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1.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003807, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined whether key sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mortality changed over time in a population-based cohort study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cohort of 9,127,673 persons enrolled in the United States Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we evaluated the independent associations of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 216,046), SARS-CoV-2-related mortality (n = 10,230), and case fatality at monthly intervals between February 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021. VA enrollees had a mean age of 61 years (SD 17.7) and were predominantly male (90.9%) and White (64.5%), with 14.6% of Black race and 6.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Black (versus White) race was strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.10, [95% CI 4.65 to 5.59], p-value <0.001), mortality (AOR 3.85 [95% CI 3.30 to 4.50], p-value < 0.001), and case fatality (AOR 2.56, 95% CI 2.23 to 2.93, p-value < 0.001) in February to March 2020, but these associations were attenuated and not statistically significant by November 2020 for infection (AOR 1.03 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.07] p-value = 0.05) and mortality (AOR 1.08 [95% CI 0.96 to 1.20], p-value = 0.21) and were reversed for case fatality (AOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.95, p-value = 0.005). American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN versus White) race was associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in April and May 2020; this association declined over time and reversed by March 2021 (AOR 0.66 [95% CI 0.51 to 0.85] p-value = 0.004). Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic) ethnicity was associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality during almost every time period, with no evidence of attenuation over time. Urban (versus rural) residence was associated with higher risk of infection (AOR 2.02, [95% CI 1.83 to 2.22], p-value < 0.001), mortality (AOR 2.48 [95% CI 2.08 to 2.96], p-value < 0.001), and case fatality (AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.93 to 2.60, p-value < 0.001) in February to April 2020, but these associations attenuated over time and reversed by September 2020 (AOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89, p-value < 0.001 for infection, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83, p-value < 0.001 for mortality and AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.93, p-value = 0.006 for case fatality). Throughout the observation period, high comorbidity burden, younger age, and obesity were consistently associated with infection, while high comorbidity burden, older age, and male sex were consistently associated with mortality. Limitations of the study include that changes over time in the associations of some risk factors may be affected by changes in the likelihood of testing for SARS-CoV-2 according to those risk factors; also, study results apply directly to VA enrollees who are predominantly male and have comprehensive healthcare and need to be confirmed in other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that strongly positive associations of Black and AI/AN (versus White) race and urban (versus rural) residence with SARS-CoV-2 infection, mortality, and case fatality observed early in the pandemic were ameliorated or reversed by March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Population Surveillance , Rural Population/trends , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/trends , Urban Population/trends , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Population Surveillance/methods , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410658

ABSTRACT

Urban seismology has gained scientific interest with the development of seismic ambient noise monitoring techniques and also for being a useful tool to connect society with the Earth sciences. The interpretation of the sources of seismic records generated by sporting events, traffic, or huge agglomerations arouses the population's curiosity and opens up a range of possibilities for new applications of seismology, especially in the area of urban monitoring. In this contribution, we present the analysis of seismic records from a station in the city of Brasilia during unusual episodes of silencing and noisy periods. Usually, cultural noise is observed in high-fequency bands. We showed in our analysis that cultural noise can also be observed in the low-frequency band, when high-frequency signal is attenuated. As examples of noisy periods, we have that of the Soccer World Cup in Brazil in 2014, where changes in noise are related to celebrations of goals and the party held by FIFA in the city, and the political manifestations in the period of the Impeachment trial in 2016, which reached the concentration of about 300,000 protesters. The two most characteristic periods of seismic silence have been the quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, and the trucker strike that occurred across the country in 2018, both drastically reducing the movement of people in the city.


Subject(s)
Environmental Science/methods , Noise/adverse effects , Urban Population/trends , Brazil , COVID-19 , Cities , Earth Sciences/methods , Earth Sciences/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sports
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344149

ABSTRACT

Urban seismology has gained scientific interest with the development of seismic ambient noise monitoring techniques and also for being a useful tool to connect society with the Earth sciences. The interpretation of the sources of seismic records generated by sporting events, traffic, or huge agglomerations arouses the population's curiosity and opens up a range of possibilities for new applications of seismology, especially in the area of urban monitoring. In this contribution, we present the analysis of seismic records from a station in the city of Brasilia during unusual episodes of silencing and noisy periods. Usually, cultural noise is observed in high-fequency bands. We showed in our analysis that cultural noise can also be observed in the low-frequency band, when high-frequency signal is attenuated. As examples of noisy periods, we have that of the Soccer World Cup in Brazil in 2014, where changes in noise are related to celebrations of goals and the party held by FIFA in the city, and the political manifestations in the period of the Impeachment trial in 2016, which reached the concentration of about 300,000 protesters. The two most characteristic periods of seismic silence have been the quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, and the trucker strike that occurred across the country in 2018, both drastically reducing the movement of people in the city.


Subject(s)
Environmental Science/methods , Noise/adverse effects , Urban Population/trends , Brazil , COVID-19 , Cities , Earth Sciences/methods , Earth Sciences/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sports
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 205-211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Potential role of health literacy in determining adherence to COVID-19 preventive behavior, pharmacological, and lifestyle management among diagnosed patients of chronic diseases during nationwide lockdown is inadequately investigated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May-August 2020 among diagnosed patients of chronic diseases residing in a COVID-19 hotspot of urban Jodhpur, Rajasthan, and availing health services from primary care facility. Telephonic interviews of participants were conducted to determine their health literacy using HLS-EU-Q47 questionnaire, adherence to COVID-19 preventive behaviour as per World Health Organization recommendations, and compliance to prescribed pharmacological and physical activity recommendations for chronic disease. RESULTS: All the 605 diagnosed patients of chronic diseases availing services from primary care facility were contacted for the study, yielding response rate of 68% with 412 agreeing to participate. Insufficient health literacy was observed for 65.8% participants. Only about half of participants had scored above median for COVID-19 awareness (55.1%) and preventive behavior (45.1%). Health literacy was observed to be significant predictor of COVID-19 awareness [aOR: 3.53 (95% CI: 1.81-6.88)]; COVID-19 preventive behavior [aOR: 2.06, 95%CI; 1.14-3.69] and compliance to pharmacological management [aOR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.47-6.35] but not for physical activity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 awareness, preventive behavior, and compliance to pharmacological management is associated with health literacy among patients of chronic disease availing services from primary health facility. Focusing on health literacy could thus be an essential strategic intervention yielding long term benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Literacy/trends , Patient Compliance , Primary Health Care/trends , Quarantine/trends , Urban Population/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/trends , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance/psychology , Registries , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Sleep Med ; 74: 18-24, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is a large-scale public health emergency that likely precipitated sleep disturbances in the community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbances during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This web-based cross-sectional study recruited 1138 Hong Kong adults using convenience sampling over a two-week period from 6th April 2020. The survey collected data on sleep disturbances, mood, stress, stock of infection control supplies, perceived risk of being infected by COVID-19, and sources for acquiring COVID-19 information. The participants were asked to compare their recent sleep and sleep before the outbreak. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to assess their current insomnia severity. Prevalence was weighted according to 2016 population census. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of worsened sleep quality, difficulty in sleep initiation, and shortened sleep duration since the outbreak were 38.3%, 29.8%, and 29.1%, respectively. The prevalence of current insomnia (ISI score of ≥10) was 29.9%. Insufficient stock of masks was significantly associated with worsened sleep quality, impaired sleep initiation, shortened sleep duration, and current insomnia in multivariate logistic regression (adjusted OR = 1.57, 1.72, 1.99, and 1.96 respectively, all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A high proportion of people in Hong Kong felt that their sleep had worsened since the COVID-19 outbreak. Insufficient stock of masks was one of the risk factors that were associated with sleep disturbances. Adequate and stable supply of masks may play an important role to maintain the sleep health in the Hong Kong general population during a pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Urban Population , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Urban Population/trends , Young Adult
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