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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 974, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Globally, both men and women have a 50% risk of being infected at least once in their life. HPV prevalence is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), at an average of 24%. HPV causes different types of cancers, including cervical cancer (CC), which is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in SSA. HPV-vaccination has been proven to be effective in reducing HPV induced cancers. SSA countries are delayed in reaching the WHO's target of fully vaccinating 90% of girls within the age of 15 by 2030. Our systematic review aims to identify barriers and facilitators of HPV-vaccination in SSA to inform national implementation strategies in the region. METHODS: This is a mixed method systematic review based on the PRISMA statement and The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual. Search strategies were adapted to each selected database: PubMed/MEDLINE, Livivo, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and African Journals Online for papers published in English, Italian, German, French and Spanish between 1 December 2011 and 31 December 2021. Zotero and Rayyan were the software used for data management. The appraisal was conducted by three independent reviewers. RESULTS: A total of 20 articles were selected for appraisal from an initial 536 articles. Barriers included: limited health system capacities, socio-economic status, stigma, fear and costs of vaccines, negative experience with vaccinations, COVID-19 pandemic, lack of correct information, health education (HE) and consent. Additionally, we found that boys are scarcely considered for HPV-vaccination by parents and stakeholders. Facilitators included: information and knowledge, policy implementation, positive experience with vaccinations, HE, stakeholders' engagement, women's empowerment, community engagement, seasonality, and target-oriented vaccination campaigns. CONCLUSIONS: This review synthesizes barriers and facilitators of HPV-vaccinations in SSA. Addressing these can contribute to the implementation of more effective HPV immunization programs targeted at eliminating CC in line with the WHO 90/70/90 strategy. REGISTRATION AND FUNDING: Protocol ID: CRD42022338609 registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). Partial funds: German Centre for Infection research (DZIF) project NAMASTE: 8,008,803,819.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Female , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
3.
Lancet HIV ; 10(6): e412-e420, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242778

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women of reproductive age globally. The burden of this disease is highest in low-income and middle-income countries, especially among women living with HIV. In 2018, WHO launched a global strategy to accelerate cervical cancer elimination through rapid scale-up of prophylactic vaccination, cervical screening, and treatment of precancers and cancers. This initiative was key in raising a call for action to address the stark global disparities in cervical cancer burden. However, achieving elimination of cervical cancer among women with HIV requires consideration of biological and social issues affecting this population. This Position Paper shows specific challenges and uncertainties on the way to cervical cancer elimination for women living with HIV and highlights the scarcity of evidence for the effect of interventions in this population. We argue that reaching equity of outcomes for women with HIV will require substantial advances in approaches to HPV vaccination and improved understanding of the long-term effectiveness of HPV vaccines in settings with high HIV burden cervical cancer, just as HIV, is affected by social and structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and gender discrimination, that place the elimination strategy at risk. Global efforts must, therefore, be galvanised to ensure women living with HIV have optimised interventions, given their substantial risk of this preventable malignancy.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Poverty
4.
Elife ; 122023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241077

ABSTRACT

Background: Home-based self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing may be an alternative for women not attending clinic-based cervical cancer screening. Methods: We assessed barriers to care and motivators to use at-home HPV self-sampling kits during the COVID-19 pandemic as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating kit effectiveness. Participants were women aged 30-65 and under-screened for cervical cancer in a safety-net healthcare system. We conducted telephone surveys in English/Spanish among a subgroup of trial participants, assessed differences between groups, and determined statistical significance at p<0.05. Results: Over half of 233 survey participants reported that clinic-based screening (Pap) is uncomfortable (67.8%), embarrassing (52.4%), and discomfort seeing male providers (63.1%). The last two factors were significantly more prevalent among Spanish vs English speakers (66.4% vs 30% (p=0.000) and 69.9 vs 52.2% (p=0.006), respectively). Most women who completed the kit found Pap more embarrassing (69.3%), stressful (55.6%), and less convenient (55.6%) than the kit. The first factor was more prevalent among Spanish vs English speakers (79.6% vs 53.38%, p=0.001) and among patients with elementary education or below. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic influenced most (59.5%) to participate in the trial due to fear of COVID, difficulty making appointments, and ease of using kits. HPV self-sampling kits may reduce barriers among under-screened women in a safety-net system. Funding: This study is supported by a grant from the National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparitie s (NIMHD, R01MD013715, PI: JR Montealegre). Clinical trial number: NCT03898167.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Male , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Papillomaviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 32(7): 879-888, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319537

ABSTRACT

We present national and state representative prevalence estimates of modifiable cancer risk factors, preventive behaviors and services, and screening, with a focus on changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Between 2019 and 2021, current smoking, physical inactivity, and heavy alcohol consumption declined, and human papillomavirus vaccination and stool testing for colorectal cancer screening uptake increased. In contrast, obesity prevalence increased, while fruit consumption and cervical cancer screening declined during the same timeframe. Favorable and unfavorable trends were evident during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic that must be monitored as more years of consistent data are collected. Yet disparities by racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status persisted, highlighting the continued need for interventions to address suboptimal levels among these population subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors
6.
Vaccine ; 41(18): 2956-2960, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV vaccine uptake in Japan has been slow since the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare suspended the recommendation for proactive HPV vaccination in 2013. In April 2022, Japan initiated catch-up vaccinations for women who missed the opportunity to receive the HPV vaccine. However, as of September 2022, very few women had received catch-up vaccination, raising concerns about vaccine hesitancy in the target population. It is necessary to understand the thinking and motivation of the target population to develop effective strategies to improve vaccination rates. Therefore, using cluster analysis, this study aimed to clarify the pattern of HPV vaccine hesitancy among the catch-up generations in Japan. METHODS: This descriptive study was based on an Internet survey completed by 3,790 women in Japan aged over 18 years who were eligible for catch-up vaccination and had not yet received an HPV vaccine. Participants were asked about their intention and thinking about the HPV vaccine and descriptive norms on vaccination intention. Cluster analysis using k-means clustering was performed to clarify these patterns. RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed three hesitancy patterns: acceptance, neutral and refusal. The acceptance group, with high intention, comprised 28.2% of the participants, and students and a high-income level mainly dominated this group. The refusal group, with negative thinking and low intention, accounted for 20.1% and was more prevalent among workers and the unemployed. The neutral group, with neutral thinking and intention, accounted for 51.6%. The perceived effect of descriptive norms on vaccination intention was large in the acceptance group but small in the refusal group. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine awareness promotion strategies must be based on the characteristics of each group and the different distributions of sociodemographic factors.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Japan , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccination , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
7.
Elife ; 122023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316749

ABSTRACT

It is quite well documented that the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted cancer screening services in all countries, irrespective of their resources and healthcare settings. While quantitative estimates on reduction in volume of screening tests or diagnostic evaluation are readily available from the high-income countries, very little data are available from the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). From the CanScreen5 global cancer screening data repository we identified six LMICs through purposive sampling based on the availability of cancer screening data at least for the years 2019 and 2020. These countries represented those in high human development index (HDI) categories (Argentina, Colombia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) and medium HDI categories (Bangladesh and Morocco). No data were available from low HDI countries to perform similar analysis. The reduction in the volume of tests in 2020 compared to the previous year ranged from 14.1% in Bangladesh to 72.9% in Argentina (regional programme) for cervical screening, from 14.2% in Bangladesh to 49.4% in Morocco for breast cancer screening and 30.7% in Thailand for colorectal cancer screening. Number of colposcopies was reduced in 2020 compared to previous year by 88.9% in Argentina, 38.2% in Colombia, 27.4% in Bangladesh, and 52.2% in Morocco. The reduction in detection rates of CIN 2 or worse lesions ranged from 20.7% in Morocco to 45.4% in Argentina. Reduction of breast cancer detection by 19.1% was reported from Morocco. No association of the impact of pandemic could be seen with HDI categories. Quantifying the impact of service disruptions in screening and diagnostic tests will allow the programmes to strategize how to ramp up services to clear the backlogs in screening and more crucially in further evaluation of screen positives. The data can be used to estimate the impact on stage distribution and avoidable mortality from these common cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Thailand , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bangladesh , Sri Lanka , Argentina , Colombia/epidemiology , Morocco/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries
8.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals. RESULTS: The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 160, 2023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the general population is widely known, however, there are still few studies related to this infection in minority groups, Thus, the objective is to analyze the frequency of human papillomavirus and associated factors in quilombola and gypsy women. METHODS: Cross-sectional research with 145 quilombola and gypsy women from Caxias, Maranhão. Two Pap smear collections were performed and a questionnaire with 46 questions was applied between January, 2020 and March, 2021. Descriptive analysis and Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval were performed. The research was approved by the ethics committee. RESULTS: There were 09 cases of atypia. The frequency of human papillomavirus was 41.37%, with a higher risk in quilombolas 55 (91.70%). Multiple infections were prevalent (53%) with high-risk genotypes 21 (35%). Types 16 and 18 together accounted for 42.85% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of human papillomavirus infection was higher than those recorded in the Northeast and Brazil, and therefore type 16 predominated. Due to limitations, the virus lineages and sublineages were not evaluated. Quilombola women had a higher rate of infection than gypsies.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Roma , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Minority Groups , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Brazil
10.
Elife ; 122023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274176

ABSTRACT

Australia introduced COVID-19 infection prevention and control measures in early 2020. To help prepare health services, the Australian Government Department of Health commissioned a modelled evaluation of the impact of disruptions to population breast, bowel, and cervical cancer screening programmes on cancer outcomes and cancer services. We used the Policy1 modelling platforms to predict outcomes for potential disruptions to cancer screening participation, covering periods of 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. We estimated missed screens, clinical outcomes (cancer incidence, tumour staging), and various diagnostic service impacts. We found that a 12-mo screening disruption would reduce breast cancer diagnoses (9.3% population-level reduction over 2020-2021) and colorectal cancer (up to 12.1% reduction over 2020-21), and increase cervical cancer diagnoses (up to 3.6% over 2020-2022), with upstaging expected for these cancer types (2, 1.4, and 6.8% for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, respectively). Findings for 6-12-mo disruption scenarios illustrate that maintaining screening participation is critical to preventing an increase in the burden of cancer at a population level. We provide programme-specific insights into which outcomes are expected to change, when changes are likely to become apparent, and likely downstream impacts. This evaluation provided evidence to guide decision-making for screening programmes and emphasises the ongoing benefits of maintaining screening in the face of potential future disruptions.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control
11.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282853, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278548

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer screening rates are declining in the US, with persistent disparities among vulnerable populations. Strategies to better reach under-screened communities are needed. The COVID pandemic sparked major shifts in healthcare delivery, including the accelerated development and adoption of rapid diagnostic testing, broadened access to remote care, and growing consumer demand for self-testing, which could be leveraged for cervical cancer. Rapid tests for the detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) have the potential to improve cervical cancer screening coverage, and if coupled with patient-collected cervicovaginal samples, create an opportunity for self-testing. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine whether COVID influenced clinician perspectives of rapid testing as a screening modality; and 2) to assess clinician awareness, perceived benefits and limitations, and willingness to adopt point-of-care HPV testing, patient self-sampling, and rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. The methodology adopted consisted of an online cross-sectional survey (n = 224) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with clinicians who perform cervical cancer screening in Indiana, ranked in the top ten states for cervical cancer mortality and with marked disparities across socio-demographic groups. The main findings show that about half the clinicians reported that the COVID pandemic had influenced their views on rapid testing as a screening modality both positively (greater public acceptability of rapid testing and impact on patient care) and negatively (concerns regarding accuracy of rapid tests). The majority of clinicians (82%) were willing to adopt rapid HPV testing at the point-of-care, while only 48% were willing to adopt rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. In-depth interviews revealed provider concerns around patients' ability to collect their own sample, report results correctly, and return to the clinic for follow-up and other preventive care. Addressing clinician concerns about self-sampling and rapid HPV testing, such as ensuring that rapid tests include sample adequacy controls, is necessary to mitigate barriers to adoption for cervical cancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Vaginal Smears/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Papillomaviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Self Care , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
12.
Elife ; 122023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274387

ABSTRACT

Background: Denmark was one of the few countries where it was politically decided to continue cancer screening during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the actual population uptake of mammography and cervical screening during this period. Methods: The first COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark was announced on 11 March 2020. To investigate possible changes in cancer screening activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we analysed data from the beginning of 2017 until the end of 2021. A time series analysis was carried out to discover possible trends and outliers in the screening activities in the period 2017-2021. Data on mammography screening and cervical screening were retrieved from governmental pandemic-specific monitoring of health care activities. Results: A brief drop was seen in screening activity right after the first COVID-19 lockdown, but the activity quickly returned to its previous level. A short-term deficit of 43% [CI -49 to -37] was found for mammography screening. A short-term deficit of 62% [CI -65 to -58] was found for cervical screening. Furthermore, a slight, statistically significant downward trend in cervical screening from 2018 to 2021 was probably unrelated to the pandemic. Other changes, for example, a marked drop in mammography screening towards the end of 2021, also seem unrelated to the pandemic. Conclusions: Denmark continued cancer screening during the pandemic, but following the first lockdown a temporary drop was seen in breast and cervical screening activity. Funding: Region Zealand (R22-A597).


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 41(17): 3194-3202, 2023 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine delays in cancer screenings during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants from previous studies (N = 32,989) with permissions to be recontacted were invited to complete a survey between June and November 2020. Participants (n = 7,115) who met the age range for cancer screenings were included. Participants were asked if they planned to have and then if they postponed a scheduled mammogram, Pap test, stool blood test, colonoscopy, or human papillomavirus (HPV) test. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with cancer screening delays for each planned test. RESULTS: The average age was 57.3 years, 75% were female, 89% were non-Hispanic White, 14% had public insurance, and 34% lived in rural counties. Those who planned cancer screenings (n = 4,266, 60%) were younger, more likely to be female, with higher education, had private insurance, and lived in rural counties. Specifically, 24% delayed a mammogram (n = 732/2,986), 27% delayed a Pap test (n = 448/1,651), 27% delayed an HPV test (n = 59/220), 11% delayed a stool blood test (n = 44/388), and 36% delayed a colonoscopy (n = 304/840). Age, race/ethnicity, education, and health insurance were associated with delays in cancer screenings (all P < .05). Compared with non-Hispanic White women, non-Hispanic Black women had lower odds of delaying a mammogram (odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.94), Hispanic women had higher odds of delaying Pap test (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.55), and women with other race/ethnicity had higher odds of delaying both Pap test (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.41 to 4.02) and HPV test (OR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.44 to 19.97). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlighted the urgency for health care providers to address the significant delays in cancer screenings in those most likely to delay. Strategies and resources are needed to help those with barriers to receiving guideline-appropriate cancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , Early Detection of Cancer , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Screening
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 283: 95-99, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Concerns were raised by clinicians at the Oxford Gynaecological Cancer MDT that there was an increasing number of women presenting with large cervical tumours requiring chemo-radiotherapy, possibly due to delays associated with the COVID pandemic. This audit was undertaken to assess whether this was a real event. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study collated the data from the central pathology service covering Oxfordshire, in the Oxford Gynaecological cancer centre. The control population consisted of patients treated during the 2 years pre-pandemic (1st Jan 2018-31 Dec 2019) and the study group the 2-year pandemic period (1st Jan 2020 until 31st December 2021). A total of 153 patients (74 control and 79 study) were diagnosed of cervical cancer during the study period. Variables included in the analysis were age, pathway of referral and diagnosis (cytology or clinical), FIGO stage, tumour histology, tumour size (using maximum diameter on MRI) and treatment. Student's t-test was used for continuous and discrete variables, respectively. The X2 test was used for the statistical analysis of proportions. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant differences was noted in the referral pathways during both periods. Statistically significant stage migration from FIGO stage II to III was detected (p < 0.05), though no statistically significant change in tumour size. However, the pattern of tumour volume on case-to-case comparison elicited more cases with larger volumes during the pandemic periods. CONCLUSIONS: Referral pathways of diagnosed cancer cervix was not affected during the pandemic in Oxfordshire. Therapeutic treatment numbers were unchanged - but some changes in tumour volume were likely the reason for the impression more such cases. Whether the stage shift noted here is representative of the wider population requires further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 11(1): e48-e58, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts recommended that an extended interval of 3-5 years between the two doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could be considered to alleviate vaccine supply shortages. However, three concerns have limited the introduction of extended schedules: girls could be infected between the two doses, the vaccination coverage for the second dose could be lower at ages 13-14 years than at ages 9-10 years, and identifying girls vaccinated with a first dose to give them the second dose could be difficult. Using mathematical modelling, we examined the potential effect of these concerns on the population-level impact and efficiency of extended dose HPV vaccination schedules. METHODS: We used HPV-ADVISE, an individual-based, transmission-dynamic model of multitype HPV infection and disease, calibrated to country-specific data for four low-income and middle-income countries (India, Viet Nam, Uganda, and Nigeria). For the extended dose scenarios, we varied the vaccination coverage of the second dose among girls previously vaccinated, the one-dose vaccine efficacy, and the one-dose vaccine duration of protection. We also examined a strategy in which girls aged 14 years were vaccinated irrespective of their previous vaccination status. We used a scenario of girls-only two-dose vaccination at age 9 years (vaccine=9 valent, vaccine-type efficacy=100%, duration of protection=lifetime, and coverage=80%) as our comparator. We estimated two outcomes: the relative reduction in the age-standardised cervical cancer incidence (population-level impact) and the number of cervical cancers averted per 100 000 doses (efficiency). FINDINGS: Our model projected substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence over 100 years with the two-dose schedule (79-86% depending on the country), compared with no vaccination. Projections for the 5-year extended schedule, in which the second dose is given only to girls previously vaccinated at age 9 years, were similar to the current two-dose schedule, unless vaccination coverage of the second dose is very low (reductions in cervical cancer incidence of 71-78% assuming 30% coverage at age 14 years among girls vaccinated at age 9 years). However, when the dose at age 14 years is given to girls irrespective of vaccination status and assuming high vaccination coverage, the model projected a substantially greater reduction in cervical cancer incidence compared with the current two-dose schedule (reductions in cervical cancer incidence of 86-93% assuming 70% coverage at age 14 years, irrespective of vaccination status). Efficiency of the extended schedule was greater than the two-dose schedule, even with a drop in vaccination coverage. INTERPRETATION: The three concerns are unlikely to have a substantial effect on the population-level impact of extended dose schedules. Hence, extended dose schedules will likely provide similar cervical cancer reductions as two-dose schedules, while reducing the number of doses required in the short-term, providing a more efficient use of scarce resources, and offering a 5-year time window to reassess the necessity of the second dose. FUNDING: WHO, Canadian Institute of Health Research Foundation, Fonds de recherche du Québec-Santé, Digital Research Alliance of Canada, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Developing Countries , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada , Cost-Benefit Analysis
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 82: 102313, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cancer screening participation is a global concern. A national database of screening performance is available in Japan for population-based cancer screening, estimated to cover approximately half of all cancer screenings. METHODS: Utilizing the fiscal year (FY) 2017-2020 national database, the number of participants in screenings for gastric cancer (upper gastrointestinal [UGI] series or endoscopy), colorectal cancer (fecal occult blood test), lung cancer (chest X-ray), breast cancer (mammography), and cervical cancer (Pap smear) were identified. The percent change in the number of participants was calculated. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-pandemic period (FY 2017-2019), in percentage terms FY 2020 recorded the largest decline in gastric cancer UGI series (2.82 million to 1.91 million, percent change was -32.2 %), followed by screening for breast cancer (3.10 million to 2.57 million, percent change was -17.2 %), lung cancer (7.92 million to 6.59 million, percent change was -16.7 %), colorectal cancer (8.42 million to 7.30 million, percent change was -13.4 %), cervical cancer (4.26 million to 3.77 million, percent change was -11.6 %), and gastric cancer via endoscopy (1.02 million to 0.93 million, percent change was -9.0 %). CONCLUSION: The number of participants in population-based screenings in Japan decreased by approximately 10-30 % during the pandemic. The impact of these declines on cancer detection or mortality should be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , East Asian People , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening
19.
Medwave ; 22(10): e2589, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144874

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most frequent malignant disease in the Peruvian female population, and the Papanicolaou test is its main screening tool. However, the COVID-19 pandemic can hinder cervical cancer screening, reducing its scope. Objective: To analyze the decline of Papanicolaou-based cervical cancer screening due to COVID-19 in a specialized hospital in Lima. Methods: We designed a retrospective study (from 2015 to 2020) on 355 029 Papanicolaou smears at the Hospital Nacional Madre Niño San Bartolomé. T-test and one-way ANOVA were used to define differences in the study period and Ljung-Box test with ARIMA (1,0,0) model to describe and forecast monthly expected Papanicolaou smears for 2020. Results: Throughout the six years of the study, the average Papanicolaou smears was 59 171.5 ± 8898.7 per year. However, in 2020 only 16 273 (4.58%) Papanicolaou tests were performed with a monthly mean of 1356.1 ± 684.2 (95% confidence interval 149.7 to 2861.9) (p < 0.001). The forecast showed 66 960 Papanicolaou smears for 2020 and a monthly mean of 5580 ± 129.3. Actual screenings during that year were only 16 273 Papanicolaou smears, resulting in a 76.7% reduction in cervical cancer screening during the pandemic. Conclusions: Our results suggest a dramatic decrease in cervical cancer screening based on Papanicolaou smears during 2020 in Peru due to prevention and control measures against COVID-19.


Introducción: El cáncer de cuello uterino es la segunda neoplasia más frecuente en la población femenina peruana y la prueba de Papanicolau es la principal estrategia de cribado. Sin embargo, la pandemia de COVID-19 puede bloquear el tamizaje cervicovaginal pudiendo reducir su alcance. Objetivo: Analizar el declive del cribado de cáncer de cuello uterino basado en la prueba de Papanicolaou, debido a COVID-19 en un hospital especializado de Lima. Métodos: Diseñamos un estudio retrospectivo (de 2015 a 2020) en 355 029 pruebas de Papanicolau en el Hospital Nacional Madre Niño San Bartolomé. Se utilizó la prueba T y ANOVA para definir las diferencias en el periodo del estudio y la prueba de Ljung-Box con modelo ARIMA (1,0,0) para describir y pronosticar mensualmente las pruebas de Papanicolau esperadas para el año 2020. Resultados: Durante los seis años del estudio el promedio fue de 59 171,5 ± 8898,7 pruebas de Papanicolau por año. Sin embargo, en 2020 solo se realizaron 16 273 (4,58%) pruebas de Papanicolau con una media mensual de 1356,1 ± 684,2 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 149,7 a 2861,9) (p < 0,001). El pronóstico mostró 66 960 pruebas de Papanicolau para el año 2020 y una media mensual de 5580 ± 129,3. Los tamizajes reales durante ese año fueron solamente de 16 273 pruebas de Papanicolau , generando un 76,7% de reducción del tamizaje de cáncer de cuello uterino durante la pandemia. Conclusiones: Conclusiones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Peru/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
20.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
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