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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715637

ABSTRACT

The '15-minute city' concept is emerging as a potent urban regeneration model in post-pandemic cities, offering new vantage points on liveability and urban health. While the concept is primarily geared towards rethinking urban morphologies, it can be furthered via the adoption of Smart Cities network technologies to provide tailored pathways to respond to contextualised challenges through the advent of data mining and processing to better inform urban decision-making processes. We argue that the '15-minute city' concept can value-add from Smart City network technologies in particular through Digital Twins, Internet of Things (IoT), and 6G. The data gathered by these technologies, and processed via Machine Learning techniques, can unveil new patterns to understand the characteristics of urban fabrics. Collectively, those dimensions, unpacked to support the '15-minute city' concept, can provide new opportunities to redefine agendas to better respond to economic and societal needs as well as align more closely with environmental commitments, including the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 11 and the New Urban Agenda. This perspective paper presents new sets of opportunities for cities arguing that these new connectivities should be explored now so that appropriate protocols can be devised and so that urban agendas can be recalibrated to prepare for upcoming technology advances, opening new pathways for urban regeneration and resilience crafting.


Subject(s)
Internet of Things , Cities , Machine Learning , Technology , Urban Health
2.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 214-218, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638018

ABSTRACT

Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity, although mechanistic studies are lacking. We tested whether airway surface liquid (ASL) from primary human airway epithelial cells is antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and human alphacoronavirus 229E (CoV-229E) (responsible for common colds), and whether PM (urban, indoor air pollution [IAP], volcanic ash) affected ASL antiviral activity. ASL inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E. Independently, urban PM also decreased SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E infection, and IAP PM decreased CoV-229E infection. However, in combination, urban PM impaired ASL's antiviral activity against both viruses, and the same effect occurred for IAP PM and ash against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that PM may enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Immunity, Innate , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Urban Population , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 348, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547772

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: since its appearance, the COVID-19 has exhausted global health systems. It was predictable that countries with weak health systems will be severly wiped out by the pandemic. Countries across Europe faced severe human loses and it was foreseable that Africa will experience an even worse tragedy. Suprisingly, since the evolution of the pandemic, there has been remarkable resistance from African countries, including Cameroon. METHOD: the study was phenomenographic. The data were collected successively from media observations (in particular the WHO site, national TV (CRTV) programs 'Parlons COVID'), social networks - Facebook and Whatsapp) and direct observations of some quarters of Garoua (Roumdé-Adjia, Foulbéré, Kakataré) and Mora for the Far North and the southern zone of Yaoundé (Ngoa-Ekelé, Nkolondom, Mokolo). These observations were associated with individual interview, reviews and note-taking around places of public circulation (places of worship, markets and discussion sites (Faada). The theory of functionalism was mobilized in this study. RESULTS: the results show that Cameroonians perceive the pandemic as an eminently metasocial phenomenon which explains their tendency to use prayers, nature to counter this attack. CONCLUSION: the study suggests that a multidimensional approach is capable of offering avenues of « liberation ¼. Also, the study once again raises the place of traditional medecine in health systems and shows the close link that exists between traditional medicine and spirituality.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anthropology, Cultural , Cameroon/epidemiology , Humans , Poverty , Religion , Sociological Factors , Urban Health
5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 214-218, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501079

ABSTRACT

Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity, although mechanistic studies are lacking. We tested whether airway surface liquid (ASL) from primary human airway epithelial cells is antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and human alphacoronavirus 229E (CoV-229E) (responsible for common colds), and whether PM (urban, indoor air pollution [IAP], volcanic ash) affected ASL antiviral activity. ASL inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E. Independently, urban PM also decreased SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E infection, and IAP PM decreased CoV-229E infection. However, in combination, urban PM impaired ASL's antiviral activity against both viruses, and the same effect occurred for IAP PM and ash against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that PM may enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Immunity, Innate , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Urban Population , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health
6.
Hypertension ; 79(2): 325-334, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476907

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a case-control study in 2015, we revealed the association between increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and aircraft noise exposure. In June 2020, we evaluated the long-term effects, and the impact of a sudden decline in noise exposure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown, on blood pressure and pulse wave velocity, comparing 74 participants exposed to long-term day-evening-night aircraft noise level >60 dB and 75 unexposed individuals. During the 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of hypertension increased in the exposed (42% versus 59%, P=0.048) but not in the unexposed group. The decline in noise exposure since April 2020 was accompanied with a significant decrease of noise annoyance, 24-hour systolic (121.2 versus 117.9 mm Hg; P=0.034) and diastolic (75.1 versus 72.0 mm Hg; P=0.003) blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (10.2 versus 8.8 m/s; P=0.001) in the exposed group. Less profound decreases of these parameters were noticed in the unexposed group. Significant between group differences were observed for declines in office and night-time diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. Importantly, the difference in the reduction of pulse wave velocity between exposed and unexposed participants remained significant after adjustment for covariates (-1.49 versus -0.35 m/s; P=0.017). The observed difference in insomnia prevalence between exposed and unexposed individuals at baseline was no more significant at follow-up. Thus, long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the prevalence of hypertension and accelerate arterial stiffening. However, even short-term noise reduction, as experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown, may reverse those unfavorable effects.


Subject(s)
Aircraft , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Noise/adverse effects , Quarantine , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Aged , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Female , Harm Reduction , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Urban Health
7.
J Palliat Med ; 25(1): 124-129, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462259

ABSTRACT

Background: Palliative care (PC) services expanded rapidly to meet the needs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, yet little is known about which patients were referred for PC consultation during the pandemic. Objective: Examine factors predictive of PC consultation for COVID-19 patients. Design: Retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients discharged from four hospitals (March 1-June 30, 2020). Exposures: Patient demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors and hospital-level characteristics. Outcome Measurement: Inpatient PC consultation. Results: Of 4319 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 581 (14%) received PC consultation. Increasing age, serious illness (cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dementia), greater illness severity, and admission to the quaternary hospital were associated with receipt of PC consultation. There was no association between PC consultation and race/ethnicity, household crowding, insurance status, or hospital-factors, including inpatient, emergency department, and intensive care unit census. Conclusions: Although site variation existed, the highest acuity patients were most likely to receive PC consultation without racial/ethnic or socioeconomic disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Humans , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health
9.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 400-402, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394713

ABSTRACT

Background: On January 20, 2020, the first documented case of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was reported in the United States. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to report more morbidity and mortality in adults than in children. Early in Pandemic, there was a concern that patients with asthma would be affected disproportionately from COVID-19, but this was not manifested. It is now recognized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors that are used by the coronavirus for infection have low expression in children with atopy that may contribute to decreased infectivity in children who are atopic. There are several early reports of decreased emergency department (ED) visits for children with asthma. The authors previously reported a decrease in pediatric ED visits in the spring of 2020, which correlated with school closure. Objective: To determine if this trend of decreased ED visits for pediatric asthma was sustained throughout the first COVID-19 pandemic year. Methods: ED data from one inner city children's hospital were collected by using standard medical claims codes. Conclusion: We reported a sustained year of decreased ED visits for children with asthma in one pediatric ED in an inner-city hospital; this seemed to be secondary to school closure and decreased exposure to upper respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Physical Distancing , Schools , Urban Health
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16533, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360207

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly modified our urban territories. One of the most strongly affected parameters was outdoor noise, caused by traffic and human activity in general, all of which were forced to stop during the spring of 2020. This caused an indubitable noise reduction both inside and outside the home. This study investigates how people reacted to this new unexpected, unwanted and unpredictable situation. Using field measurements, it was possible to demonstrate how the outdoor sound pressure level clearly decreased. Furthermore, by means of an international survey, it was discovered that people had positive reaction to the lower noise level. This preference was generally not related to home typology or location in the city, but rather to a generalized wish to live in a quieter urban environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Noise , Personal Satisfaction , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254456, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309962

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccination programs aim to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the relative impacts of vaccine coverage, effectiveness, and capacity in the context of nonpharmaceutical interventions such as mask use and physical distancing on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 are unclear. Our objective was to examine the impact of vaccination on the control of SARS-CoV-2 using our previously developed agent-based simulation model. METHODS: We applied our agent-based model to replicate COVID-19-related events in 1) Dane County, Wisconsin; 2) Milwaukee metropolitan area, Wisconsin; 3) New York City (NYC). We evaluated the impact of vaccination considering the proportion of the population vaccinated, probability that a vaccinated individual gains immunity, vaccination capacity, and adherence to nonpharmaceutical interventions. We estimated the timing of pandemic control, defined as the date after which only a small number of new cases occur. RESULTS: The timing of pandemic control depends highly on vaccination coverage, effectiveness, and adherence to nonpharmaceutical interventions. In Dane County and Milwaukee, if 50% of the population is vaccinated with a daily vaccination capacity of 0.25% of the population, vaccine effectiveness of 90%, and the adherence to nonpharmaceutical interventions is 60%, controlled spread could be achieved by June 2021 versus October 2021 in Dane County and November 2021 in Milwaukee without vaccine. DISCUSSION: In controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the impact of vaccination varies widely depending not only on effectiveness and coverage, but also concurrent adherence to nonpharmaceutical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Computer Simulation , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Respiratory Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , United States , Urban Health
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A substantial global burden of health can be attributed to unhealthy lifestyles and an unhealthy living environment. The concept of a Healthy City is continually creating and improving physical and social environments to enable healthy living. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the Healthy City concept would tackle the complexity of health by addressing the socio-economic and political determinants of health in the Western Pacific Region. METHODS: The SPIRIT model adopted by the Alliance for Healthy Cities can provide a framework for an integrated and holistic approach to enable policy, environment, social matters, behaviours, and bio-medical interventions to take their rightful place side by side. The performance of cities awarded by the AFHC was analysed under each domain of the SPIRIT model to show the efforts striving to acquire the qualities of a healthy city. FINDINGS: Two cities have incorporated the Healthy City concept in most of their policies outside the health sector, with a high level of commitment from city leaders and citizens, so the Health City activities were recognised as part of the means to advance the cityies' general planning. One city has made use of its strong network of key stakeholders from different sectors and disciplines to establish a "Medical-Social-Community' model. All three cities have collected health information to reflect health status, determinants of health and issues reflecting health promotion to enable the creation of a city health profile and show positive changes in health. The cities have engaged key stakeholders to launch a variety of health-promoting programmes according to the needs of the population. CONCLUSION: The AFHC can play an important role in linking the cities with strong action in Healthy City activities to support other cities in Healthy City development.


Subject(s)
Population Health , Urban Health , Cities , City Planning , Health Promotion , Health Status
13.
J Urban Health ; 98(3): 311-314, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279483
14.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3358, 2021 06 03.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262712

ABSTRACT

Among the social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, increased poverty, unemployment, and social inequality in Brazil have led to worsening health problems, especially in the poorest citizens. The purpose of this research was to discuss the potentialities and limitations of the work process in primary health care based on the Family Health Strategy. In order to do so, we conducted semi-structured interviews with four women living in an informal settlement in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between January and February 2020. We found that the women experienced suffering in relation to issues such as housing precariousness, transience, social isolation, and silencing. The way in which primary health care is organized and professionals' work processes make it difficult for this population to access health services and for professionals to perceive their suffering. The findings of this research point to the need to reevaluate and improve the Family Health Strategy.


Entre los efectos sociales de la pandemia de COVID-19, el aumento de la pobreza, el desempleo y la desigualdad social en el país agravaron los problemas de salud, principalmente, de la población más pobre. Esta investigación buscó discutir potencialidades y limitaciones del proceso de trabajo en atención primaria de la salud, basado en la Estrategia de Salud Familiar. Para ello, entre enero y febrero de 2020, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a cuatro mujeres residentes de una ocupación urbana del interior del estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Se encontró que presentan sufrimiento relacionado con la precariedad de las viviendas, la provisoriedad, el aislamiento social y el silenciamiento. El modo en que se organiza la atención primaria de la salud y el proceso de trabajo de las y los profesionales dificulta tanto el acceso de una parte de la población a los servicios de salud, como la percepción de las y los profesionales sobre el sufrimiento de la población. Los resultados de la investigación indican la necesidad de una nueva evaluación y perfeccionamiento de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Poverty , Primary Health Care , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Attitude to Health , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Housing , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , Urban Health , Women's Health
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(3 May-Jun): 444-451, 2021 May 03.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259814

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Describir el diseño y los resultados de campo de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2020 so-bre Covid-19. Material y métodos. La Ensanut Covid-19 es una encuesta probabilística de hogares. En este artículo se describen los siguientes elementos del diseño: alcance, muestreo, medición, inferencia y logística. Resultados. Se obtuvieron 10 216 entrevistas de hogar completas y 9 464 resultados sobre seropositividad a SARS-CoV-2. La tasa de respuesta de hogar fue 80% y la de prueba de seropositividad de 44%. Conclusiones. El diseño probabilístico de la Ensa-nut Covid-19 permite hacer inferencias estadísticas válidas sobre parámetros de interés para la salud pública a nivel nacional y regional; en particular, permitirá hacer inferencias de utilidad práctica sobre la prevalencia de seropositividad a SARS-CoV-2 en México. Además, la Ensanut Covid-19 podrá ser comparada con Ensanut previas para identificar potenciales cambios en los estados de salud y nutrición de la población mexicana.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Indicators , Nutrition Surveys/methods , Age Distribution , COVID-19/transmission , Censuses , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Sample Size , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data
16.
Semergen ; 47(3): 170-173, 2021 Apr.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Know the number and percentage of chest X-rays (CXR) referred to a Primary Care Imaging Center and Primary Care Emergency Center to rule out lung involvement due to SARS-CoV-2 from March 16 to May 15, 2020, in an urban health area of about 400,000 reference population inhabitants. To determine the percentage of cases suggestive of pulmonary involvement due to SARS-CoV-2 CXR and the percentage of cases without pulmonary involvement of the total CXR derived in the reference population from March 16 to May 15, 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Design observational descriptive study. The radiological criteria to classify probable pulmonary infection by SARS-CoV-2 (RxT[+]) are: 1) focal opacity; 2) faint focal opacity; 3) faint diffuse increase in density; 4) focal or diffuse interstitial pattern, and 5) focal or diffuse interstitial alveolus pattern. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Maintain CXR as a useful screening method in the middle stages of the disease, when CXR is more sensitive to detect lung involvement due to SARS-CoV-2. Our graph of affectation by SARS-CoV-2 does not present assessable differences with the expected curve in an epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Primary Health Care , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , Radiography, Thoracic , Spain/epidemiology
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105860, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Amongst all the global catastrophe due to Coronavirus disease 2019, a significant bright spot is a reduction in air pollution as countries undergo lockdowns to limit the spread of infection. Another reduction that has been reported is in the number of strokes presenting to hospitals, despite the virus implicated in causing a hypercoagulable state. Acute exposure to air pollution has been linked to increase in stroke incidence and the improvement in air quality may be responsible for the decrease in stroke presentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we compared the air quality index (AQI) of Karachi, the largest cosmopolitan city of Pakistan, during the lockdown period in 2020 to the same period in the previous year. RESULTS: We found a significant drop in AQI depicting an improvement in air quality. Simultaneously, we identified a drop in number of stroke admissions to less than half from 2019 to 2020 at one of the largest tertiary care hospitals of the city, during this period of interest. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that one important reason for this drop in stroke admissions, may be an actual reduction in stroke incidence brought about by an improvement in air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Urban Health/trends , Aged , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
18.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(3): 373-389, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236132

ABSTRACT

Social vulnerability indices (SVI) can predict communities' vulnerability and resilience to public health threats such as drought, food insecurity or infectious diseases. Parity has yet to be investigated as an indicator of social vulnerability in young women. We adapted an SVI score, previously used by the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC), and calculated SVI for young urban South African women (n = 1584; median age 21.6, IQR 3.6 years). Social vulnerability was more frequently observed in women with children and increased as parity increased. Furthermore, young women classified as socially vulnerable were 2.84 times (95% CI 2.10-3.70; p < 0.001) more likely to report household food insecurity. We collected this information in 2018-2019, prior to the current global COVID-19 pandemic. With South Africa having declared a National State of Disaster in March 2020, early indicators suggest that this group of women have indeed been disproportionally affected, supporting the utility of such measures to inform disaster relief efforts.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Parity , Urban Population , Vulnerable Populations , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Pregnancy , Socioeconomic Factors , South Africa , Urban Health , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218418

ABSTRACT

As cities expand, human mobility has become a central focus of urban planning and policy making to make cities more inclusive and sustainable. Initiatives such as the "15-minutes city" have been put in place to shift the attention from monocentric city configurations to polycentric structures, increasing the availability and diversity of local urban amenities. Ultimately they expect to increase local walkability and increase mobility within residential areas. While we know how urban amenities influence human mobility at the city level, little is known about spatial variations in this relationship. Here, we use mobile phone, census, and volunteered geographical data to measure geographic variations in the relationship between origin-destination flows and local urban accessibility in Barcelona. Using a Negative Binomial Geographically Weighted Regression model, we show that, globally, people tend to visit neighborhoods with better access to education and retail. Locally, these and other features change in sign and magnitude through the different neighborhoods of the city in ways that are not explained by administrative boundaries, and that provide deeper insights regarding urban characteristics such as rental prices. In conclusion, our work suggests that the qualities of a 15-minutes city can be measured at scale, delivering actionable insights on the polycentric structure of cities, and how people use and access this structure.


Subject(s)
City Planning , Movement , Cities , Humans , Spain , Urban Health , Walking
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