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2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(5): 444-450, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537216

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric disorders, and especially severe mental illness, are associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. People with severe mental illness should therefore be prioritised in vaccine allocation strategies. Here, we discuss the risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes in this vulnerable group, the effect of severe mental illness and psychotropic medications on vaccination response, the attitudes of people with severe mental illness towards vaccination, and, the potential barriers to, and possible solutions for, an efficient vaccination programme in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs/ethics , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Mental Disorders/psychology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
4.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(12): 1554-1557, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520638

ABSTRACT

To protect both patients and staff, healthcare personnel (HCP) were among the first groups in the United States recommended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. We analyzed data reported to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Unified Hospital Data Surveillance System on COVID-19 vaccination coverage among hospital-based HCP. After vaccine introduction in December 2020, COVID-19 vaccine coverage rose steadily through April 2021, but the rate of uptake has since slowed; as of September 15, 2021, among 3,357,348 HCP in 2,086 hospitals included in this analysis, 70.0% were fully vaccinated. Additional efforts are needed to improve COVID-19 vaccine coverage among HCP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals , Humans , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services , Vaccination Coverage
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1495-1500, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498052

ABSTRACT

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2020, the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) strives to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases across the life course (1). This report, which updates a previous report (2), presents global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2020. Changes are described in vaccination coverage and the numbers of unvaccinated and undervaccinated children as measured by receipt of the first and third doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP) in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, compared with 2019. Global estimates of coverage with the third dose of DTP (DTP3) and a polio vaccine (Pol3) decreased from 86% in 2019 to 83% in 2020. Similarly, coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) dropped from 86% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. The last year that coverage estimates were at 2020 levels was 2009 for DTP3 and 2014 for both MCV1 and Pol3. Worldwide, 22.7 million children (17% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTP3 in 2020 compared with 19.0 million (14%) in 2019. Children who did not receive the first DTP dose (DTP1) by age 12 months (zero-dose children) accounted for 95% of the increased number. Among those who did not receive DTP3 in 2020, approximately 17.1 million (75%) were zero-dose children. Global coverage decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 estimates for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). Full recovery from COVID-19-associated disruptions will require targeted, context-specific strategies to identify and catch up zero-dose and undervaccinated children, introduce interventions to minimize missed vaccinations, monitor coverage, and respond to program setbacks (3).


Subject(s)
Global Health , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/administration & dosage , Goals , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , World Health Organization
10.
CMAJ ; 193(42): E1619-E1625, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between February and June 2021, the initial wild-type strains of SARS-CoV-2 were supplanted in Ontario, Canada, by new variants of concern (VOCs), first those with the N501Y mutation (i.e., Alpha/B1.1.17, Beta/B.1.351 and Gamma/P.1 variants) and then the Delta/B.1.617 variant. The increased transmissibility of these VOCs has been documented, but knowledge about their virulence is limited. We used Ontario's COVID-19 case data to evaluate the virulence of these VOCs compared with non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 strains, as measured by risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. METHODS: We created a retrospective cohort of people in Ontario who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were screened for VOCs, with dates of test report between Feb. 7 and June 27, 2021. We constructed mixed-effect logistic regression models with hospitalization, ICU admission and death as outcome variables. We adjusted models for age, sex, time, vaccination status, comorbidities and pregnancy status. We included health units as random intercepts. RESULTS: Our cohort included 212 326 people. Compared with non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 strains, the adjusted elevation in risk associated with N501Y-positive variants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42%-63%) for hospitalization, 89% (95% CI 67%-117%) for ICU admission and 51% (95% CI 30%-78%) for death. Increased risk with the Delta variant was more pronounced at 108% (95% CI 78%-140%) for hospitalization, 235% (95% CI 160%-331%) for ICU admission and 133% (95% CI 54%-231%) for death. INTERPRETATION: The increasing virulence of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs will lead to a considerably larger, and more deadly, pandemic than would have occurred in the absence of the emergence of VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Distribution , COVID-19/transmission , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 118, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are only limited studies on access to COVID-19 vaccines and identifying the most appropriate health centres for performing vaccination in metropolitan areas. This study aimed to measure potential spatial access to COVID-19 vaccination centres in Mashhad, the second-most populous city in Iran. METHODS: The 2021 age structure of the urban census tracts was integrated into the enhanced two-step floating catchment area model to improve accuracy. The model was developed based on three different access scenarios: only public hospitals, only public healthcare centres and both (either hospitals or healthcare centres) as potential vaccination facilities. The weighted decision-matrix and analytic hierarchy process, based on four criteria (i.e. service area, accessibility index, capacity of vaccination centres and distance to main roads), were used to choose potential vaccination centres looking for the highest suitability for residents. Global Moran's index (GMI) was used to measure the spatial autocorrelation of the accessibility index in different scenarios and the proposed model. RESULTS: There were 26 public hospitals and 271 public healthcare centres in the study area. Although the exclusive use of public healthcare centres for vaccination can provide the highest accessibility in the eastern and north-eastern parts of the study area, our findings indicate that including both public hospitals and public healthcare centres provide high accessibility to vaccination in central urban part. Therefore, a combination of public hospitals and public healthcare centres is recommended for efficient vaccination coverage. The value of GMI for the proposed model (accessibility to selected vaccination centres) was calculated as 0.53 (Z = 162.42, P < 0.01). Both GMI and Z-score values decreased in the proposed model, suggesting an enhancement in accessibility to COVID-19 vaccination services. CONCLUSIONS: The periphery and poor areas of the city had the least access to COVID-19 vaccination centres. Measuring spatial access to COVID-19 vaccination centres can provide valuable insights for urban public health decision-makers. Our model, coupled with geographical information systems, provides more efficient vaccination coverage by identifying the most suitable healthcare centres, which is of special importance when only few centres are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Vaccination Coverage , Delivery of Health Care , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Iran , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
12.
Lancet ; 398(10313): 1825-1835, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: England's COVID-19 roadmap out of lockdown policy set out the timeline and conditions for the stepwise lifting of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) as vaccination roll-out continued, with step one starting on March 8, 2021. In this study, we assess the roadmap, the impact of the delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2, and potential future epidemic trajectories. METHODS: This mathematical modelling study was done to assess the UK Government's four-step process to easing lockdown restrictions in England, UK. We extended a previously described model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to incorporate vaccination and multi-strain dynamics to explicitly capture the emergence of the delta variant. We calibrated the model to English surveillance data, including hospital admissions, hospital occupancy, seroprevalence data, and population-level PCR testing data using a Bayesian evidence synthesis framework, then modelled the potential trajectory of the epidemic for a range of different schedules for relaxing NPIs. We estimated the resulting number of daily infections and hospital admissions, and daily and cumulative deaths. Three scenarios spanning a range of optimistic to pessimistic vaccine effectiveness, waning natural immunity, and cross-protection from previous infections were investigated. We also considered three levels of mixing after the lifting of restrictions. FINDINGS: The roadmap policy was successful in offsetting the increased transmission resulting from lifting NPIs starting on March 8, 2021, with increasing population immunity through vaccination. However, because of the emergence of the delta variant, with an estimated transmission advantage of 76% (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69-83) over alpha, fully lifting NPIs on June 21, 2021, as originally planned might have led to 3900 (95% CrI 1500-5700) peak daily hospital admissions under our central parameter scenario. Delaying until July 19, 2021, reduced peak hospital admissions by three fold to 1400 (95% CrI 700-1700) per day. There was substantial uncertainty in the epidemic trajectory, with particular sensitivity to the transmissibility of delta, level of mixing, and estimates of vaccine effectiveness. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that the risk of a large wave of COVID-19 hospital admissions resulting from lifting NPIs can be substantially mitigated if the timing of NPI relaxation is carefully balanced against vaccination coverage. However, with the delta variant, it might not be possible to fully lift NPIs without a third wave of hospital admissions and deaths, even if vaccination coverage is high. Variants of concern, their transmissibility, vaccine uptake, and vaccine effectiveness must be carefully monitored as countries relax pandemic control measures. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , England/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2130800, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490643

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although there are reports of COVID-19 vaccine implementation in real-world populations, these come from high-income countries or from experience with messenger RNA technology vaccines. Data on outcomes of vaccine deployment in low- or middle-income countries are lacking. Objective: To assess whether the pragmatic application of the 3 COVID-19 vaccines available in Argentina, 2 of which have no reports of evaluation in real-world settings to date, were associated with a reduction in morbidity, all-cause mortality, and mortality due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used individual and ecological data to explore outcomes following vaccination with rAd26-rAd5, ChAdOx1, and BBIBP-CorV. To correct for differences in exposure times, results are shown using incidence density per 100 000 person-days from the start of the vaccination campaign (December 29, 2020) to the occurrence of an event or the end of follow-up (May 15, 2021). Participants included 663 602 people aged at least 60 years residing in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Statistical analysis was performed from June 1 to June 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, death from all causes, and death within 30 days of a diagnosis of COVID-19. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate associations with all 3 outcomes. Results: Among 663 602 residents of the city of Buenos Aires included in the study, 540 792 (81.4%) were vaccinated with at least 1 dose, with 457 066 receiving 1 dose (mean [SD] age, 74.5 (8.9) years; 61.5% were female [n = 281 284]; 68.0% [n = 310 987] received the rAd26-rAd5 vaccine; 29.5% [n = 135 036] received ChAdOx1; 2.4% [n = 11 043] received BBIBP-CorV) and 83 726 receiving 2 doses (mean [SD] age, 73.4 [6.8] years; 63.5% were female [n = 53 204]). The incidence density of confirmed COVID-19 was 36.25 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 35.80-36.70 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who did not receive a vaccine, 19.13 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 18.63-19.62 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who received 1 dose, and 4.33 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 3.85-4.81 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who received 2 doses. All-cause mortality was 11.74 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 11.51-11.96 cases/100 000 person-days), 4.01 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 3.78-4.24 cases/100 000 person-days) and 0.40 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.26-0.55 cases/100 000 person-days). COVID-19-related-death rate was 2.31 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 2.19-2.42 cases/100 000 person-days), 0.59 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.50-0.67 cases/100 000 person-days), and 0.04 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.0-0.09 cases/100 000 person-days) among the same groups. A 2-dose vaccination schedule was associated with an 88.1% (95% CI, 86.8%-89.2%) reduction in documented infection, 96.6% (95% CI, 95.3%-97.5%) reduction in all-cause death, and 98.3% (95% CI, 95.3%-99.4%) reduction in COVID-19-related death. A single dose was associated with a 47.2% (95% CI, 44.2%-50.1%) reduction in documented infection, 65.8% (95% CI, 61.7%-69.5%) reduction in all-cause death, and 74.5% (95% CI, 66%-80.8%) reduction in COVID-19-related death. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that within the first 5 months after the start of the vaccination campaign, vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in COVID-19 infection as well as a reduction in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/methods , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccine Potency
14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258961, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484862

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2011, member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Regional Office (AFRO) resolved to eliminate Measles by 2020. Our study aims to assess The Gambia's progress towards the set AFRO measles elimination target and highlight surveillance and immunisation gaps to better inform future measles prevention strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of measles surveillance data for the period 2011-2019, was extracted from The Gambia case-based measles surveillance database. WHO-UNICEF national coverage estimates were used for estimating national level MCV coverage. Measles post campaign coverage survey coverage estimates were used to estimate national measles campaign coverage. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five of the 863 reported suspected cases were laboratory confirmed as measles cases. More than half (53.6%) of the confirmed cases have unknown vaccination status, 24% of cases were vaccinated, 52.8% of cases occurred among males, and 72.8% cases were among urban residents. The incidence of measles cases per million population was lowest (0) in 2011-2012 and highest in 2015 and 2016 (31 and 23 respectively). The indicator for surveillance sensitivity was met in all years except in 2016 and 2019. Children aged 5-9 years (Incidence Rate Ratio-IRR = 0.6) and residents of Central River region (IRR = 0.21) had lower measles risk whilst unvaccinated (Adjusted IRR = 5.95) and those with unknown vaccination status (IRR 2.21) had higher measles risk. Vaccine effectiveness was 89.5%. CONCLUSION: The Gambia's quest to attain measles elimination status by 2020 has registered significant success but it is unlikely that all target indicators will be met. Vaccination has been very effective in preventing cases. There is variation in measles risk by health region, and it will be important to take it into account when designing prevention and control strategies. The quality of case investigations should be improved to enhance the quality of surveillance for decision making.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Measles Vaccine/therapeutic use , Measles/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Eradication , Female , Gambia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Measles/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Retrospective Studies
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(41): 1435-1440, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468852

ABSTRACT

Immunization is a safe and cost-effective means of preventing illness in young children and interrupting disease transmission within the community.* The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination of children against 14 diseases during the first 24 months of life (1). CDC uses National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) data to monitor routine coverage with ACIP-recommended vaccines in the United States at the national, regional, state, territorial, and selected local levels.† CDC assessed vaccination coverage by age 24 months among children born in 2017 and 2018, with comparisons to children born in 2015 and 2016. Nationally, coverage was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.9%); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.6%); and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (VAR) (90.9%). Coverage was lowest for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (60.6%). Coverage among children born in 2017-2018 was 2.1-4.5 percentage points higher than it was among those born in 2015-2016 for rotavirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), the HepB birth dose, and ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine. Only 1.0% of children had received no vaccinations by age 24 months. Disparities in coverage were seen for race/ethnicity, poverty status, and health insurance status. Coverage with most vaccines was lower among children who were not privately insured. The largest disparities between insurance categories were among uninsured children, especially for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine, the combined 7-vaccine series, § and rotavirus vaccination. Reported estimates reflect vaccination opportunities that mostly occurred before disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Extra efforts are needed to ensure that children who missed vaccinations, including those attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, receive them as soon as possible to maintain protection against vaccine-preventable illnesses.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , United States
16.
Vaccine ; 39(42): 6189-6194, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal vaccines have been developed to protect infants and young children from pneumococcal diseases. Vaccination coverage studies are important in determining a population's vaccination status and strategically adjusting national immunization programs (NIP). In this paper, we aim to describe the coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) immunization for birth cohorts from 2012 to 2020 and discussed the factors influencing the coverage. METHODS: Vaccination data were collected via the vaccination information database in Shanghai, China, for children born from 2012 to 2020. The population data used in this study were collected from each community from 2012 to 2020. The coverage of initial immunization (1st dose), basic immunization (three doses) and full immunization (3 + 1 doses) for PCVs was calculated according to the number of doses received. As vaccination coverage was assessed each year, Annual Growth Rate (AGR) was used to describe the variation trend of vaccination coverage. Immunization time and completeness of different PCVs were also analyzed. RESULTS: The total number of births from 2012 to 2020 was 38,268 in Huangpu District, Shanghai, China. The initial immunization coverage of PCVs increased from 12.26% in 2012 to 49.65% in 2020, and the highest coverage was 50.61% in 2019. The cumulative vaccination coverage of PCVs was 19.4% for initial immunization and 16.8% for basic immunization from 2012 to 2020. And cumulative full immunization coverage of PCVs was 12.3% from 2012 to 2019. The PCVs coverage of most vaccination statuses showed an obvious upward trend from 2017 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an upward trend in vaccination coverage of PCVs, the vaccination coverage of initial, basic and full immunization among children is still low. And given the heavy burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) among children in China and the fact that the current vaccination coverage cannot effectively protect children, it is recommended that the government include PCVs into the NIP as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Vaccination Coverage , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Humans , Infant , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(40): 1420-1424, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456569

ABSTRACT

Most U.S. overnight youth camps did not operate during the summer of 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic* (1). Several that did operate demonstrated that multiple prevention strategies, including pre- and postarrival testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, masking, and physical distancing helped prevent the introduction and spread of COVID-19; in contrast, camps that relaxed prevention strategies, such as requiring a single prearrival test without subsequent testing, experienced outbreaks (2-4). The availability of COVID-19 vaccines for persons aged ≥12 years enabled implementation of an additional prevention strategy that was not available in summer 2020. This study assessed the number of COVID-19 cases and potential secondary spread among 7,173 staff members and campers from 50 states, 13 countries, and U.S. military overseas bases at nine independently operated U.S. summer youth camps affiliated with the same organization. The camps implemented multiple prevention strategies including vaccination, testing, podding (cohorting), masking, physical distancing, and hand hygiene during June-August 2021. Vaccination coverage was 93% among eligible persons aged ≥12 years.† All staff members (1,955) and campers (5,218) received site-specific, protocol-defined screening testing, which included prearrival testing and screening tests during the camp session (38,059 tests). Screening testing identified six confirmed COVID-19 cases (one in a staff member and five in campers) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing (screening test positivity rate = 0.02%). Three additional cases (in two staff members and one camper) were identified based on symptoms and were confirmed by RT-PCR testing. Testing for SARS-CoV-2, isolation, and quarantine in a population with high vaccination coverage resulted in no known secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 identified during camp. Implementation of multicomponent strategies is critical for prevention of COVID-19 outbreaks in congregate settings, including overnight youth camps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Camping , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Male , Masks , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128391, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453501

ABSTRACT

Importance: Effectiveness of mRNA vaccinations in a diverse older population with high comorbidity is unknown. Objectives: To describe the scope of the COVID-19 vaccination rollout among US veterans, and to estimate mRNA COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) as measured by rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This matched test-negative case-control study was conducted using SARS-CoV-2 test results at Veterans Health Administration sites from December 14, 2020, to March 14, 2021. Vaccine coverage was estimated for all veterans. VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization and death were estimated using electronic health records from veterans who routinely sought care at a VHA facility and had a test result positive for SARS-CoV-2 (cases) or negative for SARS-CoV-2 (controls). Cases and controls were matched on time of test and geographic region. Data were analyzed from May to July 2021. Exposures: Vaccination status, defined as unvaccinated, partially vaccinated (≥14 days after first dose until second dose), or fully vaccinated (≥14 days after second dose), at time of test. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome of interest was a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 on a polymerase chain reaction or antigen test. Secondary outcomes included COVID-19-related hospitalization and death, defined by discharge data and proximity of event to positive test result. VE was estimated from odds ratios for SARS-CoV-2 infection with 95% CIs. Results: Among 6 647 733 veterans included (3 350 373 veterans [50%] aged ≥65 years; 6 014 798 [90%] men and 632 935 [10%] women; 461 645 Hispanic veterans of any race [7%], 1 102 471 non-Hispanic Black veterans [17%], and 4 361 621 non-Hispanic White veterans [66%]), 1 363 180 (21%) received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccination by March 7, 2021. In this period, during which the share of SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Epsilon, and Iota had started to increase in the US, estimates of COVID-19 VE against infection, regardless of symptoms, was 95% (95% CI, 93%-96%) for full vaccination and 64% (95% CI, 59%-68%) for partial vaccination. Estimated VE against COVID-19-related hospitalization for full vaccination was 91% (95% CI 83%-95%); there were no deaths among veterans who were fully vaccinated. VE against infection was similar across subpopulations (non-Hispanic Black, 94% [95% CI, 88%-97%]; Hispanic [any race], 83% [95% CI, 45%-95%]; non-Hispanic White, 92% [95% CI 88%-94%]; rural, 94% [95% CI, 89%-96%]; urban, 93% 95% CI, 89%-95%]). Conclusions and Relevance: For veterans of all racial and ethnic subgroups living in urban or rural areas, mRNA vaccination was associated with substantially decreased risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, with no deaths among fully vaccinated veterans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination Coverage , Veterans , African Americans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , European Continental Ancestry Group , Female , Hispanic Americans , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 245, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449272

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the year 2020 was marked by the COVID-19 pandemic that killed more than one million people. Several vaccines have been developed and vaccination campaigns started in December 2020. The objective of our study was to assess the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine by hospital staff. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample drawn at random from the staff of the Military General Hospital of Tunis. Data was collected between August and September 2020 by a clinical psychologist. We studied the associations between the different characteristics of our population and the decision to accept or refuse vaccination against COVID-19. Results: a total of 398 hospital staff agreed to answer our questionnaire. Our sample was composed of 9% (n=36) physicians, 0.9% (n=3) pharmacists, 41.3% (n=164) paramedics, 16.1% (n=64) cleaning staff and 32.7% (n=131) administrative staff. The rapid discovery of the vaccine was hoped by 97% (n=386). Vaccination was considered a means of collective protection by 84.7% (n=337). However, only 58% (n=231) agreed to be vaccinated by the COVID-19 vaccine. The main factors significantly associated with acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine was previous influenza vaccination (aOR: 2.58, 95% CI 1.69-3.94; p=0.000). Conclusion: apprehension about vaccination does not appear to be sparing the future COVID-19 vaccine. Fear of vaccine side effects outweighs fear of the disease, even among hospital staff. To achieve vaccination coverage, several awareness and communication activities must be carried out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, General , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tunisia , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2908-2913, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444023

ABSTRACT

We assessed coronavirus disease vaccination and intent and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among essential workers during March-June 2021. Coverage was 67%; 18% reported no intent to get vaccinated. Primary concerns were potential side effects, safety, and lack of trust in vaccines, highlighting the importance of increasing vaccine confidence in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination
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