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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(44): 1396-1400, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100530

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Immunization Agenda 2030, an ambitious global immunization strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report updates a 2020 report (2) with global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends through 2021. Global estimates of coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTPcv3) decreased from an average of 86% during 2015-2019 to 83% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. Worldwide in 2021, 25.0 million infants (19% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTPcv3, 2.1 million more than in 2020 and 5.9 million more than in 2019. In 2021, the number of infants who did not receive any DTPcv dose by age 12 months (18.2 million) was 37% higher than in 2019 (13.3 million). Coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) decreased from an average of 85% during 2015-2019 to 84% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. These are the lowest coverage levels for DTPcv3 and MCV1 since 2008. ​Global coverage estimates were also lower in 2021 than in 2020 and 2019 for bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) as well as for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), polio vaccine (Pol), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in disruptions to routine immunization services worldwide. Full recovery to immunization programs will require context-specific strategies to address immunization gaps by catching up missed children, prioritizing essential health services, and strengthening immunization programs to prevent outbreaks (3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Infant , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Immunization Schedule
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(Suppl 3): 147, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health and care workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of COVID-19 response, at high risk of infection, and as a result they are a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination. This paper presents the global patterns in COVID-19 vaccination coverage among HCWs in 2021, how HCWs were prioritized, and identifies factors associated with the early vaccination coverage. METHODS: Using monthly data reported to the World Health Organization, the percentages of partially and fully vaccinated HCWs were computed. The rates of vaccination of HCWs for the first and second half of 2021 were compared in a stratified analysis using several factors. A multivariate analysis was used to investigate the independent associations of these factors with the percentage of HCWs fully vaccinated. RESULTS: Based on data from 139 Member States, as of end of 2021, 82% HCWs were reported as fully vaccinated with important variations by income groups: 33% for low income countries, 83% for lower-middle income countries, 79% for upper-middle income countries and 88% for high income countries. Overall 76% of countries did not achieve 70% vaccination coverage of their HCWs in the first half of 2021, and 38% of countries by end of 2021. Compared with the general population, the rate of HCWs full vaccination was 3.5 times higher, in particular for low income countries (RR = 5.9). Stratified analysis showed that beyond income group, the availability of vaccine doses was a critical factor of HCWs vaccination coverage with medians of 59.1% and 88.6% coverage in the first and second half of 2021, respectively for countries with enough doses to cover 70% of their population, compared with 0.8% and 47.5% coverage, respectively for countries with doses to cover 40% of their population. The multivariate analysis confirmed this observation with a 35.9% overall difference (95%CI 15.1%; 56.9%) between these two groups. CONCLUSION: Despite being considered a priority group, more than a third of countries did not achieve 70% vaccination coverage of their HCWs at the end of 2021. Large inequities were observed with low income countries lagging behind. Additional efforts should be dedicated to ensure full protection of HCWs through vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 488, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, countries have adopted various degrees of restrictive measures on people to reduce COVID-19 transmission. These measures have had significant social and economic costs. In the absence of therapeutics, and low vaccination coverage, strategies for a safe exit plan from a lockdown are required to mitigate the transmission and simultaneously re-open societies. Most countries have outlined or have implemented lockdown exit plans. The objective of this scoping review is to (a) identify and map the different strategies for exit from lockdowns, (b) document the effects of these exit strategies, and (c) discuss features of successful exit strategies based on the evidence. METHODS: A five-step approach was used in this scoping review: (a) identifying the research question and inclusion/exclusion criteria; (b) searching the literature using keywords within PubMed and WHO databases; (c) study selection; (d) data extraction; (e) collating results and qualitative synthesis of findings. RESULTS: Of the 406 unique studies found, 107 were kept for full-text review. Studies suggest the post-peak period as optimal timing for an exit, supplemented by other triggers such as sufficient health system capacity, and increased testing rate. A controlled and step-wise exit plan which is flexible and guided by information from surveillance systems is optimal. Studies recommend continued use of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as physical distancing, use of facemasks, and hygiene measures, in different combinations when exiting from a lockdown, even after optimal vaccination coverage has been attained. CONCLUSION: Reviewed studies have suggested adopting a multi-pronged strategy consisting of different approaches depending on the context. Among the different exit strategies reviewed (phase-wise exit, hard exit, and constant cyclic patterns of lockdown), phase-wise exit appears to be the optimal exit strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 659, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination coverage and the influential factors of vaccination among patients with mental disorders, we conducted a cross-sectional study in China. METHOD: The anonymous questionnaires including demographic data, vaccination status, intention to be vaccinated and its reasons were collected in the Second Xiangya Hospital, one of the biggest four psychiatric centers in China. Mental health of these participants were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items (GAD-7). The influential factors associated with vaccination status were analyzed by Fisher exact tests and binary logistical analysis. RESULT: 1328 patients and 922 family members completed the survey. The vaccination rate of patients included was 69.4%, whereas 85.5% patients were willing to be vaccinated. Being hospitalized (aOR 0.41, 95% CI:0.27-0.60), suffering from schizophrenia (aOR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19-0.75) and secondary school educational background (aOR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37-0.93) were significantly associated with less likelihood to get vaccinated. Uptaking vaccines could reduce depressive (aOR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.98) or anxious symptoms (aOR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.25-0.63) in these patients for a short period. CONCLUSION: Further COVID-19 immunization programme should prioritize hospitalized psychiatric patients and schizophrenic patients since their demands for vaccination had been partly ignored during the current inoculation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Wiad Lek ; 75(9 pt 1): 2126-2130, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The aim of the article is to analyse the socio-psychological barriers to the COVID-19 vaccination process in the world and in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Electronic databases of Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed were searching using keyword searches. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The implementation of an effective scientific strategy of health education and communication between representatives of the medical sphere and representatives of different social groups, gender and age is relevant today. At the moment it is difficult for the medical community and society to give an unambiguous assessment of the facts about COVID-19, because it is still unknown about the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individual. To increase the vaccination coverage, vaccination evidence should be standardized and a choice of conditions, algorithm of beliefs instead of a standard approach should be proposed. Further research on individual health benefits is needed to identify and address socio-psychological barriers on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7285-7289, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as a global pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted health services, including immunization programs, with a consequent reduction in vaccination coverage in those categories for which the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases is strongly recommended. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on the general population and on PLWHs, comparing anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage data in 2019, before COVID-19 pandemic, and the 2020 data, after the announcement of the pandemic state and the lockdown and the implementation of restrictive measures to contain the contagion. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, 2020 data show a 42% reduction in HPV vaccine coverage in the general population and 36% in PLWHs. The greatest reduction in anti-HPV vaccination coverage occurred during periods of greatest restriction and mainly concerned the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases remains essential. Above all, it is essential to increase and recover the anti-HPV vaccine coverage, in consideration of the data that show its preventive oncological efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(42): 1319-1326, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081111

ABSTRACT

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and CDC recommend that all health care personnel (HCP) receive annual influenza vaccination to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality among these personnel and their patients (1). ACIP also recommends that all persons aged ≥6 months, including HCP, be vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines and remain up to date (2,3). During March 29-April 19, 2022, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 3,618 U.S. HCP to estimate influenza vaccination coverage during the 2021-22 influenza season as well as receipt of the primary COVID-19 vaccination series and a booster dose. Influenza vaccination coverage was 79.9% during the 2021-22 season, and 87.3% of HCP reported having completed the primary COVID-19 vaccination series; among these HCP, 67.1% reported receiving a COVID-19 booster dose. Among HCP, influenza, COVID-19 primary series, and COVID-19 booster dose vaccination coverage were lowest among assistants and aides, those working in long-term care (LTC) or home health care settings, and those whose employer neither required nor recommended the vaccines. Overall, employer requirements for influenza and COVID-19 primary series vaccines were reported by 43.9% and 59.9% of HCP, respectively; among HCP who completed the primary series of COVID-19 vaccines, 23.5% reported employer requirements for COVID-19 booster vaccines. Vaccination coverage for all three vaccine measures was higher among HCP who reported employer vaccination requirements and ranged from 95.8% to 97.3% for influenza, 90.2% to 95.1% for COVID-19 primary series, and 76.4% to 87.8% for COVID-19 booster vaccinations among HCP who completed the primary series of COVID-19 vaccines, by work setting. Implementing workplace strategies demonstrated to improve vaccination coverage among HCP, including vaccination requirements or active promotion of vaccination, can increase influenza and COVID-19 vaccination coverage among HCP and reduce influenza and COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality among HCP and their patients (4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065942

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination coverage was studied by race/ethnicity, up-to-date doses, and by how it was affected by social vulnerability and spatial accessibility at the census-tract level in Milwaukee County, WI, USA. Social vulnerability was quantified at the census-tract level by an aggregate index and its sub-components calculated using the principal components analysis method. The spatial accessibility was assessed by clinic-to-population ratio and travel impedance. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial regression models were employed to examine how social vulnerability and spatial accessibility relate to the vaccination rates of different doses. We found great disparities in vaccination rates by race and between areas of low and high social vulnerability. Comparing to non-Hispanic Blacks, the vaccination rate of non-Hispanic Whites in the county is 23% higher (60% vs. 37%) in overall rate (one or more doses), and 20% higher (29% vs. 9%) in booster rate (three or more doses). We also found that the overall social-vulnerability index does not show a statistically significant relationship with the overall vaccination rate when it is defined as the rate of people who have received one or more doses of vaccines. However, after the vaccination rate is stratified by up-to-date doses, social vulnerability has positive effects on one-dose and two-dose rates, but negative effects on booster rate, and the effects of social vulnerability become increasingly stronger and turn to negative for multi-dose vaccination rates, indicating the increasing challenges of high social vulnerability areas to multi-dose vaccination. The large negative effects of socio-economic status on the booster rate suggests the importance of improving general socio-economic conditions to promote multi-dose vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Censuses , Humans , Social Vulnerability , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2243-2252, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065411

ABSTRACT

Evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout on socioeconomic COVID-19-related inequalities is scarce. We analyzed associations between socioeconomic deprivation index (SDI) and COVID-19 vaccination, infection, and hospitalization before and after vaccine rollout in Catalonia, Spain. We conducted a population-based cohort study during September 2020-June 2021 that comprised 2,297,146 adults >40 years of age. We estimated odds ratio of nonvaccination and hazard ratios (HRs) of infection and hospitalization by SDI quintile relative to the least deprived quintile, Q1. Six months after rollout, vaccination coverage differed by SDI quintile in working-age (40-64 years) persons: 81% for Q1, 71% for Q5. Before rollout, we found a pattern of increased HR of infection and hospitalization with deprivation among working-age and retirement-age (>65 years) persons. After rollout, infection inequalities decreased in both age groups, whereas hospitalization inequalities decreased among retirement-age persons. Our findings suggest that mass vaccination reduced socioeconomic COVID-19-related inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Spain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Vaccination Coverage , Socioeconomic Factors , Vaccination
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 105, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) were the priority group for influenza vaccination, in China during the 2020/2021 and 2021/2022 influenza seasons. However, vaccination rates in HCWs have always been low. This study investigated influenza vaccination status among Chinese HCWs and analyzed the factors driving vaccination. METHODS: We provided electronic questionnaires to HCWs from January 27, 2022 to February 21, 2022, using the WeChat platform "Breath Circles". HCWs who received the link could also forward it to their colleagues. Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze vaccination-associated factors among HCWs. RESULTS: Among the 1697 HCWs surveyed, vaccination coverage was 43.7% (741/1697) during the 2020/2021 influenza season, and 35.4% (600/1697) during the 2021/2022 influenza season, as of February 21, 2022. Additionally, 22.7% (385/1697) and 22.1% (358/1697) of HCWs reported that their workplaces implemented a free vaccination policy for all employees during the 2020/2021 and 2021/2022 influenza seasons. HCWs who were required to be vaccinated according to hospital regulations, and whose hospitals implemented the free influenza vaccine policy were more likely to be vaccinated (2020/2021 and 2021/2022; P < 0.05). In addition, the economic level of the HCWs' province (2021/2022, P < 0.05) and the HCWs' knowledge about vaccination and willingness to get vaccinated, such as active learning about vaccines (2020/2021, P < 0.05), supportive attitude toward vaccination for all HCWs (2020/2021 and 2021/2022; P < 0.05), also had an impact on vaccine coverage. CONCLUSIONS: A free influenza vaccination policy and workplace required vaccination are effective in improving influenza vaccination coverage among HCWs. Influenza vaccination coverage of Chinese HCWs remained low and showed a downward trend after the COVID-19 outbreak. Further effective measures, such as advocacy campaigns, free vaccine policies, and on-site vaccination could be implemented to improve influenza vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
12.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Supplement_3): S335-S339, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062914

ABSTRACT

People experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This study assessed COVID-19 vaccination coverage among vaccine-eligible PEH (5 years and older) stratified by demographic characteristics. PEH were less likely to complete a primary vaccination series than the Dane County population (32.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30.3%-33.8% vs 82.4%; 95% CI, 82.3%-82.5%) and were less likely to have received a booster when eligible (30.8%; 95% CI, 27.8%-33.9% vs 67.2%; 95% CI, 67.1%-67.4%). Vaccination rates were lowest among young PEH and PEH of color.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , Wisconsin/epidemiology
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S182-S192, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051351

ABSTRACT

The National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module used a random-digit-dialed phone survey during 22 April 2021-29 January 2022 to quantify coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, intent, attitudes, and barriers by detailed race/ethnicity, interview language, and nativity. Foreign-born respondents overall and within racial/ethnic categories had higher vaccination coverage (80.9%), higher intent to be vaccinated (4.2%), and lower hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccination (6.0%) than US-born respondents (72.6%, 2.9%, and 15.8%, respectively). Vaccination coverage was significantly lower for certain subcategories of national origin or heritage (eg, Jamaican [68.6%], Haitian [60.7%], Somali [49.0%] in weighted estimates). Respondents interviewed in Spanish had lower vaccination coverage than interviewees in English but higher intent to be vaccinated and lower reluctance. Collection and analysis of nativity, detailed race/ethnicity and language information allow identification of disparities among racial/ethnic subgroups. Vaccination programs could use such information to implement culturally and linguistically appropriate focused interventions among communities with lower vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Haiti , Humans , Intention , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S243-S250, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During August 2021-September 2021, a Connecticut college experienced a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant outbreak despite high (99%) vaccination coverage, indoor masking policies, and twice-weekly testing. The Connecticut Department of Public Health investigated characteristics associated with infection and phylogenetic relationships among cases. METHODS: A case was a SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed by a viral test during August 2021-September 2021 in a student. College staff provided enrollment and case information. An anonymous online student survey collected demographics, SARS-CoV-2 case and vaccination history, and activities preceding the outbreak. Multivariate logistic regression identified characteristics associated with infection. Phylogenetic analyses compared 115 student viral genome sequences with contemporaneous community genomes. RESULTS: Overall, 199 of 1788 students (11%) had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection; most were fully vaccinated (194 of 199, 97%). Attack rates were highest among sophomores (72 of 414, 17%) and unvaccinated students (5 of 18, 28%). Attending in-person classes with an infectious student was not associated with infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], .5-2.2). Compared with uninfected students, infected students were more likely to be sophomores (aOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1-10.7), attend social gatherings before the outbreak (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-6.4), and complete a vaccine series ≥180 days prior (aOR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.8-16.2). Phylogenetic analyses suggested a common viral source for most cases. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection in this highly vaccinated college population was associated with unmasked off-campus social gatherings, not in-person classes. Students should stay up to date on vaccination to reduce infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Connecticut/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination Coverage
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0269011, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039325

ABSTRACT

Population surveillance in COVID-19 Pandemic is crucial to follow up the pace of disease and its related immunological status. Here we present a cross-sectional study done in Maricá, a seaside town close to the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Three rounds of study sampling, enrolling a total of 1134 subjects, were performed during May to August 2021. Here we show that the number of individuals carrying detectable IgG antibodies and the neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels were greater in vaccinated groups compared to unvaccinated ones, highlighting the importance of vaccination to attain noticeable levels of populational immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we found a decreased incidence of COVID-19 throughout the study, clearly correlated with the level of vaccinated individuals as well as the proportion of individuals with detectable levels of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 and NAb. The observed drop occurred even during the introduction of the Delta variant in Maricá, what suggests that the vaccination slowed down the widespread transmission of this variant. Overall, our data clearly support the use of vaccines to drop the incidence associated to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vaccine ; 40(43): 6211-6217, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031728

ABSTRACT

This study investigates that how the number of COVID-19 vaccines secured correlates with the vaccination coverage (full and booster) depending on whether or not there is trust in national government across 47 countries. The data are based on global figures as of Nov. 2021 and Feb. 2022 while measures for confidence in government is according to Gallup World Poll, Oct. 2021. The model includes an interaction term of these two predictors, also controls for a range of socio-economic factors and country specific variables. The results indicate a non-linear and mixed relationship between the numbers secured, the public trust, and the vaccination rate. In Feb. 2022, with confidence in government, securing number of vaccines to cover 200% of the population (or more) increased the full vaccination rate by 12.26% (95% CI: 11.70-12.81); where number secured was 300% (or more), the coverage increased by 7.46% (95% CI: 6.95-7.97). Under similar scenarios, rate of booster shots increased by 13.16% (95% CI: 12.62-13.70; p < 0.01) and 14.36% (95% CI: 13.86-14.85; p < 0.01), respectively. Where the number secured fell below 200%, confidence in government had a revers relationship with the rate of full vaccination (-2.65; 95% CI: -3.32 to -1.99), yet positive with the rate of booster shots (1.65; 95% CI: 1.18-2.12). These results indicate that better success can be achieved by a combination of factors including securing sufficient number of vaccines as well as improving the public trust. Vaccine abundance, however, cannot be translated into greater success in vaccination coverage. This study highlights the importance of efficiency in acquiring vaccine resources and need for improvement in public belief in immunization programmes rather than stock piling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Government , Humans , Trust , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
17.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273425, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029777

ABSTRACT

By the peak of COVID-19 restrictions on April 8, 2020, up to 1.5 billion students across 188 countries were affected by the suspension of physical attendance in schools. Schools were among the first services to reopen as vaccination campaigns advanced. With the emergence of new variants and infection waves, the question now is to find safe protocols for the continuation of school activities. We need to understand how reliable these protocols are under different levels of vaccination coverage, as many countries have a meager fraction of their population vaccinated, including Uganda where the coverage is about 8%. We investigate the impact of face-to-face classes under different protocols and quantify the surplus number of infected individuals in a city. Using the infection transmission when schools were closed as a baseline, we assess the impact of physical school attendance in classrooms with poor air circulation. We find that (i) resuming school activities with people only wearing low-quality masks leads to a near fivefold city-wide increase in the number of cases even if all staff is vaccinated, (ii) resuming activities with students wearing good-quality masks and staff wearing N95s leads to about a threefold increase, (iii) combining high-quality masks and active monitoring, activities may be carried out safely even with low vaccination coverage. These results highlight the effectiveness of good mask-wearing. Compared to ICU costs, high-quality masks are inexpensive and can help curb the spreading. Classes can be carried out safely, provided the correct set of measures are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs , Schools , Students , Vaccination Coverage
18.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(11): 3839-3849, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007146

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to test the influence of vaccination characteristics and gain/loss-framing of information, on parental acceptance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination for their minor children. A discrete choice experiment was conducted among parents of children aged 0-17 years from September to October 2021 in Hong Kong. Respondents were randomly assigned to four groups with different framing of information and asked to choose hypothetical vaccination alternatives, described by seven attributes that were derived from prior qualitative interviews. A mixed logit model was adopted to analyze the effect of attributes and information framing on parental vaccination acceptance. The vaccine acceptance rates under different scenarios were also estimated. A total of 298 valid responses were obtained. It was found that the BioNTech brand, higher efficacy, less serious adverse events and more vaccination coverage in children significantly improved parental acceptance. Additionally, loss-framing increased parental acceptance compared with gain-framing, while the presentation of mortality information did not make a difference. Acceptance was also associated with parental uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine and the children's age. CONCLUSION: The findings imply that factors including gain/loss information framing, importance of vaccine characteristics, and peer influence have a significant effect on parents' decisions to get their children vaccinated. Parents with younger children had greater vaccine hesitancy, and information framing techniques should be considered in vaccination promotion for combating such vaccine hesitancy. Future studies could be conducted to identify the moderators and mediators of information framing to facilitate its implementation. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Parental acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine was found to be associated with various socio-economic and psychosocial factors, while the evidence on impact of vaccination characteristics was limited. • Behavioral interventions, including information framing, have been used to promote various health behaviors. WHAT IS NEW: • Loss-framing of information on vaccine effectiveness improves vaccine acceptance, while additional information on how the vaccine reduces death does not make a difference, which can be used to inform communication with the public in vaccination promotion. • The social norm (i.e., the vaccine uptake amongst other people) is important for increasing the parental vaccine acceptance rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Parents/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002310

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has identified vaccine hesitancy as one of its top ten global health threats for 2019. Efforts are underway to define the factors responsible for reductions in vaccine confidence. However, as global measles cases accelerated beginning in 2018, it became evident that additional factors were promoting measles re-emergence, including war, political and socio-economic collapse, shifting poverty, and vulnerability to weather events and climate change. Accordingly, we propose a Global Vaccine Risk Index (VRI) to consider these variables as a more comprehensive means to identify vulnerable nations where we might expect measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases to emerge or re-emerge. In Sub-Saharan African and Middle Eastern nations, conflict and political instability predominated as the basis for high vaccine risk scores, whereas in Southeast Asian countries, the major reasons included climate variability, current levels of measles vaccination coverage, and economic and educational disparities. In Europe, low vaccine confidence and refugee movements predominated, while in the Americas, economic disparities and vaccine confidence were important. The VRI may serve as a useful indicator and predictor for international agencies committed to childhood immunizations and might find relevance for accelerating future COVID19 vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Global Health , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061749, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyse the interventions delivered opportunistically in secondary or tertiary medical settings, focused on improving routine vaccination uptake in children and young people. DESIGN: Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for studies in English published between 1989 and 2021 detailing interventions delivered in secondary or tertiary care that aimed to improve childhood vaccination coverage. Title, abstract and full-text screening were performed by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: After deduplication, the search returned 3456 titles. Following screening and discussion between reviewers, 53 studies were included in the review. Most papers were single-centre studies from high-income countries and varied considerably in terms of their study design, population, target vaccination, clinical setting and intervention delivered. To present and analyse the study findings, and to depict the complexity of vaccination interventions in hospital settings, findings were presented and described as a sequential pathway to opportunistic vaccination in secondary and tertiary care comprising the following stages: (1) identify patients eligible for vaccination; (2) take consent and offer immunisations; (3) order/prescribe vaccine; (4) dispense vaccine; (5) administer vaccine; (6) communicate with primary care; and (7) ongoing benefits of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Most published studies report improved vaccination coverage associated with opportunistic vaccination interventions in secondary and tertiary care. Children attending hospital appear to have lower baseline vaccination coverage and are likely to benefit from vaccination interventions in these settings. Checking immunisation status is challenging, however, and electronic immunisation registers are required to enable this to be done quickly and accurately in hospital settings. Further research is required in this area, particularly multicentre studies and cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Vaccination , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Tertiary Healthcare , Vaccination Coverage
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