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2.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e268-e274, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526159

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mexico is among the countries in Latin America hit hardest by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A large proportion of older adults in Mexico have high prevalence of multimorbidity and live in poverty with limited access to health care services. These statistics are even higher among adults living in rural areas, which suggest that older adults in rural communities may be more susceptible to COVID-19. The objectives of the article were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics for people diagnosed with COVID-19 by age group, and to describe cases and mortality in rural and urban communities. METHOD: We linked publicly available data from the Mexican Ministry of Health and the Census. Municipalities were classified based on population as rural (<2,500), semirural (≥2,500 and <15,000), semiurban (≥15,000 and <100,000), and urban (≥100,000). Zero-inflated negative binomial models were performed to calculate the total number of COVID-19 cases, and deaths per 1,000,000 persons using the population of each municipality as a denominator. RESULTS: Older adults were more likely to be hospitalized and reported severe cases, with higher mortality rates. In addition, rural municipalities reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases and mortality related to COVID-19 per million than urban municipalities. The adjusted absolute difference in COVID-19 cases was 912.7 per million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-1746.4) and mortality related to COVID-19 was 390.6 per million (95% CI: 204.5-576.7). DISCUSSION: Urgent policy efforts are needed to mandate the use of face masks, encourage handwashing, and improve specialty care for Mexicans in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
3.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 74, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020 we faced a huge spread of the epidemic of SARS-CoV2 in northern Italy; the Emergency Departments (ED) and the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were overwhelmed by patients requiring care. The hospitals were forced to reorganize their services, and the ED was the focal point of this challenge. As Emergency Department in a metropolitan area of the region most affected, we saw an increasing number of patients with COVID-19, and we made some structural and staff implementations according to the evolution of the epidemic. METHODS: We analysed in a narrative way the weaknesses and the point of strength of our response to COVID-19 first outbreak, focusing point by point on main challenges and minor details involved in our ED response to the pandemics. RESULTS: The main stems for our response to the pandemic were: use of clear and shared contingency plans, as long as preparedness to implement them; stockage of as much as useful material can be stocked; training of the personnel to be prepared for a fast response, trying to maintain divided pathway for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, well-done isolation is a key factor; preparedness to de-escalate as soon as needed. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated our experience and analysed the weakness and strength of our first response to share it with the rest of the scientific community and colleagues worldwide, hoping to facilitate others who will face the same challenge or similar challenges in the future. Shared experience is the best way to learn and to avoid making the same mistakes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology
5.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e268-e274, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mexico is among the countries in Latin America hit hardest by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A large proportion of older adults in Mexico have high prevalence of multimorbidity and live in poverty with limited access to health care services. These statistics are even higher among adults living in rural areas, which suggest that older adults in rural communities may be more susceptible to COVID-19. The objectives of the article were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics for people diagnosed with COVID-19 by age group, and to describe cases and mortality in rural and urban communities. METHOD: We linked publicly available data from the Mexican Ministry of Health and the Census. Municipalities were classified based on population as rural (<2,500), semirural (≥2,500 and <15,000), semiurban (≥15,000 and <100,000), and urban (≥100,000). Zero-inflated negative binomial models were performed to calculate the total number of COVID-19 cases, and deaths per 1,000,000 persons using the population of each municipality as a denominator. RESULTS: Older adults were more likely to be hospitalized and reported severe cases, with higher mortality rates. In addition, rural municipalities reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases and mortality related to COVID-19 per million than urban municipalities. The adjusted absolute difference in COVID-19 cases was 912.7 per million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-1746.4) and mortality related to COVID-19 was 390.6 per million (95% CI: 204.5-576.7). DISCUSSION: Urgent policy efforts are needed to mandate the use of face masks, encourage handwashing, and improve specialty care for Mexicans in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
6.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 29-33, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978878

ABSTRACT

Decreased engagement in preventive services, including vaccination, during the COVID-19 pandemic represents a grave threat to global health. We use the case of the Bom Retiro Public Health Clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, to underscore how continuity of care is not only feasible, but a crucial part of health as a human right. The long-standing relationship between the clinic and neighborhood residents has facilitated ongoing management of physical and mental health conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the clinic's history of confronting infectious diseases has equipped it to adapt preventive services to meet patients' needs during the pandemic. Our academic-community partnership used a multidisciplinary approach, relying on analysis of historical data, ethnographic data, and direct clinical experience. We identify specific prevention strategies alongside areas for improvement. We conclude that the clinic serves as a model for continuity of care in urban settings during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration , Brazil/epidemiology , Community-Institutional Relations , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Universities/organization & administration
7.
Popul Health Manag ; 24(2): 166-173, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954100

ABSTRACT

The Philadelphia region responded to the shortage of health care resources imposed by the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic through the creation of the COVID-19 Surge Facility at Temple University's basketball arena. The facility was designed as an acute care medical unit capable of supporting COVID-19 patients who were stable enough to be released from the intensive care unit but not ready for discharge home. Safety was optimized through the application of recommendations from the Joint Commission and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The safety goals include those established by the Joint Commission with regard to patient identification, security, identification of patient safety threats, communication, fire safety, laboratory services, and pharmacologic services. COVID-19-specific goals outlined by the CDC also are addressed and include recommendations for facility layout, managing staff respite and personal protective equipment, patient care areas, supply storage, airflow, and patient hygiene. Although the goal was to meet all of these recommendations, some were not possible due to the austere environment of the arena. However, these shortcomings were met with innovative solutions that provided the next best options. By sharing these experiences, the authors hope to guide future alternate care facilities in their efforts to optimize safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Facility Regulation and Control/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Safety/standards , Urban Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Philadelphia
8.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27 Suppl 1, COVID-19 and Public Health: Looking Back, Moving Forward: S57-S62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947693

ABSTRACT

Large urban health departments developed and implemented various approaches to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks and promote the health and well-being of individuals experiencing homelessness and housing insecurity throughout the pandemic. Reviewing the approaches of several large urban health departments, the most frequent practices included increasing housing options, on-the-ground outreach and resource allocation, and integrated communications. Key steps necessary to develop and implement these policies and procedures are discussed, and innovative approaches are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , United States Public Health Service/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , United States Public Health Service/statistics & numerical data , Urban Health Services/statistics & numerical data
9.
Australas Psychiatry ; 28(6): 644-648, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Private practice psychiatry in Australia was largely office-based until the Commonwealth Government introduced new psychiatrist Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) telehealth items in response to the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigate the uptake of (1) video and telephone telehealth consultations in April-May 2020, and (2) the overall changing rates of consultation, i.e. total telehealth and in-person consultations across the larger states of Australia. METHOD: MBS item service data were extracted for COVID-19 psychiatrist video- and telephone-telehealth item numbers and compared with a baseline of the 2018-2019-financial-year monthly average of in-person consultations for New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia. RESULTS: Total psychiatry consultations (telehealth and in-person) rose during the first wave of the pandemic by 10%-20% compared to the previous year. The majority of private practice was conducted by telehealth in April but was lower in May as new COVID-19 case rates fell. Most telehealth provision was by telephone for short consultations of ⩽15-30 min. Video consultations increased from April into May. CONCLUSIONS: For large states, there has been a rapid adoption of the MBS telehealth psychiatrist items, followed by a trend back to face-to-face as COVID-19 new case rates reduced. There was an overall increased consultation rate (in-person plus telehealth) for April-May 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Private Practice , Remote Consultation/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Videoconferencing , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Insurance Claim Review , Male , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Private Practice/organization & administration , Private Practice/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(8): 1815-1823, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, many countries have instituted population-wide measures for social distancing. The requirement of patients on dialysis for regular treatment in settings typically not conducive to social distancing may increase their vulnerability to COVID-19. METHODS: Over a 6-week period, we recorded new COVID-19 infections and outcomes for all adult patients receiving dialysis in a large dialysis center. Rapidly introduced control measures included a two-stage routine screening process at dialysis entry (temperature and symptom check, with possible cases segregated within the unit and tested for SARS-CoV-2), isolated dialysis in a separate unit for patients with infection, and universal precautions that included masks for dialysis nursing staff. RESULTS: Of 1530 patients (median age 66 years; 58.2% men) receiving dialysis, 300 (19.6%) developed COVID-19 infection, creating a large demand for isolated outpatient dialysis and inpatient beds. An analysis that included 1219 patients attending satellite dialysis clinics found that older age was a risk factor for infection. COVID-19 infection was substantially more likely to occur among patients on in-center dialysis compared with those dialyzing at home. We observed clustering in specific units and on specific shifts, with possible implications for aspects of service design, and high rates of nursing staff illness. A predictive epidemic model estimated a reproduction number of 2.2; cumulative cases deviated favorably from the model from the fourth week, suggesting that the implemented measures controlled transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemic affected a large proportion of patients at this dialysis center, creating service pressures exacerbated by nursing staff illness. Details of the control strategy and characteristics of this epidemic may be useful for dialysis providers and other institutions providing patient care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Female , Fever/complications , Humans , London , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Proportional Hazards Models , Quarantine , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
12.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S102-S104, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-530400

ABSTRACT

At the end of April 2020, there had already been three million cases of COVID-19 in the world pandemic. Chhattisgarh might expect 90,000 diagnosed cases of COVID-19 in the end. The first step taken in March was to ensure a simple checklist of activities that needed to continue. Handbills were given with the basic information on the symptoms and what to do in the community. In urban areas, the lockdown affected the poorer section of the society, especially who are not having BPL card and no other means of availing necessary eatables. Issues that arose affecting regular activities such as tuberculosis and immunization. Residents of informal settlements are also vulnerable during any COVID-19 responses. Frontline workers such as Mitanins in the community are an important asset in the capacity building and preparedness strategies.


Subject(s)
Community Health Workers/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Community Health Workers/standards , Hand Disinfection , Health Education , Humans , India/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
13.
J Perinat Med ; 48(5): 453-461, 2020 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324264

ABSTRACT

The rapid progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak presented extraordinary challenges to the US health care system, particularly straining resources in hard hit areas such as the New York metropolitan region. As a result, major changes in the delivery of obstetrical care were urgently needed, while maintaining patient safety on our maternity units. As the largest health system in the region, with 10 hospitals providing obstetrical services, and delivering over 30,000 babies annually, we needed to respond to this crisis in an organized, deliberate fashion. Our hospital footprint for Obstetrics was dramatically reduced to make room for the rapidly increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients, and established guidelines were quickly modified to reduce potential staff and patient exposures. New communication strategies were developed to facilitate maternity care across our hospitals, with significantly limited resources in personnel, equipment, and space. The lessons learned from these unexpected challenges offered an opportunity to reassess the delivery of obstetrical care without compromising quality and safety. These lessons may well prove valuable after the peak of the crisis has passed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Humans , New York , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Urban Health , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
14.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 162-169, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the strategic changes implemented in the departmental mission to continue safe delivery of otolaryngology care and to support the broader institutional mission during the COVID-19 pandemic response. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective assessment was performed to the response and management strategy developed to transform the clinical and academic enterprise. SETTING: Large urban tertiary care referral center. RESULTS: The departmental structure was reorganized along new clinical teams to effectively meet the system directives for provision of otolaryngology care and support for inpatient cases of COVID-19. A surge deployment schedule was developed to assist frontline colleagues with clinical support as needed. Outpatient otolaryngology was consolidated across the system with conversion of the majority of visits to telehealth. Operative procedures were prioritized to ensure throughput for emergent and time-critical urgent procedures. A tracheostomy protocol was developed to guide management of emergent and elective airways. Educational and research efforts were redirected to focus on otolaryngology care in the clinical context of the COVID-19 crisis. CONCLUSION: Emergence of the COVID-19 global health crisis has challenged delivery of otolaryngology care in an unparalleled manner. The concerns for preserving health of the workforce while ethically addressing patient career needs in a timely manner has created significant dilemmas. A proactive, thoughtful approach that reorganizes the overall departmental effort through provider and staff engagement can facilitate the ability to meet the needs of otolaryngology patients and to support the greater institutional mission to combat the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Otolaryngology/methods , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Urban Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Emergencies , Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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