Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 180
Filter
1.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062823, 2022 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore general practitioners' (GPs) perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening (CCS) for women from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study involving semi-structured interviews, with interview guide informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework. SETTING: Adelaide, South Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve GPs with experience in providing CCS to women from CALD backgrounds participated. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: 'importance of clinician-patient relationship', 'patients' cultural understanding regarding health care and CCS', 'communication and language' and 'health system related'. Each theme had several subthemes. GPs' professional relationship with their patients and repeated advice from other clinicians, together with the provision of opportunistic CCS, were described as facilitators, and encompassed the theme of 'importance of clinician-patient relationship'. This theme also raised the possibility of self-collection human papilloma virus tests. Lack of awareness and knowledge, lower priority for cancer screening and patients' individual circumstances contributed to the theme of 'patients' cultural understanding regarding health care and CCS', and often acted as barriers to CCS. 'Communication and language' consisted of language difficulties, interpreter use and use of appropriate resources. Language difficulties were a barrier to the provision of CCS, and GPs used interpreters and written handouts to help overcome this. The theme of 'health system related' involved the increased time needed for CCS consults for CALD women, access to appointments, funding, health promotion and effective use of practice management software. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that multiple, inter-related barriers and facilitators influence CALD women's engagement with CCS, and that GPs needed to manage all of these factors in order to encourage CCS participation. More efforts are needed to address the barriers to ensure that GPs have access to appropriate resources, and CALD patients have access to GPs they trust.


Subject(s)
Communication Disorders , General Practitioners , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Qualitative Research , Language , Cultural Diversity
2.
Medwave ; 22(10): e2589, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144874

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most frequent malignant disease in the Peruvian female population, and the Papanicolaou test is its main screening tool. However, the COVID-19 pandemic can hinder cervical cancer screening, reducing its scope. Objective: To analyze the decline of Papanicolaou-based cervical cancer screening due to COVID-19 in a specialized hospital in Lima. Methods: We designed a retrospective study (from 2015 to 2020) on 355 029 Papanicolaou smears at the Hospital Nacional Madre Niño San Bartolomé. T-test and one-way ANOVA were used to define differences in the study period and Ljung-Box test with ARIMA (1,0,0) model to describe and forecast monthly expected Papanicolaou smears for 2020. Results: Throughout the six years of the study, the average Papanicolaou smears was 59 171.5 ± 8898.7 per year. However, in 2020 only 16 273 (4.58%) Papanicolaou tests were performed with a monthly mean of 1356.1 ± 684.2 (95% confidence interval 149.7 to 2861.9) (p < 0.001). The forecast showed 66 960 Papanicolaou smears for 2020 and a monthly mean of 5580 ± 129.3. Actual screenings during that year were only 16 273 Papanicolaou smears, resulting in a 76.7% reduction in cervical cancer screening during the pandemic. Conclusions: Our results suggest a dramatic decrease in cervical cancer screening based on Papanicolaou smears during 2020 in Peru due to prevention and control measures against COVID-19.


Introducción: El cáncer de cuello uterino es la segunda neoplasia más frecuente en la población femenina peruana y la prueba de Papanicolau es la principal estrategia de cribado. Sin embargo, la pandemia de COVID-19 puede bloquear el tamizaje cervicovaginal pudiendo reducir su alcance. Objetivo: Analizar el declive del cribado de cáncer de cuello uterino basado en la prueba de Papanicolaou, debido a COVID-19 en un hospital especializado de Lima. Métodos: Diseñamos un estudio retrospectivo (de 2015 a 2020) en 355 029 pruebas de Papanicolau en el Hospital Nacional Madre Niño San Bartolomé. Se utilizó la prueba T y ANOVA para definir las diferencias en el periodo del estudio y la prueba de Ljung-Box con modelo ARIMA (1,0,0) para describir y pronosticar mensualmente las pruebas de Papanicolau esperadas para el año 2020. Resultados: Durante los seis años del estudio el promedio fue de 59 171,5 ± 8898,7 pruebas de Papanicolau por año. Sin embargo, en 2020 solo se realizaron 16 273 (4,58%) pruebas de Papanicolau con una media mensual de 1356,1 ± 684,2 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 149,7 a 2861,9) (p < 0,001). El pronóstico mostró 66 960 pruebas de Papanicolau para el año 2020 y una media mensual de 5580 ± 129,3. Los tamizajes reales durante ese año fueron solamente de 16 273 pruebas de Papanicolau , generando un 76,7% de reducción del tamizaje de cáncer de cuello uterino durante la pandemia. Conclusiones: Conclusiones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Peru/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
3.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(5): 1497-1504, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to assess the pooled proportion of women screened for cervical cancer before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: After ruling out registered or ongoing systematic reviews in the PROSPERO database regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in cervical cancer screening, the protocol of our systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021279305). The electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between January 2020 and October 2021and the study was designed based on PRISMA guidelines updated in 2020. Meta-analysis was accomplished in STATA version 13.0 (College Station, Texas 77,845 USA). The pooled proportion of women who had undergone cervical cancer screening was reported with 95% CI. In order to quantify the heterogeneity, Chi2 statistic (Q statistic) and I2 index were used. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included seven studies from Slovenia, Italy, Ontario (Canada), Scotland, Belgium, and the USA, comprising 403,986 women and 199,165 women who were screened for cervical cancer before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 and during the pandemic in 2020, respectively. The pooled proportion of women screened for cervical cancer in 2019 was 9.79% (95% CI 6.00%-13.59%, 95% prediction interval 0.42%-23.81%). During the pandemic, the pooled proportion of screened women declined to 4.24% (95% CI 2.77%-5.71%, 95% prediction interval 0.9%-17.49%). CONCLUSION: There was a substantial drop in the cervical cancer screening rate due to lockdowns and travel restrictions to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. Scaling up cervical cancer screening strategies is essential to prevent the long-term impact of cervical cancer burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31389, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097515

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic is far from over, and vaccines remain important tool for fighting the disease. As the preventive effects of the COVID-19 vaccine emerges, it is likely that the perception of importance and safety of vaccines have a positive effect on the acceptance of other vaccines. However, it is still unclear how COVID-19 pandemic has affected the general vaccination perception and acceptance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the perception of HPV vaccination. This study involved an offline survey of 161 women aged between 20 and 49 years who visited the gynecologic clinic at Chung-nam National University Sejong Hospital from January 2021 to June 2021. The questionnaire consists of items related to experience and knowledge of COVID-19 and HPV viruses, as well as attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Knowledge about COVID-19 virus and HPV correlated positively with their experiences (P = .011 and P = .045, respectively). Positive attitude was increased, and negative attitude was reduced toward HPV vaccination in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Participants stated that accurate information and cost reduction about HPV vaccine was needed to increase the HPV vaccination rate. During the COVID-19 pandemic era, positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination have tended to increase. To increase the HPV vaccination rate, public efforts are needed for further information and cost reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Papillomaviridae , Surveys and Questionnaires , Perception
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090159

ABSTRACT

The burden of disease caused by cervical cancer ranked second among female tumors in China. The HPV vaccine has been proven to be a cost-effective measure to prevent cervical cancer, but the vaccination rate remained low to date among university students. This study aimed to understand the status quo of HPV vaccine hesitancy among university students across China during the COVID-19 pandemics and systematically analyze determinants of HPV vaccine hesitancy based on the WHO 3Cs model. Cross-sectional data were collected using an online survey of female university students in four cities across China in June 2022. Multinomial logistic regression was adopted to determine factors influencing vaccine hesitancy based on the 3Cs model with three dimensions, namely complacency, convenience, and confidence. Among 1438 female university students surveyed in this study, 89.7% did not hesitate to vaccinate against HPV, only 8.9% hesitated to some extent, and 1.4% refused to vaccinate. The actual vaccination rate for the HPV vaccine was 34.2%. Based on the 3Cs model, this study found that the trust on the efficacy of vaccines, risk perception of being infected by HPV, price, and distance/time were influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy. Knowledge of the HPV vaccine and sociodemographic characteristics, such as education levels, were also statistically relevant. Therefore, it is recommended that relevant scientific knowledge on cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine should be spread on campus, the vaccination appointment procedure should be simplified, and the affordability of vaccination should be increased through strategic purchasing or providing subsidies, so as to reduce HPV vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Universities , Vaccination Hesitancy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , China , Students
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(9): e00272921, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089512

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the temporal trend and inequalities in self-reported cervical cancer screening in Brazilian capitals from 2011 to 2020. This is a trend study with Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance System for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Through Telephone Interview (Vigitel) data from 2011 to 2020. The outcome was the prevalence of cytopathological examination in the last three years. Slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX) were used to estimate inequalities. An increasing trend in the outcome was observed in Brazil in the period surveyed, as well as a decrease in most regions, capitals, and in all groups according to education. There was a decrease in coverage in most regions of Brazil. We highlight that SII presented its worst results in 2011 and 2012, reaching 15.8p.p. (95%CI: 14.1; 17.6) and 15.0p.p. (95%CI: 13.1; 16.9), respectively, among women with 12 years or more of education. There was a decrease in coverage of cervical cancer screening in most Brazilian regions and capitals from 2011 to 2020. In the period before and during the pandemic, a reduction in the outcome was observed in the South and Southeast regions, suggesting that the COVID-19 pandemic caused geographical inequalities in the coverage for this exam in Brazil.


Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a tendência temporal e desigualdades no rastreamento autorrelatado do câncer de colo de útero nas capitais brasileiras entre os anos de 2011 e 2020. Estudo de tendência com dados da Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) de 2011 a 2020. O desfecho foi a prevalência de realização de exame citopatológico nos últimos três anos. Para estimar as desigualdades, foram utilizados os índices de desigualdade de inclinação (slope index of inequality - SII) e de concentração (concentration index - CIX). Observou-se tendência crescente do desfecho no país no período pesquisado e queda na maioria das regiões, capitais e em todos os grupos de acordo com escolaridade. Houve uma queda da cobertura na maioria das regiões do Brasil. Destaca-se que o SII apresentou seus piores resultados em 2011 e 2012, alcançando 15,8p.p. (IC95%: 14,1; 17,6) e 15,0p.p. (IC95%: 13,1; 16,9), respectivamente, entre as mulheres com 12 anos ou mais de estudo. Houve queda na cobertura da realização do exame preventivo de câncer de colo de útero na maioria das regiões e capitais brasileiras entre os anos de 2011 e 2020. No período antes e durante a pandemia, houve redução do desfecho no país, nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, sugerindo que a pandemia de COVID-19 acarretou desigualdades geográficas na cobertura desse exame no país.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la tendencia temporal y las desigualdades en el seguimiento autoinformado de cáncer de cuello uterino en las capitales brasileñas entre 2011 y 2020. Estudio de tendencias con datos de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección de Enfermedades Crónicas por Encuesta Telefónica (Vigitel) en el período de 2011 a 2020. El desenlace fue la prevalencia del examen citopatológico en los últimos tres años. Para estimar las desigualdades se utilizaron los índices de inequidad absoluto (slope index of inequality - SII) y de concentración (concentration index - CIX). Hubo tendencia a un aumento del desenlace en el período en estudio y un descenso en la mayoría de las regiones, capitales y en todos los grupos según el nivel educativo. Se observó un descenso en la cobertura en la mayoría de las regiones de Brasil. Se destaca que el SII presentó un peor resultado en 2011 y 2012, alcanzando 15,8p.p. (IC95%: 14,1; 17,6) y 15,0p.p. (IC95%: 13,1; 16,9), respectivamente, entre mujeres con 12 años o más de escolaridad. Hubo un descenso en la cobertura de la detección de cáncer de cuello uterino en la mayoría de las regiones y capitales brasileñas entre 2011 y 2020. En el período anterior y durante la pandemia, hubo una reducción en el desenlace para el país, en las regiones Sur y Sudeste, lo que apunta que la pandemia del COVID-19 provocó desigualdades geográficas en la cobertura de este examen a nivel nacional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Self Report , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
Prev Med ; 164: 107264, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086854

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted healthcare services, including cervical cancer management, and an increased burden for this condition is expected. This systematic review synthetizes the available evidence on the impact of the pandemic on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies on these topics with the purpose of comparing service access and care delivery before and during COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the methodological heterogeneity among the studies, findings were narratively discussed. Of the 715 screened titles and abstracts, 33 articles were included, corresponding to 42 reports that covered the outcomes of interest: vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) (6 reports), cancer screening (19), diagnosis (8), and treatment (8). Seven studies observed reductions in HPV vaccination uptake and coverage during COVID-19. Reports on cervical screening and cancer diagnosis activities showed a substantial impact of the pandemic on access to screening services and diagnostic procedures. All but one study that investigated cervical cancer treatment reported changes in the number of women with cervical lesions who received treatments, as well as treatment delay and interruption. With a major impact during the first wave in 2020, COVID-19 and restriction measures resulted in a substantial disruption in cervical cancer prevention and management, with declines in screening and delays in treatment. Taken together, findings from this systematic review calls for urgent policy interventions for recovering cervical cancer prevention and care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1914, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quests for the global elimination of cervical cancer and its related SDG goals by 2030 are achievable if realistic approaches for improving outcomes in LMICs are entrenched. Targeting teenage high schoolers in these countries, which largely lack universally-affordable anti-cervical cancer measures, can be a game-changer. This paper evaluates a 2019 Harvard-endorsed measure that integrated relevant teachings into the curricula of some Nigerian high schools, in what was a global-first. METHOD: A 12-month, quasi-experimental (pre-and-post-tests) research that evaluated the impact of the above initiative on three public schools randomly selected from a pool of 261 in South-east Nigeria. The intervention was "exposure" to anti-cervical teachings, which included "repetitions" and "examination/assessments" designed to enhance "engagement". Both genders were among the 2,498 recruited participants. Data collections with questionnaires were at three different intervals over 12 months. RESULTS: At Phase-1 (baseline), there were 1,699 (68.0%) responses, while Phases 2 (one-month post-intervention) and 4 (12-month post-intervention) had 1,797 (71.9%) and 500 (20.0%) responses, respectively. COVID-19 lockdowns washed out Phase-3 (six-month post-intervention). The majority in all groups were aged 15-19 years. Males dominated in phases 1 (55.9%) and 2 (67.3%), and females (65.6%) in Phase 4. Overall, there were increased knowledge on "General Awareness", "HPV Vaccinations", "Risk Factors" and "Symptoms", particularly between Phases 2 and 1. Levels at Phase-4 were higher than at Phase-2, with the exception of "Pap Smears", as knowledge gained in half of its assessing items became negative (reversed) at Phase-4. These observed changes were non-different between gender, age groups, and classes of high schools. Relative to Phase 2, knowledge changes at Phase-4 for questions associated with established myths ("spiritual attacks"; OR 0.39; CI 0.29-0.52 and "enemy poisons"; OR 0.49; CI 0.37-0.65) were reversed, even though they were originally increased significantly between Phases 2 and 1. CONCLUSION: Anti-cervical cancer enlightenment interventions to teenage high school students were largely effective, but appears guaranteed if engagement-enhancing measures are maintained over time. Extra efforts should be put into debunking prevailing myths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poisons , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Curriculum , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
11.
Elife ; 112022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067165

ABSTRACT

We evaluated how temporary disruptions to primary cervical cancer (CC) screening services may differentially impact women due to heterogeneity in their screening history and test modality. We used three CC models to project the short- and long-term health impacts assuming an underlying primary screening frequency (i.e., 1, 3, 5, or 10 yearly) under three alternative COVID-19-related screening disruption scenarios (i.e., 1-, 2-, or 5-year delay) versus no delay in the context of both cytology-based and human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening. Models projected a relative increase in symptomatically detected cancer cases during a 1-year delay period that was 38% higher (Policy1-Cervix), 80% higher (Harvard), and 170% higher (MISCAN-Cervix) for underscreened women whose last cytology screen was 5 years prior to the disruption period compared with guidelines-compliant women (i.e., last screen 3 years prior to disruption). Over a woman's lifetime, temporary COVID-19-related delays had less impact on lifetime risk of developing CC than screening frequency and test modality; however, CC risks increased disproportionately the longer time had elapsed since a woman's last screen at the time of the disruption. Excess risks for a given delay period were generally lower for HPV-based screeners than for cytology-based screeners. Our independent models predicted that the main drivers of CC risk were screening frequency and screening modality, and the overall impact of disruptions from the pandemic on CC outcomes may be small. However, screening disruptions disproportionately affect underscreened women, underpinning the importance of reaching such women as a critical area of focus, regardless of temporary disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cervix Uteri , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
12.
Curr Oncol ; 29(10): 7379-7387, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065745

ABSTRACT

Program ROSE (removing obstacles to cervical screening) is a primary HPV-based cervical screening program that incorporates self-sampling and digital technology, ensuring that women are linked to care. It was developed based on the principles of design thinking in the context of Malaysia. The program illustrates the importance of collaborative partnerships and addressing the multi-faceted barriers from policy changes, and infrastructure readiness to the implementation of a radically new cervical screening program in communities. The paradigm shift in cervical cancer requires a monumental and concerted effort in educating both the healthcare providers and the general public. In this short review, we highlight how Pilot Project ROSE incorporated evidence-based tools that rapidly scaled up to Program ROSE. These ideas and solutions can be adapted and adopted by other countries. Notwithstanding the impact of COVID-19, it is incumbent on countries to pave the road towards the elimination of cervical cancer with pre-existing footpaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Self-Testing , Pilot Projects , Malaysia
13.
Cancer Sci ; 113(10): 3313-3320, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052328

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is caused by infections of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which can be prevented by vaccinations. In Japan, although about 3000 people die of cervical cancer annually, the HPV vaccination rate has remained extremely low in the eligible population since many Japanese have been concerned that "diverse symptoms," such as chronic pain, movement disorders, and cognitive impairment, may occur as adverse reactions after HPV vaccination. The concern has been raised by media coverage of the ongoing HPV vaccine lawsuits, in which the plaintiffs complained of their symptoms caused by HPV vaccination. The claims have been based on the alleged pathogenic findings in research articles on HPV vaccines, summarized in the document prepared by the plaintiffs' attorneys. We critically evaluated these articles, in which the authors proposed the following findings/hypothesis: (i) molecular mimicry between HPV L1 and human proteins leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies; and (ii) HPV vaccine injection in mice causes damage in the brain, a mouse model for HPV vaccine associated neuro-immunopathic syndrome (HANS). We found that these hypotheses were based mainly on the findings from a few research groups and that all the articles had flaws in the method, result, or discussion sections. Our current evaluation should help better understand the validity of the findings, which have been often misunderstood as the truth by the general public. We propose to accumulate high-quality data on potential adverse events following HPV vaccination and to continue critically evaluating them.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2233267, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047370

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite its rapid adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is unknown how telemedicine augmentation of in-person office visits has affected quality of patient care. Objective: To examine whether quality of care among patients exposed to telemedicine differs from patients with only in-person office-based care. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, standardized quality measures were compared between patients with office-only (in-person) visits vs telemedicine visits from March 1, 2020, to November 30, 2021, across more than 200 outpatient care sites in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Exposures: Patients completing telemedicine (video) visits. Main Outcomes and Measures: χ2 tests determined statistically significant differences in Health Care Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality performance measures between office-only and telemedicine-exposed groups. Multivariable logistic regression controlled for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. Results: The study included 526 874 patients (409 732 office-only; 117 142 telemedicine exposed) with a comparable distribution of sex (196 285 [49.7%] and 74 878 [63.9%] women), predominance of non-Hispanic (348 127 [85.0%] and 105 408 [90.0%]) and White individuals (334 215 [81.6%] and 100 586 [85.9%]), aged 18 to 65 years (239 938 [58.6%] and 91 100 [77.8%]), with low overall health risk scores (373 176 [91.1%] and 100 076 [85.4%]) and commercial (227 259 [55.5%] and 81 552 [69.6%]) or Medicare or Medicaid (176 671 [43.1%] and 52 513 [44.8%]) insurance. For medication-based measures, patients with office-only visits had better performance, but only 3 of 5 measures had significant differences: patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) receiving antiplatelets (absolute percentage difference [APD], 6.71%; 95% CI, 5.45%-7.98%; P < .001), patients with CVD receiving statins (APD, 1.79%; 95% CI, 0.88%-2.71%; P = .001), and avoiding antibiotics for patients with upper respiratory infections (APD, 2.05%; 95% CI, 1.17%-2.96%; P < .001); there were insignificant differences for patients with heart failure receiving ß-blockers and those with diabetes receiving statins. For all 4 testing-based measures, patients with telemedicine exposure had significantly better performance differences: patients with CVD with lipid panels (APD, 7.04%; 95% CI, 5.95%-8.10%; P < .001), patients with diabetes with hemoglobin A1c testing (APD, 5.14%; 95% CI, 4.25%-6.01%; P < .001), patients with diabetes with nephropathy testing (APD, 9.28%; 95% CI, 8.22%-10.32%; P < .001), and blood pressure control (APD, 3.55%; 95% CI, 3.25%-3.85%; P < .001); this was also true for all 7 counseling-based measures: cervical cancer screening (APD, 12.33%; 95% CI, 11.80%-12.85%; P < .001), breast cancer screening (APD, 16.90%; 95% CI, 16.07%-17.71%; P < .001), colon cancer screening (APD, 8.20%; 95% CI, 7.65%-8.75%; P < .001), tobacco counseling and intervention (APD, 12.67%; 95% CI, 11.84%-13.50%; P < .001), influenza vaccination (APD, 9.76%; 95% CI, 9.47%-10.05%; P < .001), pneumococcal vaccination (APD, 5.41%; 95% CI, 4.85%-6.00%; P < .001), and depression screening (APD, 4.85%; 95% CI, 4.66%-5.04%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with telemedicine exposure, there was a largely favorable association with quality of primary care. This supports telemedicine's value potential for augmenting care capacity, especially in chronic disease management and preventive care. This study also identifies a need for understanding relationships between the optimal blend of telemedicine and in-office care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Diabetes Mellitus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Lipids , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , United States
15.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 24(1): 211, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease that can lead to damage of multiple organs and, along with certain treatments, increase the risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and infections. Preventive services are particularly important in patients with SLE to mitigate the aforementioned risks. We aimed to evaluate the trends of preventive services utilization in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, compared with non-SLE population. METHODS: All ≥19-year-old patients in the Lupus Midwest Network (LUMEN) registry, a population-based cohort, with SLE on January 1, 2015, were included and matched (1:1) by sex, age, race, and county to non-SLE comparators. Among both groups, we compared the rates of screenings for breast and cervical cancer, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis as well as immunizations. RESULTS: We included 440 SLE patients and 430 non-SLE comparators. The probability of breast cancer screening among women with SLE was similar to comparators (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% CI 0.85-1.39), while cervical cancer screening was lower (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96). Hypertension screening was higher among patients with SLE (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62); however, hyperlipidemia screening was similar to comparators (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.41). Diabetes and osteoporosis screenings were more likely to be performed for SLE patients than for comparators (HR 2.46, 95% CI 2.11-2.87; and HR 3.19, 95% CI 2.31-4.41; respectively). Influenza and pneumococcal immunizations were higher among SLE patients (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.12-1.54; and HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.38-3.09; respectively), while zoster vaccination was similar (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.81-1.69). CONCLUSIONS: The trends of utilization of preventive services by SLE patients vary according to screening or vaccine compared with the general population. Considering these differences, we demonstrate an opportunity for improvement, particularly in cervical cancer, hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis screenings and vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Osteoporosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Young Adult
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(3): 470-476, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess concordance and acceptability of a modified menstrual pad compared with a clinician-collected high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) sample. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. Women presenting for either cervical cancer screening or with a history of high-risk HPV positivity were eligible. Three samples were requested from participants: 1) clinician-collected cervical specimens; 2) self-collected vaginal swabs; and 3) a modified menstrual pad, which was taken home for use during the next menstruation. All samples were processed using the Cobas HPV test. Menstrual pad dried blood spots were eluted, then similarly processed. RESULTS: Of 153 women enrolled in the study, 106 provided menstrual pad samples and clinician-collected cervical specimens for high-risk HPV analysis. For samples in which the interval between the clinician-collected specimen and the menstrual pad sample was less than 2 months, the concordance was 94% (95% CI 83-98). For women who tested positive for high-risk HPV who presented for general screening and those with more than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2, menstrual pad and clinician-collected specimen agreement was 100% (95% CI 32.5-100). Among participants, 22.9% expressed discomfort with the self-collected vaginal swabs and opted out of collection. Overall, 94.0% of participants preferred the menstrual pad over clinician-collected sampling. Twelve patients were found to be positive for HPV on the menstrual pad sample but negative on the clinician-collected specimen. CONCLUSION: Among women who tested positive for HPV, the menstrual pad showed highly concordant results compared with clinician-collected sampling. This collection approach shows promise for integration into cervical cancer prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Vaginal Smears/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E59, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030273

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant declines in cancer screening, including among women served by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). This study examined the spatial association between state-based COVID-19 test percent positivity and proportional change in NBCCEDP screening volume. METHODS: Using the COVID-19 Diagnostic Laboratory Testing dataset, we calculated state-based monthly COVID-19 test percent positivity from July through December 2020 and categorized rates into low, medium, and high groups. We used data from 48 NBCCEDP state awardees to calculate the state-based monthly proportional change in screening volume and compared data for July-December 2020 with the previous 5-year average for those months. We categorized changes in screening volume into large decrease, medium decrease, and minimal change and created maps of the associations between variable subgroups by using bivariate mapping in QGIS. RESULTS: Bivariate relationships between COVID-19 test percent positivity and proportional change in cancer screening volume varied over time and geography. In 5 of 6 months, 4 states had high COVID-19 test percent positivity and minimal change in breast or cervical cancer screening volume; 2 states had high COVID-19 test percent positivity and minimal change in breast and cervical cancer screening volume. CONCLUSION: Some states maintained pre-COVID-19 screening volumes despite high COVID-19 test percent positivity. Follow-up research will be conducted to determine how these states differ from those with consistent decreases in screening volume and identify factors that may have contributed to differences. This information could be useful for planning to maximize NBCCEDP awardees' ability to maintain screening volume during future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
18.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals. RESULTS: The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 353, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women from migrant and refugee backgrounds in cervical screening is crucial to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem within the next 20 years. However, CALD women report low participation in cervical screening. Barriers to participation can be addressed with culturally tailored, community-based programs. There is a need for research to explore the process, feasibility, acceptability and barriers to cultural tailoring in the delivery and evaluation of cervical screening health education. METHODS: CALD community health workers took part in a 2 day training program then co-designed, culturally tailored and co-facilitated cervical screening health promotion forums within their communities. Forums were delivered to a total of seven groups, involving 12 sessions and 71 CALD women. The forums were evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, implementation and effectiveness using a survey, interviews and observations. Data were collected from CALD women, facilitators and researchers. RESULTS: The co-design and co-delivery of cervical screening health promotion forums was time and resource intensive however allowed for deeper cultural tailoring resulting in engagement with 'hard to reach' CALD women, improved health literacy and intention to screen. Flexibility in the intervention implementation was crucial to ensure forums were responsive to community interests and needs. Online delivery of the forums in response to the COVID-19 pandemic was acceptable to most groups. CONCLUSIONS: Co-designed, culturally tailored cervical screening health promotion forums are feasible and acceptable to CALD women, in both face-to-face and online formats. Adjustments to the intervention protocol were recommended to improve future implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Transients and Migrants , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Australia , Cultural Diversity , Early Detection of Cancer , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Language , Pandemics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL