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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2212571, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239029

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has affected nearly all aspects of daily life. In this study, we investigated the age-stratified prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among females in Shandong province (eastern China) and aimed to provide guidance on HPV-based cervical cancer screening and vaccination. The distribution of HPV genotypes was analyzed using PCR-Reverse Dot Hybridization. The overall infection rate of HPV was 16.4%, which was dominated by high-risk genotypes. The most prevalent genotype was HPV16 (2.9%), followed by HPV52 (2.3%), HPV53 (1.8%), HPV58 (1.5%), and HPV51 (1.3%). Among the positive cases with HPV infection, single-genotype infection was significantly higher than that of multi-genotype infection. In subgroup analyses by age (≤25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55, >55), HPV16, 52, and 53 were consistently the three most common hrHPV genotypes in all age groups. The infection rate of multi-genotypes in the ≤25 and >55 age groups was significantly higher than that in other age groups. A bimodal distribution of HPV infection rate was observed in different age groups. Among lrHPV genotypes, HPV6, HPV11, and HPV81 were the three most common types in the ≤25 age group, while in other age groups, HPV81, HPV42, and HPV43 are the three most common lrHPV genotypes. This study provides basic information on the distribution and genotypes of HPV in the female population in eastern China, which could improve the application of HPV diagnostic probes and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Pandemics , Prevalence , Early Detection of Cancer , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genotype , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , China/epidemiology
2.
Lancet HIV ; 10(6): e412-e420, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242778

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women of reproductive age globally. The burden of this disease is highest in low-income and middle-income countries, especially among women living with HIV. In 2018, WHO launched a global strategy to accelerate cervical cancer elimination through rapid scale-up of prophylactic vaccination, cervical screening, and treatment of precancers and cancers. This initiative was key in raising a call for action to address the stark global disparities in cervical cancer burden. However, achieving elimination of cervical cancer among women with HIV requires consideration of biological and social issues affecting this population. This Position Paper shows specific challenges and uncertainties on the way to cervical cancer elimination for women living with HIV and highlights the scarcity of evidence for the effect of interventions in this population. We argue that reaching equity of outcomes for women with HIV will require substantial advances in approaches to HPV vaccination and improved understanding of the long-term effectiveness of HPV vaccines in settings with high HIV burden cervical cancer, just as HIV, is affected by social and structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and gender discrimination, that place the elimination strategy at risk. Global efforts must, therefore, be galvanised to ensure women living with HIV have optimised interventions, given their substantial risk of this preventable malignancy.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Poverty
3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 912, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination remains the most effective means of reducing the burden of infectious disease among children. It is estimated to prevent between two to three million child deaths annually. However, despite being a successful intervention, basic vaccination coverage remains below the target. About 20 million infants are either under or not fully vaccinated, most of whom are in Sub-Saharan Africa region. In Kenya, the coverage is even lower at 83% than the global average of 86%. The objective of this study is to explore the factors that contribute to low demand or vaccine hesitancy for childhood and adolescent vaccines in Kenya. METHODS: The study used qualitative research design. Key Informant Interviews (KII) was used to obtain information from national and county-level key stakeholders. In-depth Interviews (IDI) was done to collect opinions of caregivers of children 0-23 months and adolescent girls eligible for immunization, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine respectively. The data was collected at the national level and counties such as Kilifi, Turkana, Nairobi and Kitui. The data was analyzed using thematic content approach. A total of 41 national and county-level immunization officials and caregivers formed the sample. RESULTS: Insufficient knowledge about vaccines, vaccine supply issues, frequent healthcare worker's industrial action, poverty, religious beliefs, inadequate vaccination campaigns, distance to vaccination centers, were identified as factors driving low demand or vaccine hesitancy against routine childhood immunization. While factors driving low uptake of the newly introduced HPV vaccine were reported to include misinformation about the vaccine, rumors that the vaccine is a form of female contraception, the suspicion that the vaccine is free and available only to girls, poor knowledge of cervical cancer and benefits of HPV vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Rural community sensitization on both routine childhood immunization and HPV vaccine should be key activities post COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, the use of mainstream and social media outreaches, and vaccine champions could help reduce vaccine hesitancy. The findings are invaluable for informing design of context-specific interventions by national and county-level immunization stakeholders. Further studies on the relationship between attitude towards new vaccines and connection to vaccine hesitancy is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Infant , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vaccination , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
4.
Vaccine ; 41(18): 2956-2960, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV vaccine uptake in Japan has been slow since the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare suspended the recommendation for proactive HPV vaccination in 2013. In April 2022, Japan initiated catch-up vaccinations for women who missed the opportunity to receive the HPV vaccine. However, as of September 2022, very few women had received catch-up vaccination, raising concerns about vaccine hesitancy in the target population. It is necessary to understand the thinking and motivation of the target population to develop effective strategies to improve vaccination rates. Therefore, using cluster analysis, this study aimed to clarify the pattern of HPV vaccine hesitancy among the catch-up generations in Japan. METHODS: This descriptive study was based on an Internet survey completed by 3,790 women in Japan aged over 18 years who were eligible for catch-up vaccination and had not yet received an HPV vaccine. Participants were asked about their intention and thinking about the HPV vaccine and descriptive norms on vaccination intention. Cluster analysis using k-means clustering was performed to clarify these patterns. RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed three hesitancy patterns: acceptance, neutral and refusal. The acceptance group, with high intention, comprised 28.2% of the participants, and students and a high-income level mainly dominated this group. The refusal group, with negative thinking and low intention, accounted for 20.1% and was more prevalent among workers and the unemployed. The neutral group, with neutral thinking and intention, accounted for 51.6%. The perceived effect of descriptive norms on vaccination intention was large in the acceptance group but small in the refusal group. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine awareness promotion strategies must be based on the characteristics of each group and the different distributions of sociodemographic factors.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Japan , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccination , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
5.
Elife ; 122023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316753

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer has killed millions of women over the past decade. In 2019 the World Health Organization launched the Cervical Cancer Elimination Strategy, which included ambitious targets for vaccination, screening, and treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted progress on the strategy, but lessons learned during the pandemic - especially in vaccination, self-administered testing, and coordinated mobilization on a global scale - may help with efforts to achieve its targets. However, we must also learn from the failure of the COVID-19 response to include adequate representation of global voices. Efforts to eliminate cervical cancer will only succeed if those countries most affected are involved from the very start of planning. In this article we summarize innovations and highlight missed opportunities in the COVID response, and make recommendations to leverage the COVID experience to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer
6.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals. RESULTS: The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
7.
Aust J Prim Health ; 29(2): 148-154, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306222

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a major threat to public health and the second leading cause of death globally. Population-based cancer screening is an effective way to improve the early detection of a cancer and reduce mortality. Factors associated with participation in cancer screening have been increasingly explored in research. The challenges to undertaking such research are evident, but there is little discussion about how to address such challenges. This article discusses methodological issues associated with the recruitment and engagement of participants in research, drawing upon our experience of undertaking research exploring the support needs of people residing in Newport West, Wales, to participate in breast, bowel, and cervical screening programs. Four key areas were addressed: sampling issues, language barriers, IT issues, and time demand for participation. The paper highlights the importance of ongoing community engagement, the provision of appropriate study materials, and the adaption to different data collection modes to meet participants' needs to participate in research, thus enabling people who are usually excluded from research to have a voice and make a significant contribution to research.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Wales , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Communication Barriers
8.
Elife ; 122023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274176

ABSTRACT

Australia introduced COVID-19 infection prevention and control measures in early 2020. To help prepare health services, the Australian Government Department of Health commissioned a modelled evaluation of the impact of disruptions to population breast, bowel, and cervical cancer screening programmes on cancer outcomes and cancer services. We used the Policy1 modelling platforms to predict outcomes for potential disruptions to cancer screening participation, covering periods of 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. We estimated missed screens, clinical outcomes (cancer incidence, tumour staging), and various diagnostic service impacts. We found that a 12-mo screening disruption would reduce breast cancer diagnoses (9.3% population-level reduction over 2020-2021) and colorectal cancer (up to 12.1% reduction over 2020-21), and increase cervical cancer diagnoses (up to 3.6% over 2020-2022), with upstaging expected for these cancer types (2, 1.4, and 6.8% for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, respectively). Findings for 6-12-mo disruption scenarios illustrate that maintaining screening participation is critical to preventing an increase in the burden of cancer at a population level. We provide programme-specific insights into which outcomes are expected to change, when changes are likely to become apparent, and likely downstream impacts. This evaluation provided evidence to guide decision-making for screening programmes and emphasises the ongoing benefits of maintaining screening in the face of potential future disruptions.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control
9.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282853, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278548

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer screening rates are declining in the US, with persistent disparities among vulnerable populations. Strategies to better reach under-screened communities are needed. The COVID pandemic sparked major shifts in healthcare delivery, including the accelerated development and adoption of rapid diagnostic testing, broadened access to remote care, and growing consumer demand for self-testing, which could be leveraged for cervical cancer. Rapid tests for the detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) have the potential to improve cervical cancer screening coverage, and if coupled with patient-collected cervicovaginal samples, create an opportunity for self-testing. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine whether COVID influenced clinician perspectives of rapid testing as a screening modality; and 2) to assess clinician awareness, perceived benefits and limitations, and willingness to adopt point-of-care HPV testing, patient self-sampling, and rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. The methodology adopted consisted of an online cross-sectional survey (n = 224) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with clinicians who perform cervical cancer screening in Indiana, ranked in the top ten states for cervical cancer mortality and with marked disparities across socio-demographic groups. The main findings show that about half the clinicians reported that the COVID pandemic had influenced their views on rapid testing as a screening modality both positively (greater public acceptability of rapid testing and impact on patient care) and negatively (concerns regarding accuracy of rapid tests). The majority of clinicians (82%) were willing to adopt rapid HPV testing at the point-of-care, while only 48% were willing to adopt rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. In-depth interviews revealed provider concerns around patients' ability to collect their own sample, report results correctly, and return to the clinic for follow-up and other preventive care. Addressing clinician concerns about self-sampling and rapid HPV testing, such as ensuring that rapid tests include sample adequacy controls, is necessary to mitigate barriers to adoption for cervical cancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Vaginal Smears/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Papillomaviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Self Care , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 322: 115800, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer to occur in women worldwide. In the UK, the NHS cervical screening programme invites eligible individuals to take part in screening every 3-5 years. At present, around 70% of individuals attend screening when invited. The present study aimed to test the effectiveness of a volitional and a motivational intervention alone and in combination on screening uptake at 16-week follow up. METHODS: 14,536 participants were recruited from the list of eligible participants invited for screening in Yorkshire, Humber and the North East regions of England in December 2021. They were randomised to a social norm-based motivational intervention (SNA); implementation intention-based Volitional Help Sheet (VHS); combined intervention (SNA + VHS); or treatment as usual control. The primary outcome was screening uptake measured via patient screening records at 16 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 14,466 participants with eligible data for analysis, 5793 (40.0%) attended for cervical cancer screening in the 16 weeks after the intervention mailing. Both age and deprivation influenced screening uptake, with lower uptake in the youngest individuals and those from more deprived areas. Compared to control, there was no evidence of any benefit from the VHS implementation intervention alone (Adj.OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10), the SNA motivational intervention alone (Adj.OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99), or the combined intervention (Adj.OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). CONCLUSION: The study did not support any benefit of either VHS or SNA interventions alone or in combination on cervical cancer screening uptake. It did demonstrate alarmingly low levels of screening uptake at 16 weeks which were well below the average rate. Future research needs to urgently investigate and understand the barriers to uptake following on from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , England
11.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0280643, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Testing for high-risk HPV is a more sensitive screening method than cervical cytology for detecting cervical changes that may lead to cancer. Consistent with recent evidence of efficacy and acceptability, Aotearoa New Zealand plans to introduce HPV testing as the primary approach to screening, replacing cervical cytology, from mid-2023. Any equitable cervical screening programme must be effective across a diverse population, including women that the current programme fails to reach, particularly Maori and those in rural areas. Currently, we do not know the best model for implementing an equitable HPV self-testing screening programme. METHODS: This implementation trial aims to assess whether a universal offer of HPV self-testing (offered to all people eligible for cervical screening) achieves non-inferior screening coverage (equal) to a universal offer of cervical cytology alone (the present programme). The study population is all people aged from 24.5 to 70 years due for cervical screening in a 12-month period (including those whose screening is overdue or who have never had screening). A range of quantitative and qualitative secondary outcomes will be explored, including barriers and facilitators across screening and diagnostic pathways. This study takes place in Te Tai Tokerau/Northland which covers a diverse range of urban and rural areas and has a large Indigenous Maori population. A total of fourteen practices will be involved. Seven practices will offer HPV self-testing universally to approximately 2800 women and will be compared to seven practices providing routine clinical care (offer of cervical cytology) to an approximately equal number of women. DISCUSSION: This trial will answer important questions about how to implement an equitable, high-quality, effective national programme offering HPV self-testing as the primary screening method for cervical cancer prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 07/12/2021: ACTRN12621001675819.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Australia , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Mass Screening/methods , New Zealand/epidemiology , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaginal Smears
13.
Elife ; 122023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274387

ABSTRACT

Background: Denmark was one of the few countries where it was politically decided to continue cancer screening during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the actual population uptake of mammography and cervical screening during this period. Methods: The first COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark was announced on 11 March 2020. To investigate possible changes in cancer screening activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we analysed data from the beginning of 2017 until the end of 2021. A time series analysis was carried out to discover possible trends and outliers in the screening activities in the period 2017-2021. Data on mammography screening and cervical screening were retrieved from governmental pandemic-specific monitoring of health care activities. Results: A brief drop was seen in screening activity right after the first COVID-19 lockdown, but the activity quickly returned to its previous level. A short-term deficit of 43% [CI -49 to -37] was found for mammography screening. A short-term deficit of 62% [CI -65 to -58] was found for cervical screening. Furthermore, a slight, statistically significant downward trend in cervical screening from 2018 to 2021 was probably unrelated to the pandemic. Other changes, for example, a marked drop in mammography screening towards the end of 2021, also seem unrelated to the pandemic. Conclusions: Denmark continued cancer screening during the pandemic, but following the first lockdown a temporary drop was seen in breast and cervical screening activity. Funding: Region Zealand (R22-A597).


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology
16.
J Clin Virol ; 159: 105349, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231219

ABSTRACT

We advise that only clinically validated HPV assays which have fulfilled internationally accepted performance criteria be used for primary cervical screening. Further, assays should be demonstrated to be fit for purpose in the laboratory in which they will ultimately be performed, and quality materials manuals and frameworks will be helpful in this endeavor. Importantly, there is a fundamental shortage of well validated, low-cost, low complexity HPV tests that have demonstrated utility in a near-patient setting; representing a significant challenge and focus for future development in order to reach the WHO's goal of eliminating cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acids , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Quality Control , Policy
17.
J Community Health ; 48(3): 501-507, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220128

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic posed a setback to health maintenance screenings worldwide. These delays have impacted minorities and those of low socioeconomic status in the same way that disparities in cancer screenings have historically trended. Here, we evaluated the performance of a student-run free clinic in maintaining women up-to-date with cancer screenings before, during, and after the pandemic in relation to national trends. We identified all women eligible for screening mammography and cervical cancer screenings between 2018 and 2022 at the clinic (N = 185). Adequate adherence to screening was defined according to the American Cancer Society (ACS) recommendations for breast mammography, and the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for cervical cancer screenings. For cervical cancer screening, 166 female patients seen between 2018 and 2022 were eligible, and up-to-date proportions were as follows: 81.3% in 2018; 90.9% in 2019; 83.3% in 2020; 93.3% in 2021; 93.8% in 2022. For breast surveillance, 143 women were eligible for screening mammography, and up-to-date proportions were as follows: 66.7% in 2018; 62.5% in 2019; 91.7% in 2020; 73.1% in 2021; 84.1% in 2022. These proportions were higher than or near national averages.In conclusion, adherence remained steady during the pandemic and was not subject to the declines seen nationally. Our clinic represents an effective model for promoting women's health maintenance and tempering the disparities seen among women of low socioeconomic status.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Student Run Clinic , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , United States , Humans , Papanicolaou Test , Pandemics , Mammography , Florida , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening , COVID-19/epidemiology , Women's Health
18.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 794-808, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205383

ABSTRACT

O câncer do colo do útero é considerado um dos cânceres mais comuns entre mulheres, representando um grande problema de saúde global, sendo a quarta causa mais frequente de morte por câncer na população feminina. Mediante a um estudo quantitativo e retrospectivo de dados pré- analíticos e analíticos das requisições do exame citopatológico do colo do útero, objetivou-se avaliar os resultados de exames citopatológicos de mulheres usuárias do SUS de um município do oeste do Paraná, realizados no período antes da pandemia COVID-19, de março de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020 e durante a pandemia COVID-19, de março de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021, dos exames citopatológicos alterados. Foram utilizadas as requisições de exames citopatológicos do Programa Nacional de Controle do CCU e o sistema eletrônico SISCAN como ferramentas de busca. Dentre os resultados, totalizaram-se 20.425 amostras processadas no período antes da pandemia, sendo 19.908 consideradas satisfatórias para análise oncótica, onde 1.148 (5,76%) amostras apresentaram alteração citológica. No período da pandemia, totalizaram-se 11.315 amostras processadas, sendo 11.149 amostras satisfatórias para análise oncótica, das quais 721 (6,47%) apresentaram alteração citológica. No período da pandemia, o estudo demostra que metade da população de mulheres usuárias do SUS em um município do oeste do Paraná encontra-se na faixa etária da população-alvo preconizada pelo MS, sendo que a maioria delas realizou seu exame citopatológico por motivo de rastreamento. Contudo, mesmo com a interrupção dos atendimentos eletivos, as mulheres continuaram realizando seus exames citopatológicos, sendo elucidado um discreto aumento de 0,71% das alterações citológicas no período da pandemia, quando comparado ao período anterior, demonstrando o cenário deste programa na pandemia COVID-19.


Cervical cancer is considered one of the most common cancers among women, representing a major global health problem, being the fourth most frequent cause of cancer death in the female population. Through a quantitative and retrospective study of pre-analytical and analytical data of requests for cervical cytopathological examination, the objective was to evaluate the results of cytopathological examinations of women using the SUS in a city in western Paraná, carried out in the period before during the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 2019 to February 2020, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 2020 to February 2021, from the altered cytopathological exams. Requests for cytopathological exams from the National Control Program of the CCU and the SISCAN electronic system were used as search tools. Among the results, a total of 20.425 samples were processed in the period before the pandemic, 19.908 of which were considered satisfactory for oncotic analysis, where 1.148 (5,76%) samples showed cytological alterations. During the pandemic period, a total of 11.315 samples were processed, of which 11.149 were satisfactory for oncotic analysis, of which 721 (6,47%) showed cytological alterations. During the pandemic period, the study shows that half of the population of women using the SUS in a municipality in western Paraná is in the target population age group recommended by the MS, and most of them underwent their cytopathological examination due to tracking. However, even with the interruption of elective care, women continued to perform their cytopathological exams, with a slight increase of 0,71% in cytological changes during the pandemic period, when compared to the previous period, demonstrating the scenario of this program in the COVID-19 pandemic.


El cáncer de cuello uterino se considera uno de los cánceres más comunes entre las mujeres, representando un importante problema de salud mundial, siendo la cuarta causa más frecuente de muerte por cáncer en la población femenina. Mediante el estudio cuantitativo y retrospectivo de los datos preanalíticos y analíticos de los requisitos del examen citopatológico del útero, se evaluaron los resultados de los exámenes citopatológicos de las usuarias del SUS de un municipio del oeste de Paraná, realizados en el período anterior a la pandemia COVID-19, de marzo de 2019 a febrero de 2020, y durante la pandemia COVID-19, de marzo de 2020 a febrero de 2021, de los exámenes citopatológicos alterados. Se utilizaron como herramientas de búsqueda las requisiciones de exámenes citopatológicos del Programa Nacional de Control de UCC y el sistema electrónico SISCAN. Entre los resultados, un total de 20.425 muestras fueron procesadas en el período anterior a la pandemia, de las cuales 19.908 fueron consideradas satisfactorias para el análisis oncológico, donde 1.148 (5,76%) muestras presentaron alteración citológica. En el periodo de la pandemia, se procesaron un total de 11.315 muestras, de las cuales 11.149 fueron satisfactorias para el análisis oncológico, y 721 (6,47%) presentaron alteraciones citológicas. En el período de la pandemia, el estudio demuestra que la mitad de la población de mujeres usuarias del SUS en una ciudad del oeste de Paraná está en la franja de edad de la población objetivo recomendada por el MS, y la mayoría de ellas se sometió a un examen citopatológico con fines de cribado. Sin embargo, aún con la interrupción de la atención electiva, las mujeres continuaron realizando sus exámenes citopatológicos, siendo dilucidado un leve aumento de 0,71% de alteraciones citológicas en el período pandémico, cuando comparado con el período anterior, demostrando el escenario de este programa en la pandemia COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Women , World Health Organization/organization & administration , Unified Health System , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Causality , Retrospective Studies
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 11(1): e48-e58, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts recommended that an extended interval of 3-5 years between the two doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could be considered to alleviate vaccine supply shortages. However, three concerns have limited the introduction of extended schedules: girls could be infected between the two doses, the vaccination coverage for the second dose could be lower at ages 13-14 years than at ages 9-10 years, and identifying girls vaccinated with a first dose to give them the second dose could be difficult. Using mathematical modelling, we examined the potential effect of these concerns on the population-level impact and efficiency of extended dose HPV vaccination schedules. METHODS: We used HPV-ADVISE, an individual-based, transmission-dynamic model of multitype HPV infection and disease, calibrated to country-specific data for four low-income and middle-income countries (India, Viet Nam, Uganda, and Nigeria). For the extended dose scenarios, we varied the vaccination coverage of the second dose among girls previously vaccinated, the one-dose vaccine efficacy, and the one-dose vaccine duration of protection. We also examined a strategy in which girls aged 14 years were vaccinated irrespective of their previous vaccination status. We used a scenario of girls-only two-dose vaccination at age 9 years (vaccine=9 valent, vaccine-type efficacy=100%, duration of protection=lifetime, and coverage=80%) as our comparator. We estimated two outcomes: the relative reduction in the age-standardised cervical cancer incidence (population-level impact) and the number of cervical cancers averted per 100 000 doses (efficiency). FINDINGS: Our model projected substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence over 100 years with the two-dose schedule (79-86% depending on the country), compared with no vaccination. Projections for the 5-year extended schedule, in which the second dose is given only to girls previously vaccinated at age 9 years, were similar to the current two-dose schedule, unless vaccination coverage of the second dose is very low (reductions in cervical cancer incidence of 71-78% assuming 30% coverage at age 14 years among girls vaccinated at age 9 years). However, when the dose at age 14 years is given to girls irrespective of vaccination status and assuming high vaccination coverage, the model projected a substantially greater reduction in cervical cancer incidence compared with the current two-dose schedule (reductions in cervical cancer incidence of 86-93% assuming 70% coverage at age 14 years, irrespective of vaccination status). Efficiency of the extended schedule was greater than the two-dose schedule, even with a drop in vaccination coverage. INTERPRETATION: The three concerns are unlikely to have a substantial effect on the population-level impact of extended dose schedules. Hence, extended dose schedules will likely provide similar cervical cancer reductions as two-dose schedules, while reducing the number of doses required in the short-term, providing a more efficient use of scarce resources, and offering a 5-year time window to reassess the necessity of the second dose. FUNDING: WHO, Canadian Institute of Health Research Foundation, Fonds de recherche du Québec-Santé, Digital Research Alliance of Canada, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Developing Countries , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada , Cost-Benefit Analysis
20.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
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