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1.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170668816.68864620.v1

ABSTRACT

Abstract ( n=254/250 words)   Background: The Janssen-Ad26.COV2.S vaccine is authorised for use in several countries with more than 30 million doses administered. Mild and severe allergic adverse events following immunisation(AEFI) have been reported. The aim of this report is to detail allergic reactions reported during the Sisonke phase 3B study in South Africa. Methods: : A single-dose of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine was administered to 477234 South African Healthcare Workers between 17 February and 17 May 2021. Monitoring of adverse events used a combination of passive reporting and active case finding. Telephonic contact was attempted for all adverse events reported as “allergy”. Anaphylaxis adjudication was performed using the Brighton Collaboration (BCC) and NIAID case definitions.  Results: : A large cohort of South African healthcare workers received the Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Only 250(0.052%) patients reported any allergic-type reaction(less than 1 in 2000), with four cases of adjudicated anaphylaxis (BCC level 1, n=3)(prevalence of 8.4 per million doses). All anaphylaxis cases had a prior history of drug or vaccine-associated anaphylaxis. Cutaneous allergic reactions were the commonest non-anaphylatic reactions and included: self-limiting, transient/localised rashes requiring no healthcare contact(n=91); or isolated urticaria and/or angioedema[n=70 median  onset 48(IQR 11.5-120) hours post vaccination] that necessitated healthcare contact(81%), antihistamine(63%), and/or systemic/topical corticosteroid(16%). All immediate (including adjudicated anaphylaxis) and the majority of delayed AEFI(65/69) cases resolved completely.   Conclusions: : Allergic AEFI are rare following a single-dose of Ad26.COV with complete resolution in  all cases of anaphylaxis. Though rare, isolated, delayed onset urticaria and/or angioedema was the commonest allergic AEFI requiring treatment, with nearly half occurring in participants without known atopic disease.   Keywords: allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, COVID19 adenovirus vaccine; Janssen-Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, urticaria


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Drug Hypersensitivity , Urticaria , Angioedema
2.
Med. lab ; 26(2): 177-186, 2022. ilus, Tabs
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20235829

ABSTRACT

Las manifestaciones cutáneas relacionadas a la infección por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causante de COVID-19, se han descrito entre el 0,2% y 20,4% de las personas que cursan con esta enfermedad. Las más frecuentemente descritas son: lesiones maculopapulares (47%), lesiones acrales eritematosas con vesículas o pústulas (pseudoperniosis) (19%), urticariales (19%), lesiones vesiculosas (9%) y livedo/necrosis (6%). En particular, la pitiriasis rosada es una dermatosis autolimitada de etiología desconocida, sin embargo, se ha visto asociada a la infección por SARS-CoV-2, con algunos reportes de casos en la literatura. El mecanismo fisiopatológico de las lesiones cutáneas en COVID-19 no es claro, y se han planteado algunas teorías, entre las cuales está el papel que juega la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 (ACE2) utilizada por el virus para infectar las células, los infiltrados linfocíticos, los depósitos de factores del complemento en la piel, y la reactivación de virus latentes como los herpes virus humanos. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con pitiriasis rosada asociada a COVID-19 y se describen los casos reportados hasta la fecha


Subject(s)
Humans , Pityriasis Rosea , Skin , Skin Manifestations , Urticaria , Coronavirus , Exanthema , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
3.
J Dermatol ; 50(5): 622-636, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316523

ABSTRACT

The global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) endangers more and more people. Many studies on cutaneous manifestations related to COVID-19 have emerged, but their prevalence has varied widely. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis estimating the prevalence of skin manifestations in COVID-19. Four databases PubMed, Web of Science, CBM, and CNKI were searched, and the results were screened by two reviewers. A random-effects model was used to evaluate the overall prevalence. Heterogeneity was assessed by I2 . Further subgroup analyses were conducted by region, sample size, sex, age, and severity of COVID-19. A funnel plot and Egger's test were performed to assess publication bias. The pooled prevalence of cutaneous manifestation of 61 089 patients in 33 studies was 5.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.040-0.076, I2  = 98.3%). Severity of COVID-19 was probably the source of heterogeneity. Studies with sample size <200 report higher prevalence estimates (10.2%). The prevalence of detailed types was as follows: maculopapular rash 2%, livedoid lesions 1.4%, petechial lesions 1.1%, urticaria 0.8%, pernio-like lesions 0.5%, vesicular lesions 0.3%. Petechial lesions and livedoid lesions contain a higher proportion of severe patients than other skin manifestations. The prevalence rates of pernio-like lesions, urticaria and petechial lesions vary greatly in different regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Urticaria , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Urticaria/epidemiology
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 177, 2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to threaten public health. The virus is causing breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. Also, scarce information is available about cutaneous manifestations after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION AND FINDINGS: A case of a triple-vaccinated (Pfizer) 37-year-old Hispanic American (Colombian) male who developed urticaria after Omicron BA.5.1 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 breakthrough infection is described. Virus isolation and whole genome sequencing along with immune and molecular assays were performed. Dermatological manifestations (skin rash and urticaria) after Omicron BA.5.1 infection were observed. Sequence analysis of the Omicron BA.5.1 isolate also revealed several important mutations. Hemogram analysis revealed leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Serology testing revealed anti-spike immunoglobulin G serum titers but negative detection of immunoglobulin M at 10 days after symptom onset. Anti-nucleocapsid, anti-spike 1 immunoglobulin G, anti-spike trimer, and anti-receptor-binding-domain immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin E sera were detected at different titers 10 days after symptom onset. Several serum levels of chemokines/cytokines (Interferon-α, interferon-γ, interleukin-12/interleukin-23p40, interleukin-18, interferon gamma-induced protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monokine induced by gamma, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 , tumor necrosis factor-ß1, Tumor necrosis factor-α) were detected, but interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-17A were below the limit of detection. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study describing skin effects of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron BA.5 variant breakthrough infection in a triple-vaccinated patient in Colombia. Several important mutations were found in the spike glycoprotein of the virus isolated; these mutations are associated with immune evasion and changes in antigenic properties of the virus. Physicians overseeing coronavirus disease 2019 cases should be aware of the potential skin effects of the infection. Pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and its association with proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines may enhance the development of urticaria and other skin manifestations in immunized individuals. However, further studies are needed to better understand the complexity of coronavirus disease in such situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urticaria , Male , Humans , Adult , Urticaria/etiology , Skin , Cytokines , Antibodies, Viral
5.
J Autoimmun ; 138: 103054, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320287

ABSTRACT

Severe allergic reactions following SARS-COV-2 vaccination are generally rare, but the reactions are increasingly reported. Some patients may develop prolonged urticarial reactions following SARS-COV-2 vaccination. Herein, we investigated the risk factors and immune mechanisms for patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced immediate allergy and chronic urticaria (CU). We prospectively recruited and analyzed 129 patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccine-induced immediate allergic and urticarial reactions as well as 115 SARS-COV-2 vaccines-tolerant individuals from multiple medical centers during 2021-2022. The clinical manifestations included acute urticaria, anaphylaxis, and delayed to chronic urticaria developed after SARS-COV-2 vaccinations. The serum levels of histamine, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 A, TARC, and PARC were significantly elevated in allergic patients comparing to tolerant subjects (P-values = 4.5 × 10-5-0.039). Ex vivo basophil revealed that basophils from allergic patients could be significantly activated by SARS-COV-2 vaccine excipients (polyethylene glycol 2000 and polysorbate 80) or spike protein (P-values from 3.5 × 10-4 to 0.043). Further BAT study stimulated by patients' autoserum showed positive in 81.3% of patients with CU induced by SARS-COV-2 vaccination (P = 4.2 × 10-13), and the reactions could be attenuated by anti-IgE antibody. Autoantibodies screening also identified the significantly increased of IgE-anti-IL-24, IgG-anti-FcεRI, IgG-anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and IgG-anti-thyroid-related proteins in SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced CU patients comparing to SARS-COV-2 vaccines-tolerant controls (P-values = 4.6 × 10-10-0.048). Some patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced recalcitrant CU patients could be successfully treated with anti-IgE therapy. In conclusion, our results revealed that multiple vaccine components, inflammatory cytokines, and autoreactive IgG/IgE antibodies contribute to SARS-COV-2 vaccine-induced immediate allergic and autoimmune urticarial reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/diagnosis , Chronic Urticaria/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination , Immunity
6.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(9): 3667-3672, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been linked to a variety of dermatological conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of various cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19, also to define their features in relation to the systemic symptoms. METHODS: This research enrolled a total of 1206 lab-confirmed COVID-19 individuals at a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Expert dermatologists assessed patients for COVID-related skin conditions. COVID-19 severity was categorized as asymptomatic/mild, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: Of the 102 (85.7%) patients with only one cutaneous sign, 26.5% developed maculopapular/morbiliform/erythematous rash; 14.7% urticaria; 9.85% vesicular/pustular exanthem; 14.7% vascular pattern; 12.7% infections, 7.8% miscellaneous and 9.8% late cutaneous findings A longer-lasting vascular pattern was related with an older age and a fatal COVID-19 outcomes (P: 0.000) compared with mild/moderate disease. Most of the retiform purpura presented exclusively with thromboembolic episodes. The moderate severity was correlated with maculopapular/morbiliform/exanthematous phenotype (P: 0.009), whereas urticaria was attributed to asymptomatic/mild disease (0.001) compared with moderate/severe infection. LIMITATIONS: Single-Center and observational study. CONCLUSION: Vascular lesions were correlated with disastrous COVID-19 outcomes, whereas retiform purpura was linked to adverse outcomes. The maculopapular/morbiliform/erythematous rash was associated with moderate severity, while the urticarial rash was linked to milder course compared with moderate/severe severity infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Eruptions , Exanthema , Purpura , Urticaria , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/etiology
7.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 30(4): 216-219, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276314

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 is known to cause pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), many extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have also been observed. Cutaneous manifestations including erythematous rash, urticaria, and chickenpox-like vesicles have been described in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Six patients, two men and four women, in the age group of 50 to 60 years old, hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) presented cutaneous manifestations. The rash was confluent, spotty, centrifugal, and non-itchy on the head and torso. It was not hemorrhagic, and no crust or blisters were observed. The results of laboratory tests were normal, and the rash disappeared on its own. Several cases of cutaneous manifestations have been reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed in order to assess the skin lesions and determine their association with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Skin Diseases , Urticaria , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/complications , Exanthema/complications , Blister
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(11): e33236, 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268212

ABSTRACT

Due to the urgency of controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines have been expeditiously approved and introduced in several countries without sufficient evaluation for adverse events. We analyzed adverse events among Korean healthcare workers who received all 3 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. This survey was conducted among hospital workers of Inha University Hospital who had received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for their first, second, third rounds, and using a diary card. The surveyed adverse events included local (redness, edema, and injection site pain) and systemic (fever, fatigue, headache, chill, myalgia, arthralgia, vomiting, diarrhea, pruritis, and urticaria) side effects and were divided into 5 grades (Grade 0 = none - Grade 4 = critical). Based on adverse events reported at least once after any of the 3 doses, the most common systemic adverse reactions were chills and headache (respectively, 62.6%, 62.4%), followed by myalgia (55.3%), arthralgia (53.4%), fatigue (51.6%), pruritus (38.1%), and fever (36.5%). The frequency and duration of adverse events were significantly greater in women (P < .05) than men. Except for redness, pruritus, urticaria, and most adverse reactions had a higher rate of occurrence after the third dose in subjects who also had reactions with the second dose. However, grade 4 adverse events did occur with the third dose in some patients, even if there were no side effects with the first and second doses. Adverse events experienced with the first and second doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in Korean healthcare workers increased the incidence of adverse events at the time of the third dose. On the other hand, grade 4 adverse events could still occur with the third dose even though there were no side effects with the first and second doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Urticaria , Male , Humans , Female , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital , Arthralgia , Fatigue , Fever , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
10.
Immunol Med ; 46(2): 97-107, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264176

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old man with no previous record of autoimmune disease developed fever, polyarthralgia, purpura, and urticaria-like rash 2 weeks after the first dose of the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine, and symptoms deteriorated following the second dose. He presented reduced erythrocyte and platelet counts, hyperferritinemia, high sIL-2R levels, and severe hypocomplementemia. We diagnosed hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis (HUVS), and his symptoms as well as laboratory findings improved following treatment with mPSL 1000 mg/day for 3 days and PSL 40 mg/day. Twelve weeks following treatment initiation, the patient relapsed with fever, sore throat, pancytopenia, and hyperferritinemia when the PSL dose was reduced to 12.5 mg/day. Bone marrow biopsy and MRI presented fatty marrow and hemophagocytosis. The patient's blood cells started recovering using ATG + CsA + EPAG therapy for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). This is the first case report of HUVS and HLH following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. It is presumed that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine can induce the excessive production of certain types of cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-17 as a consequence of IL-6 Amplification (IL-6 Amp). SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-vaccines can cause disruption of immune homeostasis in healthy individuals. An extremely rare disease of HUVS complicated by HLH can be developed as a consequence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperferritinemia , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Urticaria , Vasculitis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Interleukin-6 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Hyperferritinemia/complications , COVID-19/complications , Urticaria/etiology , Urticaria/diagnosis , Urticaria/drug therapy , Fever/complications , Vaccination , Vasculitis/diagnosis , Vasculitis/pathology , RNA, Messenger
11.
An Bras Dermatol ; 98(4): 466-471, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a myriad of cutaneous manifestations have been described in association with this viral infection. However, in Latin America, this kind of data is still scarce. OBJECTIVE: In this sense, the goal of this study was to describe the dermatological findings observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection, in a Brazilian Hospital. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study of 50 cases of new-onset dermatologic symptoms in patients with COVID-19, treated at Hospital Sírio-Libanês, from February to June 2020. RESULTS: The patients (n = 50) were classified into 6 groups, according to the elementary lesions and the statistical analysis was performed. The most common cutaneous lesions were maculopapular eruptions (44%), necrosis, purpura, and livedo (32%), urticarial lesions (12%), pseudochilblains (4%) and papular-vesicular eruption (4%). In 46% of the patients the cutaneous lesions occurred in association with other symptoms, such as pruritus (38%), pain and burning sensation (8%). Lower limbs were affected in 44% of the cases, followed by the trunk (38%), upper limbs (24%) and face (14%). Cutaneous lesions were mostly found after other COVID-19 systemic symptoms, with a mean period between the viral syndrome and cutaneous signs of 5 days (SD = 6.1 days). STUDY LIMITATIONS: It is a small sample, in a single-center study, with patients exclusively from a private Hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in Brazil have the same proportion of lesions as revealed in other studies in Europa. The compiled data is essential for a better understanding of cutaneous manifestations deemed secondary to COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Urticaria , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
An Bras Dermatol ; 98(2): 189-197, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The course of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) can be influenced by infections, depression, and stress. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the course of refractory CSU together with patient adherence to omalizumab and treatment adjustments. METHODS: Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) was used to assess disease activity. Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FC-19s), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21s) were performed to assess mental health status. All scales were performed during the Quarantine Period (QP) and Return to the Normal Period (RTNP). UAS7 Before Pandemic (BP) was recorded from the patients medical records. RESULTS: The authors evaluated 104 omalizumab-receiving CSU patients. UAS7 scores during QP were significantly higher than those in RTNP and BP (p < 0.01). DASS-21 and FC-19 scores were significantly higher during QP compared to RTNP (p < 0.01). Nineteen (18.2%) patients ceased omalizumab, 9 patients prolonged the intervals between subsequent doses during the pandemic. UAS7 scores in QP were significantly higher in patients who ceased omalizumab than in those who continued (p < 0.001). Among patients who continued omalizumab, 22.4% had an increase in urticaria activity and higher FC-19 scores in comparison with those with stable disease activity (p = 0.008). STUDY LIMITATIONS: The small sample size of patients with prolonged intervals of omalizumab and the lack of mental health evaluation with the same tools prior to the study. CONCLUSION: Fear induced by COVID-19 can determine an increase in disease activity. Therefore, patients on omalizumab should continue their treatment and prolonged interval without omalizumab can be considered in patients with good urticaria control.


Subject(s)
Anti-Allergic Agents , COVID-19 , Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Chronic Disease , Chronic Urticaria/drug therapy , Urticaria/drug therapy
13.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06008, 2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230615

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the incidence pattern of cutaneous reactions is crucial for promoting COVID-19 vaccination. We aimed to report the global incidence pattern of, and factors associated with common cutaneous reactions related to COVID-19 vaccination in real-world settings. Methods: We searched five databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang) from inception to May 13, 2022, for studies reporting the incidence of common cutaneous reactions related to COVID-19 vaccines in real-world settings. The outcomes were the systematic skin reactions (rash and urticaria) and the local injection site reactions (pain, swelling, redness, and erythema). We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and explored associated factors using multi-step statistical analyses. Results: We included 35 studies and assessed 2 549 968 participants from 23 countries. The pooled incidence of overall systemic skin reactions was 3.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4%-5.5%) with short duration (about one week). Specifically, the pooled incidence rates of rash and urticaria were 3.0% (95% CI = 2.1%-3.9%) and 1.1% (95% CI = 0.7%-1.5%), respectively. For overall local injection site reactions, the pooled incidence was 72.4% (95% CI = 65.7%-78.7%) with short duration (1 to 4.5 days). Except for local pain (72.2%, 95% CI = 65.3%-78.5%), other localized reactions had low incidence, including swelling (13.3%, 95% CI = 9.5%-17.7%), redness (11.5%, 95% CI = 5.7%-19.0%), and erythema (5.8%, 95% CI = 0.7%-15.4%). Geographically, different distribution patterns were observed for these reactions. Regarding associated factors, mRNA vaccines showed lower incidence of urticaria (P < 0.001). Asia population showed higher incidence of urticaria (P < 0.001). We observed lower incidence rates of overall local injection site reactions and pain among inactivated vaccines (P < 0.001). We found no significant difference among reactions between the first and the second dose of vaccines. Conclusions: We examined the global incidence pattern of common cutaneous reactions related to COVID-19 vaccination and found low incidence and short duration of systemic skin reactions and local injection site reactions (except for pain); discrepancies in these reactions were observed across different vaccine types. The cutaneous side effects related to COVID-19 vaccination do not seem to cause concern. Registration: PROSPERO: CRD42021258012.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Exanthema , Urticaria , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Incidence , Injection Site Reaction/epidemiology , Injection Site Reaction/etiology , Pain , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Antivir Ther ; 27(6): 13596535221146226, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2195213

ABSTRACT

Although favipiravir is a promising drug for coronavirus disease 2019, some adverse effects, including skin lesions, have been reported. A 56-year-old female who was prescribed favipiravir by a filiation team following a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction test presented to our hospital. After examination, favipiravir and paracetamol were prescribed. She represented to the hospital with facial swelling and itchy rashes on her forearm. Angioedema and urticaria were diagnosed. Favipiravir was discontinued. Steroid and antihistaminic therapy were administered for angioedema. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of favipiravir-induced angioedema and urticaria in Turkey.


Subject(s)
Angioedema , COVID-19 , Urticaria , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Urticaria/chemically induced , Urticaria/diagnosis , Urticaria/drug therapy , Angioedema/chemically induced , Angioedema/diagnosis , Angioedema/drug therapy , Amides/adverse effects
16.
J Dermatol ; 50(3): 280-289, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192130

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new infectious pathogen named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, China. Transmitted through respiratory droplets, SARS-CoV-2 is the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although this new COVID-19 infection is known to cause primarily interstitial pneumonia and respiratory failure, it is often associated with cutaneous manifestations as well. These manifestations with COVID-19 can be classified into seven categories: (i) chilblain-like skin eruption (e.g., COVID toes), (ii) urticaria-like skin eruption, (iii) maculopapular lesions, (iv) vesicular eruptions, (v) purpura, (vi) livedo reticularis and necrotic lesions, (vii) urticarial vasculitis, and others such as alopecia and herpes zoster. The pathogenesis of skin eruptions can be broadly divided into vasculitic and inflammatory skin eruptions. Various cutaneous adverse reactions have also been observed after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. The major cutaneous adverse reactions are type I hypersensitivity (urticaria and anaphylaxis) and type IV hypersensitivity (COVID arm and erythema multiform). Autoimmune-mediated reactions including bullous pemphigus, vasculitis, vitiligo, and alopecia areata have also been reported. Several cases with chilblain-like lesions and herpes zoster after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination have been published. Various skin diseases associated with COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination have been reported, and the mechanism has been partly elucidated. In the process, for example, some papers have reported that it is not related to COVID-19 infection, although it was initially called COVID-toe and considered a COVID-19-associated cutaneous eruption. In fact, some COVID-19-associated skin reactions are indistinguishable from drug eruptions. In the future, the mechanisms of COVID-19- or COVID-19 vaccine-associated skin reactions need to be elucidated and verification of causal relationships is required.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Chilblains , Exanthema , Herpes Zoster , Skin Diseases , Urticaria , Humans , Alopecia Areata/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Exanthema/etiology , Herpes Zoster/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/etiology , Urticaria/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 45(1): 1-27, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus 2 is an infectious agent primarily identified as the cause of a pandemic viral pneumonia. With the mass vaccination against this virus, one of the health issues is the safety of currently available vaccines considering their adverse reactions. This systematic review was conducted to assess and summarize all reported data on histopathologic findings associated with mucocutaneous reactions that developed after COVID-19 vaccination for a better pathophysiology interpretation and clinical management of these reactions. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases as well as Google Scholar engine for relevant English articles published till July 1, 2022. This review includes 131 studies with a total number of 287 cases. Eruptions that underwent a biopsy were mostly described as erythematous maculopapular, papulosquamous, vasculitis-like, lichenoid, or urticarial lesions. Histopathology revealed spongiosis, interstitial, and perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration, erythrocyte extravasation, parakeratosis, endothelial inflammation, and the like. Findings were highly consistent with morbilliform erythema, psoriasiform dermatosis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and lichenoid or urticarial drug reactions. The majority of these reactions had a mild nature and were primarily observed in patients with underlying health conditions. Microscopic evaluation was also consistent with transient inflammatory changes, and features like neutrophilic infiltrates, subcorneal pustules, and vasculopathy were less frequently reported than what seen in COVID infection. Therefore, dermatologic reactions developing after vaccination in the general population should not hinder a complete vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Urticaria , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/complications , Urticaria/pathology
19.
Vaccine ; 41(2): 460-466, 2023 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) has been performing safety surveillance for COVID-19 vaccines since their earliest authorization in the United States. Complementing its real-time surveillance for pre-specified health outcomes using pre-specified risk intervals, the VSD conducts tree-based data-mining to look for clustering of a broad range of health outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination. This study's objective was to use this untargeted, hypothesis-generating approach to assess the safety of first booster doses of Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Moderna (mRNA-1273), and Janssen (Ad26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: VSD enrollees receiving a first booster of COVID-19 vaccine through April 2, 2022 were followed for 56 days. Incident diagnoses in inpatient or emergency department settings were analyzed for clustering within both the hierarchical ICD-10-CM code structure and the follow-up period. The self-controlled tree-temporal scan statistic was used, conditioning on the total number of cases for each diagnosis. P-values were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation; p = 0.01 was pre-specified as the cut-off for statistical significance of clusters. RESULTS: More than 2.4 and 1.8 million subjects received Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna boosters after an mRNA primary series, respectively. Clusters of urticaria/allergy/rash were found during Days 10-15 after the Moderna booster (p = 0.0001). Other outcomes that clustered after mRNA boosters, mostly with p = 0.0001, included unspecified adverse effects, common vaccine-associated reactions like fever and myalgia, and COVID-19. COVID-19 clusters were in Days 1-10 after booster receipt, before boosters would have become effective. There were no noteworthy clusters after boosters following primary Janssen vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: In this untargeted data-mining study of COVID-19 booster vaccination, a cluster of delayed-onset urticaria/allergy/rash was detected after the Moderna booster, as has been reported after Moderna vaccination previously. Other clusters after mRNA boosters were of unspecified or common adverse effects and COVID-19, the latter evidently reflecting immunity to COVID-19 after 10 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Exanthema , Urticaria , Humans , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Data Mining , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology
20.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 78(12): 1959-1964, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urticaria following the COVID-19 vaccine was rarely reported and had a short self-limited resolution. However, there has been relatively little literature published on CSU induced by COVID-19 vaccines. PURPOSE: We describe a case series of patients who experienced CSU after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: A retrospective case series of 10 patients referred to the Department of Clinical Pharmacology of the University of Monastir (January 2021-January 2022) and included for evaluation of urticaria after COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: The median age was 31 years and patients were mostly female. Atopy was presented in 3 patients and urticaria was accompanied by angioedema in 6 patients. The median time interval between vaccination and the onset of urticaria was 28.5 h. The offended dose was the first one in 8 patients. The resolution of the eruption was observed at least 2 months later, despite the regular use of a full dose of antihistamine in nine patients. Polynuclear leucocytosis was identified in 5 patients. Anti-TPOAb was positive in one patient after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. Total serum IgE was elevated in 4 patients. Skin tests for the suspected vaccine as well as the vaccine excipient were negative. CONCLUSION: We add to the medical literature ten new cases of chronic spontaneous urticarial reactions following COVID-19 vaccines uncontrolled with high-dose first-generation H1 antihistamines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , Chronic Disease , Chronic Urticaria/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Histamine H1 Antagonists/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/chemically induced
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