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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013519, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder is a common, long-term symptom complex, which includes frequency of micturition, urgency with or without associated incontinence and nocturia. Around 11% of the population have symptoms, with this figure increasing with age. Symptoms can be linked to social anxiety and adaptive behavioural change. The cost of treating overactive bladder is considerable, with current treatments varying in effectiveness and being associated with side effects. Acupuncture has been suggested as an alternative treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of acupuncture for treating overactive bladder in adults, and to summarise the principal findings of relevant economic evaluations. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (including In-Process, Epub Ahead of Print, Daily), ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP (searched 14 May 2022). We also searched the Allied and Complementary Medicine database (AMED) and bibliographic databases where knowledge of the Chinese language was necessary: China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI); Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) and WANFANG (China Online Journals), as well as the reference lists of relevant articles.  SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cross-over RCTs assessing the effects of acupuncture for treating overactive bladder in adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four review authors formed pairs to assess study eligibility and extract data. Both pairs used Covidence software to perform screening and data extraction. We assessed risk of bias using Cochrane's risk of bias tool and assessed heterogeneity using the Chi2 testand I2 statistic generated within the meta-analyses. We used a fixed-effect model within the meta-analyses unless there was a moderate or high level of heterogeneity, where we employed a random-effects model. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 studies involving 1395 participants in this review (14 RCTs and one quasi-RCT). All included studies raised some concerns regarding risk of bias. Blinding of participants to treatment group was only achieved in 20% of studies, we considered blinding of outcome assessors and allocation concealment to be low risk in only 25% of the studies, and random sequence generation to be either unclear or high risk in more than 50% of the studies. Acupuncture versus no treatment One study compared acupuncture to no treatment. The evidence is very uncertain regarding the effect of acupuncture compared to no treatment in curing or improving overactive bladder symptoms and on the number of minor adverse events (both very low-certainty evidence). The study report explicitly stated that no major adverse events occurred. The study did not report on the presence or absence of urinary urgency, episodes of urinary incontinence, daytime urinary frequency or episodes of nocturia. Acupuncture versus sham acupuncture Five studies compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of acupuncture on curing or improving overactive bladder symptoms compared to sham acupuncture (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.03 to 0.31; 3 studies; 151 participants; I2 = 65%; very low-certainty evidence). All five studies explicitly stated that there were no major adverse events observed during the study. Moderate-certainty evidence suggests that acupuncture probably makes no difference to the incidence of minor adverse events compared to sham acupuncture (risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% CI 0.30 to 5.36; 4 studies; 222 participants; I² = 0%). Only one small study reported data for the presence or absence of urgency and for episodes of nocturia. The evidence is of very low certainty for both of these outcomes and in both cases the lower confidence interval is implausible. Moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is probably little or no difference in episodes of urinary incontinence between acupuncture and sham acupuncture (mean difference (MD) 0.55, 95% CI -1.51 to 2.60; 2 studies; 121 participants; I2 = 57%). Two studies recorded data regarding daytime urinary frequency but we could not combine them in a meta-analysis due to differences in methodologies (very low-certainty evidence). Acupuncture versus medication Eleven studies compared acupuncture with medication. Low-certainty evidence suggests that acupuncture may slightly increase how many people's overactive bladder symptoms are cured or improved compared to medication (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.43; 5 studies; 258 participants; I2 = 19%). Low-certainty evidence suggests that acupuncture may reduce the incidence of minor adverse events when compared to medication (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.45; 8 studies; 1004 participants; I² = 51%). The evidence is uncertain regarding the effect of acupuncture on the presence or absence of urinary urgency (MD -0.40, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.24; 2 studies; 80 participants; I2 = 0%; very low-certainty evidence) and episodes of urinary incontinence (MD -0.33, 95% CI -2.75 to 2.09; 1 study; 20 participants; very low-certainty evidence) compared to medication. Low-certainty evidence suggests there may be little to no effect of acupuncture compared to medication in terms of daytime urinary frequency (MD 0.73, 95% CI -0.39 to 1.85; 4 studies; 360 participants; I2 = 28%). Acupuncture may slightly reduce the number of nocturia episodes compared to medication (MD -0.50, 95% CI -0.65 to -0.36; 2 studies; 80 participants; I2 = 0%, low-certainty evidence). There were no incidences of major adverse events in any of the included studies. However, major adverse events are rare in acupuncture trials and the numbers included in this review may be insufficient to detect these events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence is very uncertain about the effect acupuncture has on cure or improvement of overactive bladder symptoms compared to no treatment. It is uncertain if there is any difference between acupuncture and sham acupuncture in cure or improvement of overactive bladder symptoms. This review provides low-certainty evidence that acupuncture may result in a slight increase in cure or improvement of overactive bladder symptoms when compared with medication and may reduce the incidence of minor adverse events. These conclusions must remain tentative until the completion of larger, higher-quality studies that use relevant, comparable outcomes. Timing and frequency of treatment, point selection, application and long-term follow-up are other areas relevant for research.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Nocturia , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Incontinence , Adult , Humans , Acupuncture Therapy/adverse effects , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/therapy , Urinary Incontinence/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274529, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039419

ABSTRACT

The paper investigates the factors underlying COVID-19 vaccine and booster hesitancy in the United States, and the efficacy of various incentives or disincentives to expand uptake. We use cross-sectional, national survey data on 3,497 U.S. adults collected online from September 10, 2021 to October 20, 2021 through the Qualtrics platform. Results from a multinomial logistic regression reveal that hesitancy and refusal were greatest among those who expressed a lack of trust either in government or in the vaccine's efficacy (hesitancy relative risk ratio, or RRR: 2.86, 95% CI: 2.13-3.83, p<0.001). Hesitancy and refusal were lowest among those who typically get a flu vaccine (hesitancy RRR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.21-0.36, p<0.001; refusal RRR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05-0.13, p<0.001). Similar results hold for the intention to get a booster shot among the fully vaccinated. Monetary rewards (i.e., lottery ticket and gift cards) fared poorly in moving people toward vaccination. In contrast, the prospect of job loss or increased health insurance premiums was found to significantly increase vaccine uptake, by 8.7 percentage points (p<0.001) and 9.4 percentage points (p<0.001), respectively. We also show that the motivations underlying individuals' hesitancy or refusal to get vaccinated vary, which, in turn, suggests that messaging must be refined and directed accordingly. Also, moving forward, it may be fruitful to more deeply study the intriguing possibility that expanding flu vaccine uptake may also enhance willingness to vaccinate in times of pandemics. Last, disincentives such as work-based vaccination mandates that would result in job loss or higher health insurance premiums for those who refuse vaccination should be strongly considered to improve vaccine uptake in the effort to address the common good.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Urination Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Motivation , Parents , United States , Vaccination
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(34): e30314, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008668

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Bladder calcification is a rare presentation that was first interpreted to be related to a urea-splitting bacterial infection. Aside from infection, other hypotheses such as schistosomiasis, tuberculosis, cancer, and cytokine-induced inflammatory processes have also been reported. Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known for its provoking cytokine storm and uninhibited systematic inflammation, and calcification over the coronary artery or lung has been reported as a long-term complication. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented a 68 years old man who had persistent lower urinary tract symptoms after recovery from severe COVID-19. No urea-splitting bacteria were identified from urine culture. DIAGNOSIS: Cystoscopy examination revealed diffuse bladder mucosal and submucosa calcification. INTERVENTIONS: Transurethral removal of the mucosal calcification with lithotripsy. OUTCOMES: The patient's lower urinary tract symptoms improved, and stone analysis showed 98% calcium phosphate and 2% calcium oxalate. No newly formed calcifications were found at serial follow-up. CONCLUSION: Diffuse bladder calcification may be a urinary tract sequela of COVID-19 infection. Patients with de novo lower urinary tract symptoms after severe COVID-19 should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Calcinosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Calcinosis/complications , Cystoscopy , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/complications , Male , Survivors , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Diseases/etiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9344, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947438

ABSTRACT

The officials realized that the vaccination drive alone would not be  sufficient, but the individual's response towards getting vaccinated needs to be assessed and addressed, especially in India, where the diverse culture could widely affect the population's vaccination behaviour. The study aimed to identify the predictors of vaccine hesitancy behaviour using the health belief model and theory of planned behaviour and understand mediating and moderating influence of knowledge and social support on the relationship between the predictors and vaccine hesitancy behaviours among the Indian population. Data was collected from 1006 samples. Regression analysis was performed to assess the variances exerted on vaccine hesitancy behaviours. Also, SEM AMOS was employed to examine the mediation and moderation effects of knowledge about vaccines and social support. The findings indicated that around 11% of the respondents were hesitant to get vaccinated. The combined models of HBM and TPB provide high predictive power. The analysis also revealed that knowledge about vaccine significantly mediates partially between a few constructs of HBM and TPB concerning hesitancy. This study provides the theoretical framework and suggests that the health belief model and the theory of planned behaviour model could explain the psychological influences of vaccine hesitancy in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269320, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892323

ABSTRACT

To explore the attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers in the US, we surveyed three groups of individuals (essential non-healthcare workers, general healthcare workers, and correctional healthcare workers). We found surprisingly high portions of healthcare workers with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy/resistance, with 23% of correctional healthcare workers and 17% general healthcare workers (as compared to 12%) refusing to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Multivariate regression models suggest that current season flu vaccination (aOR = 3.34), relying on employer for COVID-19 information (aOR = 3.69), and living in the Midwest (aOR = 5.04) to be strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among essential workers and general healthcare workers. Current season flu vaccination (aOR = 7.52) is also strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among correctional healthcare workers. Potential mechanisms of vaccine hesitancy/resistance among healthcare workers involves low health literacy and employer mistrust. Our findings are highly relevant as we try to reach COVID-19 vaccination goals in the US.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Urinary Bladder Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Pilot Projects , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
6.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268926, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the vaccination drive against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Malaysia progresses rapidly, the main challenge will gradually shift from procuring and distributing vaccines to ensuring the broadest possible acceptance among all population segments. Therefore, this study used the integrated framework of the health belief model (HBM) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to investigate the predictors of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccines in Malaysia. METHODOLOGY: A market research company in Malaysia was engaged to collect data during June 11-20, 2021 using self-administered questionnaires via its online panel, ensuring a nationwide random sample of 804 respondents. A logistic regression was subsequently estimated to determine the significant predictors of vaccination intention. RESULTS: The predictors that significantly affect COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Malaysia are age, susceptibility, religious beliefs, attitude, subjective norms, and trust in the vaccine. In particular, those who are more inclined to get vaccinated are older individuals, have a higher perceived risk of infection and social pressure to get vaccinated, have a positive attitude, and have high levels of trust in the vaccine. Individuals' who perceive that their religious beliefs are against vaccination are more likely to exhibit uncertainty toward it. CONCLUSION: This study showed that although a large proportion of respondents indicated that they were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19, there are concerns about religious barriers and trust in the vaccine that the relevant stakeholders should address. Campaigns should also focus on shaping the nation's attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines, in parallel with encouraging people to use their social influence in helping those in their close circle who are unsure of vaccination to cross the line. These measures will prove to be pertinent as the nation begins to administer booster vaccines to tackle the waning effects of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Intention , Malaysia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
7.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 81, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among primary healthcare workers (HCW) remain poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors associated with vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among HCW. METHODS: A multi-centre online cross-sectional survey was performed across 6 primary care clinics from May to June 2021, after completion of staff vaccination exercise. Demographics, profession, years working in healthcare, residential status, presence of chronic medical conditions, self-perceived risk of acquiring COVID-19 and previous influenza vaccination were collected. HCW who accepted vaccine were then asked to rank their top 5 reasons for vaccine acceptance; HCW who were vaccine hesitant had to complete the 15-item 5C scale on psychological antecedents of vaccination. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty seven out of 1182 eligible HCW responded (47.1%). Twenty nine were excluded due to contraindications. Among 528 respondents, vaccine acceptance rate was 94.9% (n = 501). There were no statistically significant differences in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance between sex, age, ethnicity, profession, number of years in healthcare, living alone, presence of chronic diseases, self-perceived risk or previous influenza vaccination. The top 3 reasons for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance ranked by 501 HCW were to protect their family and friends, protect themselves from COVID-19 and due to high risk of acquiring COVID-19 because of their jobs. HCW with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 exposure were 3.4 times more likely to rank 'high risk at work' as one of the top reasons for vaccine acceptance (χ2 = 41.9, p < 0.001, OR = 3.38, 95%C.I. 2.32-4.93). High mean scores of 'Calculation' (5.79) and low scores for 'Constraint' (2.85) for 5C components among vaccine hesitant HCW (n = 27) highlighted that accessibility was not a concern; HCW took time to weigh vaccine benefits and consequences. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a minute issue among Singapore primary HCW, having achieved close to 95% acceptance rate. COVID-19 exposure risk influences vaccine acceptance; time is required for HCW to weigh benefits against the risks. Future studies can focus on settings with higher hesitancy rates, and acceptance of booster vaccinations with the emergence of delta and omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Urinary Bladder Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
8.
J Clin Nurs ; 31(15-16): 2112-2124, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494782

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the determinants of and behaviour change models for seasonal influenza vaccination compliance among healthcare personnel. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare personnel may be better understood by exploring determinants of seasonal influenza vaccine hesitancy. DESIGN: Integrative literature review. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Six thousand and forty-eight articles were screened. Seventy-eight met inclusion criteria. Due to the heterogeneity of included articles, a narrative synthesis was conducted utilising a conceptual matrix to identify thematic categories. RESULTS: Six thematic categories were identified as influencing HCP SIV compliance: 'perceived vulnerability', 'trust', 'past behaviour', 'professional duty', 'access and convenience' and 'knowledge and experience'. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was the most commonly utilised health behaviour change model within the seasonal influenza vaccination context. Few studies have examined seasonal influenza vaccine acceptance and uptake within the Australian HCP context, particularly involving community care and aged care. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that appear to relate to influenza vaccination compliance among HCP can be grouped according to several thematic categories, and they also appear influential in COVID-19 vaccine uptake. In particular, an emerging focus on 'trust' or the more emotive considerations of decision-making around health-protective behaviours requires further exploration in the context of a pandemic. Efforts to influence these domains to increase compliance, however, are likely to be impeded by a lack of a well-developed and tested behaviour change model. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Healthcare personnel (HCP) face high levels of occupational exposure to seasonal influenza every year. An emerging focus on 'trust' and the more emotive considerations of decision-making around health-protective behaviours requires further exploration in the context of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Urination Disorders , Aged , Australia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
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