball throw tests, respectively. Kinesthetic and visual imagery questionnaires, and chronometry and rating of perceived effort scores were collected to evaluate MI vividness, MI ability, and perceived effort. RESULTS: Physical performances improved significantly following both MI protocols (range, ~2% to ~9%), but were reduced in the control group, compared with preintervention (P ≤ 0.016). Moreover, interactions (time-protocol) were identified between the two MI groups (P ≤ 0.001). Whereas the 85%1RM led to greater effects on maximal strength measures than the OPL, the latter induced superior responses on measures of lower limb power. These findings were mirrored by corresponding cognitive and psychophysiological responses. CONCLUSIONS: During periods of forced detraining, MI practice seems to be a viable tool to maintain and increase physical performance capacity among professional athletes.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance/physiology , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Muscle Strength , Resistance Training/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Lower Extremity/physiology , Male , Pandemics , Perception/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Upper Extremity/physiology
16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 289-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525692

ABSTRACT

To describe the case of a young female patient, affected by Systemic Lupus Erythematous, hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pneumonia and presenting a treatment-resistant acute upper limb ischemia. Two days after hospital admission, the patient suffered sudden right upper limb pain associated with mild functional impairment. At physical examination, radial and ulnar pulses were absent, and no flow signal was detected at duplex ultrasound scan. Therefore, an acute limb ischemia diagnoses was posed. Despite several surgical and endovascular revascularization attempts, the patient underwent an above the elbow amputation in 10th postoperative day from first surgical embolectomy, and she died for respiratory failure 25 days after hospitalization. Our case of acute upper limb ischemia seems to confirm that clinical manifestation and fate of thrombotic disorder in COVID-19 patients could be precipitated by concomitant autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Embolectomy , Endovascular Procedures , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480938

ABSTRACT

Enriched environments and tools are believed to promote grasp rehabilitation after stroke. We designed S2, an interactive grasp rehabilitation system consisting of smart objects, custom orthoses for selective grasp constraining, and an electrode array system for forearm NMES. Motor improvements and perceived usability of a new enriched upper limb training system for sub-acute stroke patients was assessed in this interim analysis. INCLUSION CRITERIA: sub-acute stroke patients with MMSE>20, ipsilesional MI>80%, and contralesional MI<80%. Effects of 30-min therapy supplements, conventional vs. S2 prototype, are compared through a parallel two-arms dose-matched open-label trial, lasting 27 sessions. Clinical centres: Asklepios Neurologische Klinik Falkenstein, Königstein im Taunus, Germany, and Clinica Villa Beretta, Costa Masnaga, Italy. Assessment scales: ARAT, System Usability, and Technology Acceptance. METHODOLOGY: 26 participants were block randomized, allocated to the study (control N=12, experimental N=14) and underwent the training protocol. Among them, 11 participants with ARAT score at inclusion below 35, n = 6 in the experimental group, and n = 5 in the control group were analysed. RESULTS: participants in the enriched treatment group displayed a larger improvement in the ARAT scale (+14.9 pts, pval=0.0494). Perceived usability differed between clinics. No adverse effect was observed in relation to the treatments. Trial status: closed. CONCLUSIONS: The S2 system, developed according to shared clinical directives, was tested in a clinical proof of concept. Variations of ARAT scores confirm the feasibility of clinical investigation for hand rehabilitation after stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Exercise Therapy , Hand Strength , Humans , Recovery of Function , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
18.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 46(6): 435-446, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455206

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has impacted the ability to evaluate motor function in older adults, as motor assessments typically require face-to-face interaction. One hundred seventy-seven older adults nationwide completed an unsupervised functional upper-extremity assessment at home. Data were compared to data from an independent sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 250) assessed in lab. The effect of age on performance was similar between the in-lab and at-home groups. Practice effects were also similar. Assessing upper-extremity motor function remotely is feasible and reliable in community-dwelling older adults. This test offers a practical solution for telehealth practice and other research involving remote or geographically isolated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Electronics , Humans , Independent Living , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Upper Extremity
19.
Stroke ; 53(2): 578-585, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ARAT (Action Research Arm Test) has been used to classify upper limb motor outcome after stroke in 1 of 3, 4, or 5 categories. The COVID-19 pandemic has encouraged the development of assessments that can be performed quickly and remotely. The aim of this study was to derive and internally validate decision trees for categorizing upper limb motor outcomes at the late subacute and chronic stages of stroke using a subset of ARAT tasks. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed ARAT scores obtained in-person at 3 months poststroke from 333 patients. In-person ARAT scores were used to categorize patients' 3-month upper limb outcome using classification systems with 3, 4, and 5 outcome categories. Individual task scores from in-person assessments were then used in classification and regression tree analyses to determine subsets of tasks that could accurately categorize upper limb outcome for each of the 3 classification systems. The decision trees developed using 3-month ARAT data were also applied to in-person ARAT data obtained from 157 patients at 6 months poststroke. RESULTS: The classification and regression tree analyses produced decision trees requiring 2 to 4 ARAT tasks. The overall accuracy of the cross-validated decision trees ranged from 87.7% (SE, 1.0%) to 96.7% (SE, 2.0%). Accuracy was highest when classifying patients into one of 3 outcome categories and lowest for 5 categories. The decision trees are referred to as FOCUS (Fast Outcome Categorization of the Upper Limb After Stroke) assessments and they remained accurate for 6-month poststroke ARAT scores (overall accuracy range 83.4%-91.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A subset of ARAT tasks can accurately categorize upper limb motor outcomes after stroke. Future studies could investigate the feasibility and accuracy of categorizing outcomes using the FOCUS assessments remotely via video call.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke/physiopathology , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arm/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Decision Trees , Female , Hemiplegia/etiology , Hemiplegia/rehabilitation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand , Pandemics , Recovery of Function , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376956

ABSTRACT

Neuromotor rehabilitation and recovery of upper limb functions are essential to improve the life quality of patients who have suffered injuries or have pathological sequels, where it is desirable to enhance the development of activities of daily living (ADLs). Modern approaches such as robotic-assisted rehabilitation provide decisive factors for effective motor recovery, such as objective assessment of the progress of the patient and the potential for the implementation of personalized training plans. This paper focuses on the design, development, and preliminary testing of a wearable robotic exoskeleton prototype with autonomous Artificial Intelligence-based control, processing, and safety algorithms that are fully embedded in the device. The proposed exoskeleton is a 1-DoF system that allows flexion-extension at the elbow joint, where the chosen materials render it compact. Different operation modes are supported by a hierarchical control strategy, allowing operation in autonomous mode, remote control mode, or in a leader-follower mode. Laboratory tests validate the proper operation of the integrated technologies, highlighting a low latency and reasonable accuracy. The experimental result shows that the device can be suitable for use in providing support for diagnostic and rehabilitation processes of neuromotor functions, although optimizations and rigorous clinical validation are required beforehand.


Subject(s)
Exoskeleton Device , Stroke Rehabilitation , Wearable Electronic Devices , Activities of Daily Living , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Upper Extremity
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