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1.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(5): 754-759, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that drastically impacted the United States. The evidence was not clear on how SARS-CoV-2 infection impacted children, given the high prevalence of SAR-CoV-2 infection. Febrile infants less than 60 days old are an ongoing challenge to risk-stratify for serious bacterial infection (SBI), including urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, and meningitis. We hypothesized there would be a lower rate of SBI in SARS-CoV-2 positive febrile infants compared to those SARS-CoV-2 negative. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review with a nested, age-matched, case-control study performed from March 2020-June 2021. Infants less than 60 days old presenting with fever were assigned groups based on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were used as the gold standard to diagnose SBI. We compared overall rate of SBI as well as individual rates of SBI between each group. We performed a subgroup analysis evaluating the age group 29-60 days old. RESULTS: A total of 164 subjects met criteria for analysis: 30 COVID-19 positive and 134 COVID-19 negative subjects. Rate of SBI was 17.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.8-25.5%) in the COVID-19 negative group compared to 0% (95% CI: 0.0%-11.1%) in the COVID-19 group, which demonstrated statistical significance (p = 0.008). In the age-matched data, we found statistical significance for any SBI (p = <0.001). For individual rates of SBI, we found statistical significance for UTI (p = <0.001) and bacteremia (p = <0.001). The 29-60 days-old subgroup analysis did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.11). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the utility of including SARS-CoV-2 infection as part of the risk stratification of febrile infants less than 60 days old. While overall there is a low incidence of bacteremia and meningitis in this age group, these results can contribute to existing literature and potentially help decrease invasive testing and exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Meningitis , Urinary Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Meningitis/complications , Meningitis/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 550, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first Covid-19 pandemic affected the epidemiology of several diseases. A general reduction in the emergency department (ED) accesses was observed during this period, both in adult and pediatric contexts. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted on the behalf of the Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology (SINePe) in 17 Italian pediatric EDs in March and April 2020, comparing them with data from the same periods in 2018 and 2019. The total number of pediatric (age 0-18 years) ED visits, the number of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnoses, and clinical and laboratory parameters were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: The total number of febrile UTI diagnoses was 339 (73 in 2020, 140 in 2019, and 126 in 2018). During the first Covid-19 pandemic, the total number of ED visits decreased by 75.1%, the total number of febrile UTI diagnoses by 45.1%, with an increase in the UTI diagnosis rate (+ 121.7%). The data collected revealed an increased rate of patients with two or more days of fever before admission (p = 0.02), a significant increase in hospitalization rate (+ 17.5%, p = 0.008) and also in values of C reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.006). In 2020, intravenous antibiotics use was significantly higher than in 2018 and 2019 (+ 15%, p = 0.025). Urine cultures showed higher Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis percentages and lower rates of Escherichia coli (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic had an essential impact on managing febrile UTIs in the ED, causing an absolute reduction of cases referring to the ED but with higher clinical severity. Children with febrile UTI were more severely ill than the previous two years, probably due to delayed access caused by the fear of potential hospital-acquired Sars-Cov-2 infection. The possible increase in consequent kidney scarring in this population should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Tract Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
4.
Clin Lab ; 68(6)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on urine culture results and antibiotic sensitivities in patients with suspected urinary tract infections (UTI) admitted to the emergency department (ED) and determine more accurate treatment modalities for patients. The primary endpoint of our study was to determine the change in antibiotic resistance of UTI agents in the pre-and post-COVID period. METHODS: In the study, urine samples were sent from ED to the microbiology laboratory with a preliminary diagnosis of UTI between June 1, 2019, and July 1, 2021. Urine samples with the growth of 105 cfu/mL and above in urine cultures or with the growth of 103 cfu/mL and above in urine sample cultures taken from catheters were examined. At the end of the exclusions, the results of a total of 1,090 patients were evaluated. Urine cultures and an-tibiotic susceptibility tests of the patients included in the study were examined in two periods (pre-pandemic and post-pandemic). RESULTS: A total of 1,090 aerobic urine cultures sent from the ED between June 2019 and June 2021 were finalized in the microbiology laboratory. Of the 1,090 urine cultures sent from the ED within the 24 months included in the study, 497 (45.59%) were sent eight months before the COVID-19 pandemic. Growth was detected in 33 (6.63%) cultures. In the 16 months after the pandemic, 593 (54.41%) urine cultures were sent. Growth was seen in 69 (11.6%) cultures. The positivity rate obtained from urine cultures sent after the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly higher than those sent before the COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.005). According to cultures and antibiogram results, resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefuroxime axetil, cefoxitin, cefixime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid decreased significantly compared with pre-COVID-19 (p < 0.05). In addition, Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) resistance decreased significantly compared with the prepandemic period (p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that the susceptible to antibiotics increased significantly in the post-COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
5.
Anaerobe ; 77: 102509, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588336

ABSTRACT

Anaerobic cocci are common anaerobic isolates. Numerous genera of anaerobic cocci have been reported in both urinary tract microbiota, mainly of females, and in cases of urinary tract infections (UTIs), predominantly in patients with comorbidities, when no facultatively anaerobic bacteria were detected from the urine samples. UTIs caused by anaerobic cocci have been reported in >7% in some studies. As the routine diagnostic methods may be insufficient to detect and identify the anaerobic cocci in patients with UTIs, enhanced quantitative urine culture (EQUC) can give better results. EQUC is performed by plating urine samples onto different media to be incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions with a prolonged incubation time. Other newer methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing, qualitative PCR and Next Generation Sequencing can also be considered. Anaerobic cocci such as Peptoniphilus, Parvimonas, Anaerococcus and Finegoldia spp. were found in patients with bacteremia of urinary source. A fatal outcome has been reported in a diabetic patient with emphysematous pyelonephritis caused by Finegoldia magna and Candida parapsilosis due to a delay in seeking hospital care during the COVID-19 pandemic. In specific cases such as of chronic infections, immunosuppression, comorbidity, advanced age, following urological tract manipulations and negative culture results for usual uropathogens, it may be advisable to use suprapubic aspiration cultured in both aerobic and anaerobic condition or EQUC using media which support the relative slow growing anaerobic cocci as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Tract Infections , Female , Humans , Bacteria, Anaerobic/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Anaerobiosis , Pandemics , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
6.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 28: 18-29, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) are a common problem in female patients. Management is mainly based on empirical prescribing, but there are concerns about overtreatment and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), especially in patients with recurrent uUTIs. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of experts met to discuss diagnosis, treatment, prevention, guidelines, AMR, clinical trial design and the impact of COVID-19 on clinical practice. RESULTS: Symptoms remain the cornerstone of uUTI diagnosis, and urine culture is necessary only when empirical treatment fails or rapid recurrence of symptoms or AMR is suspected. Specific antimicrobials are first-line therapy (typically nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and pivmecillinam, dependent on availability and local resistance data). Fluoroquinolones are not first-line options for uUTIs primarily due to safety concerns but also rising resistance rates. High-quality data to support most non-antimicrobial approaches are lacking. Local AMR data specific to community-acquired uUTIs are needed, but representative information is difficult to obtain; instead, identification of risk factors for AMR can provide a basis to guide empirical antimicrobial prescribing. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the management of uUTIs in some countries and may have long-lasting implications for future models of care. CONCLUSION: Management of uUTIs in female patients can be improved without increasing complexity, including simplified diagnosis and empirical antimicrobial prescribing based on patient characteristics, including a review of recent antimicrobial use and past pathogen resistance profiles, drug availability and guidelines. Current data for non-antimicrobial approaches are limited. The influence of COVID-19 on telehealth could provide an opportunity to enhance patient care in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Tract Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Consensus , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e3, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) overlap with other febrile illnesses, hindering prompt and accurate diagnosis. The objectives of this study were to identify clinical and laboratory findings that distinguished MIS-C from febrile illnesses in which MIS-C was considered but ultimately excluded, and to examine the diseases that most often mimicked MIS-C in a tertiary medical centre. STUDY DESIGN: We identified all children hospitalised with fever who were evaluated for MIS-C at our centre and compared clinical signs and symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 status and laboratory studies between those with and without MIS-C. Multivariable logistic LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression was used to identify the most discriminative presenting features of MIS-C. RESULTS: We identified 50 confirmed MIS-C cases (MIS-C+) and 68 children evaluated for, but ultimately not diagnosed with, MIS-C (MIS-C-). In univariable analysis, conjunctivitis, abdominal pain, fatigue, hypoxaemia, tachypnoea and hypotension at presentation were significantly more common among MIS-C+ patients. MIS-C+ and MIS-C- patients had similar elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP), but were differentiated by thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and elevated ferritin, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, BNP and troponin. In multivariable analysis, predictors of MIS-C included age, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelets, conjunctivitis, oral mucosa changes, abdominal pain and hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised children undergoing evaluation for MIS-C, children with MIS-C were older, more likely to present with conjunctivitis, oral mucosa changes, abdominal pain and hypotension, and had higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and lower platelet counts. These data may be helpful for discrimination of MIS-C from other febrile illnesses, including bacterial lymphadenitis and acute viral infection, with overlapping features.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Age of Onset , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
8.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 487-499, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364383

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine, which provides safe, equitable, patient-centered care, has gained significant momentum in recent years. Success using telemedicine has been seen across diverse groups of patients for a variety of diagnoses, including older adults and gynecology patients. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, federal and local governments have issued provisions to improve reimbursement and accessibility to telemedicine. In urogynecology, virtual care is growing in popularity, along with a growing body of literature in support of this method of providing care. Providers should use clinical judgment and existing data to guide them on which clinical conditions are appropriate for virtual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gynecology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Urology/methods , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement , Pandemics , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(15): 1417-1425, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of a urinary tract infection (UTI) pocket card on preferred antibiotic prescribing for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of cystitis. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, pre-post study was conducted to compare outcomes following the introduction of a UTI pocket card. The primary outcome was prescribing rates for institutional first-line preferred antibiotics (cephalexin and nitrofurantoin) versus other antimicrobials for cystitis. Secondary outcomes included prescriber adherence to recommended therapy in regards to discharge dose, frequency, duration, and healthcare utilization rates. RESULTS: The study included 915 patients in total, 407 in the preintervention group and 508 in the postintervention group. The frequency of preferred antibiotic prescribing was significantly increased after the introduction of a UTI pocket card compared to prior to its introduction (81.7% vs 72.0%, P = 0.001). Significant increases in prescribing of an appropriate antibiotic dose (78.0% vs 66.8%, P < 0.0001) and frequency (64.2% vs 47.4%, P < 0.0001) were also found post intervention. No significant differences were seen between the pre- and postintervention groups with regards to healthcare utilization rates. CONCLUSION: A UTI pocket card increased preferred antibiotic prescribing for cystitis in the ED. This study provides data on a successful antimicrobial stewardship intervention in the ED setting.


Subject(s)
Cystitis , Urinary Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cystitis/drug therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy
11.
Eur Urol Focus ; 6(5): 1049-1057, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597672

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has changed standard urology practice around the world. The situation is affecting not only uro-oncological patients but also patients with benign and disabling conditions who are suffering delays in medical attention that impact their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To propose, based on expert advice and current evidence where available, a strategy to reorganize female and functional urological (FFU) activity (diagnosis and treatment). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The present document is based on a narrative review of the limited data available in the urological literature on SARS-Cov-2 and the experience of FFU experts from several countries around the world. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In all the treatment schemes proposed in the literature on the COVID-19 pandemic, FFU surgery is not adequately covered and usually grouped into the category that is not urgent or can be delayed, but in a sustained pandemic scenario there are cases that cannot be delayed that should be considered for surgery as a priority. The aim of this document is to provide a detailed management plan for noninvasive and invasive FFU consultations, investigations, and operations. A classification of FFU surgical activity by indication and urgency is proposed, as well as recommendations adopted from the literature for good surgical practice and by surgical approach in FFU in the COVID-19 era. CONCLUSIONS: Functional, benign, and pelvic floor conditions have often been considered suitable for delay in challenging times. The long-term implications of this reduction in functional urology clinical activity are currently unknown. This document will help functional urology departments to reorganize their activity to best serve their patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: Many patients will suffer delays in urology treatment because of COVID-19, with consequent impairment of their physical and psychological health and deterioration of their quality of life. Efforts should be made to minimize the burden for this patient group, without endangering patients and health care workers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine , Urologic Diseases/diagnosis , Urologic Diseases/therapy , Urology/methods , Ambulatory Care , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cystitis, Interstitial/diagnosis , Cystitis, Interstitial/therapy , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/therapy , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Incontinence/diagnosis , Urinary Incontinence/therapy , Urinary Retention/diagnosis , Urinary Retention/therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Vesicovaginal Fistula/diagnosis , Vesicovaginal Fistula/therapy
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595490

ABSTRACT

In this case series, we describe the clinical course and outcomes of 7 febrile infants aged ≤60 days with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. No infant had severe outcomes, including the need for mechanical ventilation or ICU level of care. Two infants had concurrent urinary tract infections, which were treated with antibiotics. Although a small sample, our data suggest that febrile infants with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection often have mild illness.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Age Factors , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever of Unknown Origin/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/complications
13.
Eur Urol ; 78(4): 624-628, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306004

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge for physicians in triaging patients in emergency rooms. We found a potentially dangerous overlap of classical urinary symptoms and the as yet not fully described symptoms of COVID-19. After a patient was primarily triaged as a urosepsis case and then subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19, we focused on an increase in urinary frequency as a symptom of COVID-19 and identified this in seven males out of 57 patients currently being treated in our COVID-19 wards. In the absence of any other causes, urinary frequency may be secondary to viral cystitis due to underlying COVID-19 disease. We propose consideration of urinary frequency as an anamnestic tool in patients with infective symptoms to increase awareness among urologists during the current COVID-19 pandemic to prevent fatal implications of misinterpreting urological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cystitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Urinary Incontinence, Urge/virology , Urinary Tract Infections/virology , Urination , Urodynamics , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cystitis/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Urinary Incontinence, Urge/diagnosis , Urinary Incontinence, Urge/physiopathology , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/physiopathology
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