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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 392, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928884

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: since 1971, Cameroon is facing a growing series of cholera epidemics despite all the efforts made by the government to address this huge public health threat. In 2020, in addition to the COVID-19 pandemic, Cameroon recorded a high cholera case fatality rate of 4.3% following epidemics noted in the South, Littoral and South-West regions. The Cameroon Ministry of Public Health, has thus organized a reactive vaccination campaign against cholera to address the high mortality rate in the affected health districts of those regions. The objective of this study was to describe the challenges, best practices and lessons learned drawing from daily experiences from this reactive vaccination campaign against cholera. METHODS: we conducted a cross-sectional study drawn from the results of the campaign. We had a target population of 631,109 participants aged 1 year and above resident of the targeted health areas. RESULTS: the overall vaccination coverage was 64.4% with a refusal rate ranging from 0-10% according to health districts. Vaccination coverage was the lowest among people aged 20 years and above. The main challenge was difficulty maintaining physical distanciation, the main best practice was the screening of all actors taking part at the vaccination against COVID-19 and we found that emphasizing on thorough population sensitization through quarter heads and social mobilizers and adequately programming the campaign during a good climate season is crucial to achieving good vaccination coverage. CONCLUSION: lessons learned from this study could serve to inform various agencies in the event of planning rapid mass vaccination programs during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholera Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cholera/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cameroon , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 511, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the World Health Organization and health authorities in most countries recommend that pregnant women receive inactivated influenza virus vaccines, coverage remains low. This study aimed to investigate (1) the proportion of pregnant women who received an influenza vaccination and influencing factors and (2) the proportion of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) doctors who routinely recommend influenza vaccination to pregnant women and influencing factors. METHODS: Two separate, anonymized questionnaires were developed for physicians and pregnant and postpartum women and were distributed to multicenters and clinics in South Korea. The proportions of women who received influenza vaccination during pregnancy and OBGYN doctors who routinely recommend the influenza vaccine to pregnant women were analyzed. Independent influencing factors for both maternal influenza vaccination and OBGYN doctors' routine recommendations to pregnant women were analyzed using log-binomial regression analysis. RESULTS: The proportion of self-reported influenza vaccination during pregnancy among 522 women was 63.2%. Pregnancy-related independent factors influencing maternal influenza vaccination were "(ever) received information about influenza vaccination during pregnancy" (OR 8.9, 95% CI 4.17-19.01), "received vaccine information about from OBGYN doctors" (OR 11.44, 95% CI 5.46-24.00), "information obtained from other sources" (OR 4.38, 95% CI 2.01-9.55), and "second/third trimester" (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.21-4.82).. Among 372 OBGYN doctors, 76.9% routinely recommended vaccination for pregnant women. Independent factors effecting routine recommendation were "working at a private clinic or hospital" (OR 5.33, 95% CI 2.44-11.65), "awareness of KCDC guidelines" (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.11-8.73), and "awareness of the 2019 national free influenza vaccination program for pregnant women" (OR 4.88, 95% CI 2.34-10.17). OBGYN doctors most commonly chose 'guidelines proposed by the government or public health (108, 46%) and academic committees (59, 25%), as a factor which expect to affect the future recommendation CONCLUSION: This study showed that providing information about maternal influenza vaccination, especially by OBGYN doctors, is crucial for increasing vaccination coverage in pregnant women. Closer cooperation between the government and OBGYN academic societies to educate OBGYN doctors might enhance routine recommendations.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Gynecology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Obstetrics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
5.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 199, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As we are confronted with more transmissible/severe variants with immune escape and the waning of vaccine efficacy, it is particularly relevant to understand how the social contacts of individuals at greater risk of COVID-19 complications evolved over time. We described time trends in social contacts of individuals according to comorbidity and vaccination status before and during the first three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Quebec, Canada. METHODS: We used data from CONNECT, a repeated cross-sectional population-based survey of social contacts conducted before (2018/2019) and during the pandemic (April 2020 to July 2021). We recruited non-institutionalized adults from Quebec, Canada, by random digit dialling. We used a self-administered web-based questionnaire to measure the number of social contacts of participants (two-way conversation at a distance ≤2 m or a physical contact, irrespective of masking). We compared the mean number of contacts/day according to the comorbidity status of participants (pre-existing medical conditions with symptoms/medication in the past 12 months) and 1-dose vaccination status during the third wave. All analyses were performed using weighted generalized linear models with a Poisson distribution and robust variance. RESULTS: A total of 1441 and 5185 participants with and without comorbidities, respectively, were included in the analyses. Contacts significantly decreased from a mean of 6.1 (95%CI 4.9-7.3) before the pandemic to 3.2 (95%CI 2.5-3.9) during the first wave among individuals with comorbidities and from 8.1 (95%CI 7.3-9.0) to 2.7 (95%CI 2.2-3.2) among individuals without comorbidities. Individuals with comorbidities maintained fewer contacts than those without comorbidities in the second wave, with a significant difference before the Christmas 2020/2021 holidays (2.9 (95%CI 2.5-3.2) vs 3.9 (95%CI 3.5-4.3); P<0.001). During the third wave, contacts were similar for individuals with (4.1, 95%CI 3.4-4.7) and without comorbidities (4.5, 95%CI 4.1-4.9; P=0.27). This could be partly explained by individuals with comorbidities vaccinated with their first dose who increased their contacts to the level of those without comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: It will be important to closely monitor COVID-19-related outcomes and social contacts by comorbidity and vaccination status to inform targeted or population-based interventions (e.g., booster doses of the vaccine).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Vaccination Coverage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Contact Tracing/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior , Time Factors , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/trends , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/trends
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264179, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736506

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, three COVID-19 vaccines had been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States. Each has substantial efficacy in preventing COVID-19. However, as efficacy from trials was <100% for all three vaccines, disease in vaccinated people is expected to occur. We created a spreadsheet-based tool to estimate the number of symptomatic COVID-19 cases among vaccinated people (vaccine breakthrough infections) based on published vaccine efficacy (VE) data, percent of the population that has been fully vaccinated, and average number of COVID-19 cases reported per day. We estimate that approximately 199,000 symptomatic vaccine breakthrough infections (95% CI: ~183,000-214,000 cases) occurred in the United States during January-July 2021 among >156 million fully vaccinated people. With high SARS-CoV-2 transmission and increasing numbers of people vaccinated in the United States, vaccine breakthrough infections will continue to accumulate. Understanding expectations regarding number of vaccine breakthrough infections enables accurate public health messaging to help ensure that the occurrence of such cases does not negatively affect vaccine perceptions, confidence, and uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(2): e186-e194, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has revealed the vulnerability of immunisation systems worldwide, although the scale of these disruptions has not been described at a global level. This study aims to assess the impact of COVID-19 on routine immunisation using triangulated data from global, country-based, and individual-reported sources obtained during the pandemic period. METHODS: This report synthesised data from 170 countries and territories. Data sources included administered vaccine-dose data from January to December, 2019, and January to December, 2020, WHO regional office reports, and a WHO-led pulse survey administered in April, 2020, and June, 2020. Results were expressed as frequencies and proportions of respondents or reporting countries. Data on vaccine doses administered were weighted by the population of surviving infants per country. FINDINGS: A decline in the number of administered doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-containing vaccine (DTP3) and first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in the first half of 2020 was noted. The lowest number of vaccine doses administered was observed in April, 2020, when 33% fewer DTP3 doses were administered globally, ranging from 9% in the WHO African region to 57% in the South-East Asia region. Recovery of vaccinations began by June, 2020, and continued into late 2020. WHO regional offices reported substantial disruption to routine vaccination sessions in April, 2020, related to interrupted vaccination demand and supply, including reduced availability of the health workforce. Pulse survey analysis revealed that 45 (69%) of 65 countries showed disruption in outreach services compared with 27 (44%) of 62 countries with disrupted fixed-post immunisation services. INTERPRETATION: The marked magnitude and global scale of immunisation disruption evokes the dangers of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks in the future. Trends indicating partial resumption of services highlight the urgent need for ongoing assessment of recovery, catch-up vaccination strategy implementation for vulnerable populations, and ensuring vaccine coverage equity and health system resilience. FUNDING: US Agency for International Development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220536, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711992

ABSTRACT

Importance: Characterizing rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons with the same exposure is critical to understanding the association of vaccination with the risk of infection with the Delta variant. Additionally, evidence of Delta variant transmission by children to vaccinated adults has important public health implications. Objective: To characterize transmission and infection of SARS-CoV-2 among vaccinated and unvaccinated attendees of an indoor wedding reception. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included attendees at an indoor wedding reception in Minnesota in July 2021. Data were collected from REDCap surveys and routine surveillance interviews. The full list of attendees and a partial list of emails were obtained. Fifty-seven attendees completed the emailed survey. Eighteen additional attendees were identified from the state health department COVID-19 surveillance database. Exposures: Attendance at an indoor event. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated attendees, identification of an index case, whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify the COVID-19 variant, understanding of transmission patterns, and assessment of secondary transmission. The primary case definition was an individual with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test who attended the wedding in the 14 days prior to their illness. Results: Data were gathered for 75 attendees (mean [SE] age, 37.5 [13.7] years; 57 [76%] female individuals), of whom 56 (75%) were fully vaccinated, 4 (5%) were partially vaccinated, and 15 (20%) were unvaccinated. Of 62 attendees who were tested, 29 (47%) tested positive, including 16 of 46 fully vaccinated attendees (35%), 2 of 4 partially vaccinated attendees (50%), and 11 of 12 unvaccinated attendees (92%). Being unvaccinated was associated with a higher risk of infection compared with being vaccinated (risk ratio, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.71-4.06; P = .001). One unvaccinated adult required hospitalization. An unvaccinated child who was symptomatic on the event date was identified as the index case. Eleven specimens were available for WGS. All sequenced specimens were closely related and were identified as the Delta variant. WGS supported secondary transmission from a vaccinated individual with SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study identified a COVID-19 Delta variant outbreak at an indoor event despite a high proportion of vaccinated attendees. It found that vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147827, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694845

ABSTRACT

Importance: With recent surges in COVID-19 incidence and vaccine authorization for children aged 5 to 11 years, elementary schools face decisions about requirements for masking and other mitigation measures. These decisions require explicit determination of community objectives (eg, acceptable risk level for in-school SARS-CoV-2 transmission) and quantitative estimates of the consequences of changing mitigation measures. Objective: To estimate the association between adding or removing in-school mitigation measures (eg, masks) and COVID-19 outcomes within an elementary school community at varying student vaccination and local incidence rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytic model used an agent-based model to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a school community, with a simulated population of students, teachers and staff, and their household members (ie, immediate school community). Transmission was evaluated for a range of observed local COVID-19 incidence (0-50 cases per 100 000 residents per day, assuming 33% of all infections detected). The population used in the model reflected the mean size of a US elementary school, including 638 students and 60 educators and staff members in 6 grades with 5 classes per grade. Exposures: Variant infectiousness (representing wild-type virus, Alpha variant, and Delta variant), mitigation effectiveness (0%-100% reduction in the in-school secondary attack rate, representing increasingly intensive combinations of mitigations including masking and ventilation), and student vaccination levels were varied. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were (1) probability of at least 1 in-school transmission per month and (2) mean increase in total infections per month among the immediate school community associated with a reduction in mitigation; multiple decision thresholds were estimated for objectives associated with each outcome. Sensitivity analyses on adult vaccination uptake, vaccination effectiveness, and testing approaches (for selected scenarios) were conducted. Results: With student vaccination coverage of 70% or less and moderate assumptions about mitigation effectiveness (eg, masking), mitigation could only be reduced when local case incidence was 14 or fewer cases per 100 000 residents per day to keep the mean additional cases associated with reducing mitigation to 5 or fewer cases per month. To keep the probability of any in-school transmission to less than 50% per month, the local case incidence would have to be 4 or fewer cases per 100 000 residents per day. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, in-school mitigation measures (eg, masks) and student vaccinations were associated with substantial reductions in transmissions and infections, but the level of reduction varied across local incidence. These findings underscore the potential role for responsive plans that deploy mitigation strategies based on local COVID-19 incidence, vaccine uptake, and explicit consideration of community objectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Students/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Models, Statistical , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/organization & administration
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5): 171-176, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675341

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have higher prevalences of health conditions associated with severe COVID-19 illness compared with non-LGBT populations (1). The potential for low vaccine confidence and coverage among LGBT populations is of concern because these persons historically experience challenges accessing, trusting, and receiving health care services (2). Data on COVID-19 vaccination among LGBT persons are limited, in part because of the lack of routine data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity at the national and state levels. During August 29-October 30, 2021, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines among LGBT adults aged ≥18 years. By sexual orientation, gay or lesbian adults reported higher vaccination coverage overall (85.4%) than did heterosexual adults (76.3%). By race/ethnicity, adult gay or lesbian non-Hispanic White men (94.1%) and women (88.5%), and Hispanic men (82.5%) reported higher vaccination coverage than that reported by non-Hispanic White heterosexual men (74.2%) and women (78. 6%). Among non-Hispanic Black adults, vaccination coverage was lower among gay or lesbian women (57.9%) and bisexual women (62.1%) than among heterosexual women (75.6%). Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Among gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults, vaccination coverage was lower among women (80.5% and 74.2%, respectively) than among men (88.9% and 81.7%, respectively). By gender identity, similar percentages of adults who identified as transgender or nonbinary and those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary were vaccinated. Gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults were more confident than were heterosexual adults in COVID-19 vaccine safety and protection; transgender or nonbinary adults were more confident in COVID-19 vaccine protection, but not safety, than were adults who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. To prevent serious illness and death, it is important that all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gender Identity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
15.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 239-243, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673687

ABSTRACT

Monitoring COVID-19 vaccination coverage among nursing home residents and staff is important to ensure high coverage rates and guide patient-safety policies. With the termination of the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program, another source of facility-based vaccination data is needed. We compared numbers of COVID-19 vaccinations administered to nursing home residents and staff reported by pharmacies participating in the temporary federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program with the numbers of COVID-19 vaccinations reported by nursing homes participating in new COVID-19 vaccination modules of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Pearson correlation coefficients comparing the number vaccinated between the 2 approaches were 0.89, 0.96, and 0.97 for residents and 0.74, 0.90, and 0.90 for staff, in the weeks ending January 3, 10, and 17, 2021, respectively. Based on subsequent NHSN reporting, vaccination coverage with ≥1 vaccine dose reached 73.7% for residents and 47.6% for staff the week ending January 31 and increased incrementally through July 2021. Continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination coverage is important as new nursing home residents are admitted, new staff are hired, and additional doses of vaccine are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Humans , Mandatory Reporting , Public Health Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The UK began delivering its COVID-19 vaccination programme on 8 December 2020, with health and social care workers (H&SCWs) given high priority for vaccination. Despite well-documented occupational exposure risks, however, there is evidence of lower uptake among some H&SCW groups. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods approach-involving an online cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews-to gain insight into COVID-19 vaccination beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours amongst H&SCWs in the UK by socio-demographic and employment variables. 1917 people were surveyed- 1656 healthcare workers (HCWs) and 261 social care workers (SCWs). Twenty participants were interviewed. FINDINGS: Workplace factors contributed to vaccination access and uptake. SCWs were more likely to not be offered COVID-19 vaccination than HCWs (OR:1.453, 95%CI: 1.244-1.696). SCWs specifically reported uncertainties around how to access COVID-19 vaccination. Participants who indicated stronger agreement with the statement 'I would recommend my organisation as a place to work' were more likely to have been offered COVID-19 vaccination (OR:1.285, 95%CI: 1.056-1.563). Those who agreed more strongly with the statement 'I feel/felt under pressure from my employer to get a COVID-19 vaccine' were more likely to have declined vaccination (OR:1.751, 95%CI: 1.271-2.413). Interviewees that experienced employer pressure to get vaccinated felt this exacerbated their vaccine concerns and increased distrust. In comparison to White British and White Irish participants, Black African and Mixed Black African participants were more likely to not be offered (OR:2.011, 95%CI: 1.026-3.943) and more likely to have declined COVID-19 vaccination (OR:5.550, 95%CI: 2.294-13.428). Reasons for declining vaccination among Black African participants included distrust in COVID-19 vaccination, healthcare providers, and policymakers. CONCLUSION: H&SCW employers are in a pivotal position to facilitate COVID-19 vaccination access, by ensuring staff are aware of how to get vaccinated and promoting a workplace environment in which vaccination decisions are informed and voluntary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caregivers/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e34, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624616

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a significant preventive measure to contain the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination rates can provide useful information on the potential spread of infection in a given population. In this study, vaccination rates and attitudes towards vaccination in cultural sectors, specifically the music sector, have been investigated. In total, 4341 persons in four different areas, including visitors to performances of classical music and musicals, as well as professional and amateur musicians, have participated in this survey. Results show rates of 86% recovered from the COVID-19 virus or vaccinated at least once, with 54.5% fully vaccinated. These vaccination rates were considerably higher compared to the general population. An attitude of hesitation towards vaccination found in 6.4% of those sampled was half that of the general population. These findings drawn from a large sample indicate that in the field of music a high vaccination rate is to be found, as well as a low rejection rate of vaccination on the part of the audience and performers. The results can be used to provide insights into the vaccination status to be found at cultural events and, importantly, to assist in consideration of whether cultural events should be permitted to continue under pandemic circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Music , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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