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1.
BJOG ; 129(2): 248-255, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Covid-19 vaccination (Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2) during the third trimester of pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective computerised database. POPULATION: Women who gave birth at >24 weeks of gestation in Israel, between January and April 2021, with full records of Covid-19 disease and vaccination status. METHODS: Women who received two doses of the vaccine were compared with unvaccinated women. Women who were recorded as having disease or a positive Covid-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swab during pregnancy or delivery were excluded from both study groups. Univariate analysis was followed by multivariate logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite adverse maternal outcomes. Secondary outcomes were vaccination rate and composite adverse neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: The overall uptake of one or both vaccines was 40.2%; 712 women who received two doses of the Covid-19 vaccine were compared with 1063 unvaccinated women. Maternal composite outcomes were comparable between the groups; however, women who received the vaccine had higher rates of elective caesarean deliveries (CDs) and lower rates of vacuum deliveries. An adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that Covid-19 vaccination was not associated with maternal composite adverse outcome (aOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.61-1.03); a significant reduction in the risk for neonatal composite adverse outcomes was observed (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.36-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: In a motivated population covered by a National Health Insurance Plan, we found a 40.2% rate of vaccination for the Covid-19 vaccine during the third trimester of pregnancy, which was not associated with adverse maternal outcomes and, moreover, decreased the risk for neonatal adverse outcomes. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Covid-19 vaccine during pregnancy is safe for both mother and fetus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination , /administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Israel/epidemiology , Patient Safety , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
3.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(4): 651-657, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. A possible association has been reported between COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination and myocarditis. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to describe cardiac MRI findings in patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI between May 14, 2021, and June 14, 2021, for suspected myocarditis within 2 weeks of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Information regarding clinical presentation, hospital course, and events after hospital discharge were recorded. A cardiothoracic imaging fellow and cardiothoracic radiologist reviewed cardiac MRI examinations in consensus. Data were summarized descriptively. RESULTS. Of 52 patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI during the study period, five underwent MRI for suspected myocarditis after recent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. All five patients were male patients ranging in age from 16 to 19 years (mean, 17.2 ± 1.0 [SD] years) who presented within 4 days of receiving the second dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Troponin levels were elevated in all patients (mean peak troponin I value, 6.82 ± 4.13 ng/mL). Alternate possible causes of myocarditis were deemed clinically unlikely on the basis of medical history, physical examination findings, myocarditis viral panel, and toxicology screening. Cardiac MRI findings were consistent with myocarditis in all five patients on the basis of the Lake Louise criteria, including early gadolinium enhancement and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in all patients and corresponding myocardial edema in four patients. All five patients had a favorable hospital course and were discharged from the hospital in stable condition with improved or resolved symptoms after hospitalization (mean length of hospital stay, 4.8 days). Two patients underwent repeat cardiac MRI that showed persistent, although decreased, LGE. Three patients reported mild intermittent self-resolving chest pain after hospital discharge, and two patients had no recurrent symptoms after discharge. CONCLUSION. In this small case series, all patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination were male adolescents and had a favorable initial clinical course. All patients showed cardiac MRI findings typical of myocarditis from other causes. LGE persisted in two patients who underwent repeat MRI. These observations do not establish causality. CLINICAL IMPACT. Radiologists should be aware of a possible association of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and myocarditis and recognize the role of cardiac MRI in the assessment of suspected myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , Young Adult
5.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(5): 949-952, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816539

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic, hereditary disease with a complex immunopathogenesis, rendering it susceptible to misinformation. Misinformation related to psoriasis can have negative effects both on the public perception of psoriasis and on patients' knowledge of psoriasis. To characterize misinformation related to psoriasis available online, we performed a formal literature review via PubMed and a thematic review via Google. Key themes of misinformation included 'victim-blaming' (hygiene), 'vector' (contagion), 'vaccination', 'vilification' of conventional therapy, 'validation' of natural treatment and diet, 'veneration' of cures and 'vocalization' from celebrities. Misinformation related to psoriasis is pervasive on social media and other websites. Dermatologists, as patient advocates, should be aware of the content of misinformation available online and combat misleading health information to optimize health outcomes for patients with psoriasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psoriasis , Social Media , Communication , Humans , Vaccination
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(8): 1485-1488, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816023

ABSTRACT

A false-positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction result can lead to unnecessary public health measures. We report 2 individuals whose respiratory specimens were contaminated by an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain (CoronaVac), likely at vaccination premises. Incidentally, whole genome sequencing of CoronaVac showed adaptive deletions on the spike protein, which do not result in observable changes of antigenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 1-5, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799505

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that seasonal influenza strikes annually causing millions to fall sick and several hundred thousand to die globally. Hence, universal vaccination is a public health aim to control influenza. The Hong Kong Government started to introduce the School Outreach Vaccination (SOV) program in 2018 to increase vaccination rates in children. This study looked at the impact this had on hospital admissions and estimated vaccination rates in the total population, using a questionnaire-based tool. The SOV program significantly increased vaccination coverage rates with a 1% increase associated with a reduction of 4.3 influenza-related hospital admissions of school-aged children. The estimation of vaccine coverage rates among the under 5-year olds (48.5%), primary school children (69.3%) and over 65-year olds (45.7%), through the questionnaire-based tool, was within the 95% confidence interval of the coverage rates published by the Center for Health Protection of the Hong Kong Government, 47.4%, 68.1% and 45.8%, respectively. Extension of the SOV program should be considered in secondary schools to increase the coverage rates in adolescents. The questionnaire survey may inform government how to achieve universal vaccination for specific age groups.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Child , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , Vaccination
8.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0179121, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799229

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seasonal influenza viruses are cocirculating in the human population. However, only a few cases of viral coinfection with these two viruses have been documented in humans with some people having severe disease and others mild disease. To examine this phenomenon, ferrets were coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and human seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs; H1N1 or H3N2) and were compared to animals that received each virus alone. Ferrets were either immunologically naive to both viruses or vaccinated with the 2019 to 2020 split-inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Coinfected naive ferrets lost significantly more body weight than ferrets infected with each virus alone and had more severe inflammation in both the nose and lungs compared to that of ferrets that were single infected with each virus. Coinfected, naive animals had predominantly higher IAV titers than SARS-CoV-2 titers, and IAVs were efficiently transmitted by direct contact to the cohoused ferrets. Comparatively, SARS-CoV-2 failed to transmit to the ferrets that cohoused with coinfected ferrets by direct contact. Moreover, vaccination significantly reduced IAV titers and shortened the viral shedding but did not completely block direct contact transmission of the influenza virus. Notably, vaccination significantly ameliorated influenza-associated disease by protecting vaccinated animals from severe morbidity after IAV single infection or IAV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection, suggesting that seasonal influenza virus vaccination is pivotal to prevent severe disease induced by IAV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses cause severe morbidity and mortality during each influenza virus season. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human population offers the opportunity to potential coinfections of both viruses. The development of useful animal models to assess the pathogenesis, transmission, and viral evolution of these viruses as they coinfect a host is of critical importance for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The ability to prevent the most severe effects of viral coinfections can be studied using effect coinfection ferret models described in this report.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Ferrets/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Vaccination , Virus Shedding
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051775, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: While there is research relating to perceptions of vaccines among healthcare workers (HCWs), the evidence base in relation to COVID-19 remains limited. The aim of this study was to explore HCWs' perceptions and attitudes towards vaccines and the COVID-19 vaccination programme in the UK, including their expectations and views on promoting vaccination to others. DESIGN: This study was designed as a rapid qualitative appraisal, integrating data from a review of UK policies and guidance on COVID-19 vaccination with data from in-depth semistructured telephone interviews with frontline HCWs in the UK. Data were analysed using framework analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of HCWs from two large London-based hospital Trusts (n=24) and 24 government policies, and guidelines on the vaccination programme were reviewed. RESULTS: The level of uncertainty about the long-term safety of vaccines and efficacy against mutant strains made it difficult for HCWs to balance the benefits against the risks of vaccination. HCWs felt that government decisions on vaccine rollout had not been supported by evidence-based science, and this impacted their level of trust and confidence in the programme. The spread of misinformation online also impacted HCWs' attitudes towards vaccination, particularly among junior level and black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) HCWs. Most HCWs felt encouraged to promote vaccination to their patients, and the majority said they would advocate vaccination or engage in conversations about vaccination with others when relevant. CONCLUSION: In order to improve HCWs' trust and confidence in the UK's COVID-19 vaccination programme, there needs to be clarity about what is known and not known about the vaccines and transparency around the evidence-base supporting government decisions on vaccine rollout. Effort is also needed to dispel the spread of vaccine-related misinformation online and to address specific concerns, particularly among BAME and junior-level HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Attitude , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , Vaccination
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842912, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798936

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials and real-world evidence on COVID-19 vaccines have shown their effectiveness against severe disease and death but the durability of protection remains unknown. We analysed the humoral and T-cell immune responses in 110 healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated according to the manufacturer's recommended schedule of dose 2 three weeks after dose 1 from a prospective on-going cohort in early 2021, 3 and 6 months after full vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Anti-RBD IgG titres were lower in HCWs over 60 years old 3 months after the second dose (p=0.03) and declined in all the subjects between 3 and 6 months with a median percentage change of -58.5%, irrespective of age and baseline comorbidities. Specific T-cell response measured by IGRA declined over time by at least 42% (median) in 91 HCWs and increased by 33% (median) in 17 others. Six HCWs had a negative T-cell response at 6 months. Ongoing follow-up should provide correlates of long-term protection according to the different immune response profiles observed. COVIDIM study was registered under the number NCT04896788 on clinicaltrials.gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 396-397, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793414
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793533

ABSTRACT

With limited availability of vaccines, an efficient use of the limited supply of vaccines in order to achieve herd immunity will be an important tool to combat the wide-spread prevalence of COVID-19. Here, we compare a selection of strategies for vaccine distribution, including a novel targeted vaccination approach (EHR) that provides a noticeable increase in vaccine impact on disease spread compared to age-prioritized and random selection vaccination schemes. Using high-fidelity individual-based computer simulations with Oslo, Norway as an example, we find that for a community reproductive number in a setting where the base pre-vaccination reproduction number R = 2.1 without population immunity, the EHR method reaches herd immunity at 48% of the population vaccinated with 90% efficiency, whereas the common age-prioritized approach needs 89%, and a population-wide random selection approach requires 61%. We find that age-based strategies have a substantially weaker impact on epidemic spread and struggle to achieve herd immunity under the majority of conditions. Furthermore, the vaccination of minors is essential to achieving herd immunity, even for ideal vaccines providing 100% protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Epidemics , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Vaccines
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263351, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793531

ABSTRACT

Pandemics, such as the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, represents a health threat to humans worldwide. During times of heightened health risks, the public's perceptions, and acceptance of evidence-based preventive measures, such as vaccines, is of high relevance. Moreover, people might seek other preventive remedies to protect themselves from getting infected (e.g., herbal remedies, nutritional supplements). A recent study on consumers' preference for naturalness showed that people put more weight on perceived naturalness of a preventive remedy compared to a curative one. This result was attributed to the increased focus on perceived effectiveness as opposed to perceived risk. This raises the question whether the current pandemic would shift people's perceptions from prevention to curing and thus, exhibit a preference for synthetic remedies because they are seen as more effective. The present online experiment (conducted in April 2021) investigated people's perceptions of vaccines and remedies within the context of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A 2x2 between-subject design with type of remedy (natural vs. synthetic) and salience of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (high vs. low) was conducted in Switzerland in spring 2021 (N = 452). The data did not provide evidence of a curative mindset for preventive remedies, as the participants exhibited a clear preference for the natural remedy compared to the synthetic remedy. Our study stresses the importance of understanding people's mindsets on how to protect themselves from infection with a virus during an ongoing pandemic to tackle misinformation and vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , /psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Communication , Consumer Behavior , Dissent and Disputes , Female , Humans , Information Dissemination , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Switzerland , Vaccination , Vaccines
14.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264633, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In low-income countries, vaccination campaigns are lagging, and evidence on vaccine acceptance, a crucial public health planning input, remains scant. This is the first study that reports willingness to take COVID-19 vaccines and its socio-demographic correlates in Ethiopia, Africa's second most populous country. METHODS: The analysis is based on a nationally representative survey data of 2,317 households conducted in the informal economy in November 2020. It employs two logistic regression models where the two outcome variables are (i) a household head's willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine or not, and (ii) if yes if they would also hypothetically pay (an unspecified amount) for it or not. Predictors include age, gender, education, marital status, income category, health insurance coverage, sickness due to COVID-19, chronic illness, trust in government, prior participation in voluntary activities, urban residence. RESULTS: Willingness to take the vaccine was high (88%) and significantly associated with COVID-19 cases in the family, trust in government and pro-social behavior. All other predictors such as gender, education, income, health insurance, chronic illness, urban residence did not significantly predict vaccine willingness at the 5% level. Among those willing to take the vaccine, 33% also answered that they would hypothetically pay (an unspecified amount) for it, an answer that is significantly associated with trust in government, health insurance coverage and income. CONCLUSION: The results highlight both opportunities and challenges. There is little evidence of vaccine hesitancy in Ethiopia among household heads operating in the informal economy. The role played by trust in government and pro-social behavior in motivating this outcome suggests that policy makers need to consider these factors in the planning of COVID-19 vaccine campaigns in order to foster vaccine uptake. At the same time, as the willingness to hypothetically pay for a COVID-19 vaccine seems to be small, fairly-priced vaccines along with financial support are also needed to ensure further uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , /statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Young Adult
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 840668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793031

ABSTRACT

Background: This is the first study, that aimed: a) to compare immune response, namely the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls, and b) to investigate changes in thyroid function in healthy subjects with no history of thyroid dysfunction before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). Methods: The entire study consisted of two sub-studies. In the first sub-study, NAbs levels after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were compared between 56 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and 56 age and gender-matched healthy controls from the day of the first dose until a period of up to three months after the second dose. In the second sub-study, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and thyroid auto-antibodies levels (anti-TG, anti-TPO) of 72 healthy subjects with no history of thyroid disease were examined before (D1) and one month after completion of the second dose (D50). Results: Among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, the median neutralizing inhibition on D22, immediately before second dose, was 62.5%. One month later (D50), values increased to 96.7%, while three months after the second dose NAbs titers remained almost the same (94.5%). In the healthy group, median NAbs levels at D22 were 53.6%. On D50 the median inhibition values increased to 95.1%, while after three months they were 89.2%. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between two groups (p-values 0.164, 0.390, 0.105 for D22, D50 and three months). Regarding changes in thyroid function, the mean value for T4 before vaccination was 89.797 nmol/L and one month after the second dose was 89.11 nmol/L (p-value=0.649). On D1 the mean T3 value was 1.464 nmol/L, which dropped to 1.389 nmol/L on D50 (p-value = 0.004). For TSH, mean levels were 2.064 mIU/ml on D1 and fell to 1.840 mIU/ml one month after the second dose (p-value=0.037). Despite decrease, all thyroid hormone levels remained within the normal range. No changes were found for anti-TPO or anti-TG. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that patients with autoimmune thyroiditis present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) with healthy subjects, while vaccination may affect thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , /genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/metabolism , Vaccination
16.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003932, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine uptake is lower amongst most minority ethnic groups compared to the White British group in England, despite higher COVID-19 mortality rates. Here, we add to existing evidence by estimating inequalities for 16 minority ethnic groups, examining ethnic inequalities within population subgroups, and comparing the magnitudes of ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake to those for routine seasonal influenza vaccine uptake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Greater Manchester Care Record, which contains de-identified electronic health record data for the population of Greater Manchester, England. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate ethnic inequalities in time to COVID-19 vaccination amongst people eligible for vaccination on health or age (50+ years) criteria between 1 December 2020 and 18 April 2021 (138 days of follow-up). We included vaccination with any approved COVID-19 vaccine, and analysed first-dose vaccination only. We compared inequalities between COVID-19 and influenza vaccine uptake adjusting by age group and clinical risk, and used subgroup analysis to identify populations where inequalities were widest. The majority of individuals (871,231; 79.24%) were White British. The largest minority ethnic groups were Pakistani (50,268; 4.75%), 'other White background' (43,195; 3.93%), 'other ethnic group' (34,568; 3.14%), and Black African (18,802; 1.71%). In total, 83.64% (919,636/1,099,503) of eligible individuals received a COVID-19 vaccine. Uptake was lower compared to the White British group for 15 of 16 minority ethnic groups, with particularly wide inequalities amongst the groups 'other Black background' (hazard ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.44), Black African (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.44), Arab (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.48), and Black Caribbean (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.45). In total, 55.71% (419,314/752,715) of eligible individuals took up influenza vaccination. Compared to the White British group, inequalities in influenza vaccine uptake were widest amongst the groups 'White and Black Caribbean' (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.68) and 'White and Black African' (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.72). In contrast, uptake was slightly higher than the White British group amongst the groups 'other ethnic group' (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.12) and Bangladeshi (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.11). Overall, ethnic inequalities in vaccine uptake were wider for COVID-19 than influenza vaccination for 15 of 16 minority ethnic groups. COVID-19 vaccine uptake inequalities also existed amongst individuals who previously took up influenza vaccination. Ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake were concentrated amongst older and extremely clinically vulnerable adults, and the most income-deprived. A limitation of this study is the focus on uptake of the first dose of COVID-19 vaccination, rather than full COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake exceeded those for influenza vaccine uptake, existed amongst those recently vaccinated against influenza, and were widest amongst those with greatest COVID-19 risk. This suggests the COVID-19 vaccination programme has created additional and different inequalities beyond pre-existing health inequalities. We suggest that further research and policy action is needed to understand and remove barriers to vaccine uptake, and to build trust and confidence amongst minority ethnic communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy is a known risk factor for severe Coronavirus disease 2019. It is important to develop safe vaccines that elicit strong maternal and fetal antibody responses. METHODS: Registries (ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO Clinical Trial Registry, and the European Union Clinical Trial Registry) and databases (MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, Proquest, Springer, medRxiv, and bioRxiv) were systematically searched in June 20-22, 2021, for research articles pertaining to Covid-19 and pregnancy. Manual searches of bioRxiv and medRxiv were also conducted. Inclusion criteria were studies that focused on Covid-19 vaccination among pregnant women, while review articles and non-human studies were excluded. Infection rate, maternal antibody response, transplacental antibody transfer, and adverse events were described. RESULTS: There were 13 observational studies with a total of 48,039 pregnant women who received mRNA vaccines. Of those, three studies investigated infection rate, six studies investigated maternal antibody response, seven studies investigated antibody transfer, three studies reported local adverse events, and five studies reported systemic adverse events. The available data suggested that the mRNA-based vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) can prevent future SARS-CoV-2 infection. These vaccines did not show clear harm in pregnancy. The most commonly encountered adverse reactions were pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache, but these were transient. Antibody responses were rapid after the first vaccine dose. After the booster, antibody responses were stronger and associated with better transplacental antibody transfer. Longer intervals between first vaccination dose and delivery were also associated with higher antibody fetal IgG and a better antibody transfer ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines are encouraged for pregnancy. These vaccines can be a safe option for pregnant women and their fetuses. Two vaccine doses are recommended for more robust maternal and fetal antibody responses. Longer latency is associated with higher fetal antibody responses. Further research about its long-term effect on pregnancy is needed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42021261684).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Pregnancy , /adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , /immunology
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 489, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People's lives were seriously affected by the emergence and the spread of the COVID-19 disease. Several vaccines were developed in record time to overcome this pandemic. However, putting an end to this public health problem requires substantial vaccination coverage rate. This latter depends on the acceptance of these vaccines especially by health professionals; the leaders of the current war against COVID-19. In fact, they have a central role in promoting vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2. In the developed countries, hesitancy rates towards these vaccines among health professionals vary from 4.3% to 72%. In the developing countries, few studies focused on this issue. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and the predictors of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among the Tunisian health professionals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was led online between the 7th and the 21th of January 2021 among Tunisian health professionals. At least 460 participants were required. Snowball sampling method served to recruit participants. Data were collected using a pre-established and pre-tested questionnaire recorded in a free Google form. The link of the questionnaire was disseminated online to be self-administered anonymously to the participants. The generated online Google Sheet was uploaded and exported to SPSS software for analysis. RESULTS: Of the 546 responses, 493 were retained. The mean age of participants was 37.4 (± 9.5) years. Females represented 70.2% of participants. Social media represented the most frequently used source of information about COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among participants was 51.9% (95% CI: 47.5-56.3)). Female sex, working far from the capital and having concerns about the vaccines components predicted more hesitancy among participants. In contrast, the use of the national COVID-19 information website predicted less hesitancy among them. CONCLUSIONS: The current Tunisian communication plan about COVID-19 vaccines must be reinforced. Social media represent a cost effective communication channel that can serve to reassure Tunisian health professionals regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Special interest should be paid to females, paramedical professionals and those working far from the capital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Tunisia/epidemiology , Vaccination
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 724, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While mass COVID-19 vaccination programs are underway in high-income countries, limited availability of doses has resulted in few vaccines administered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) is a WHO-led initiative to promote vaccine access equity to LMICs and is providing many of the doses available in these settings. However, initial doses are limited and countries, such as Madagascar, need to develop prioritization schemes to maximize the benefits of vaccination with very limited supplies. There is some consensus that dose deployment should initially target health care workers, and those who are more vulnerable including older individuals. However, questions of geographic deployment remain, in particular associated with limits around vaccine access and delivery capacity in underserved communities, for example in rural areas that may also include substantial proportions of the population. METHODS: To address these questions, we developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics and simulated various vaccination allocation strategies for Madagascar. Simulated strategies were based on a number of possible geographical prioritization schemes, testing sensitivity to initial susceptibility in the population, and evaluating the potential of tests for previous infection. RESULTS: Using cumulative deaths due to COVID-19 as the main outcome of interest, our results indicate that distributing the number of vaccine doses according to the number of elderly living in the region or according to the population size results in a greater reduction of mortality compared to distributing doses based on the reported number of cases and deaths. The benefits of vaccination strategies are diminished if the burden (and thus accumulated immunity) has been greatest in the most populous regions, but the overall strategy ranking remains comparable. If rapid tests for prior immunity may be swiftly and effectively delivered, there is potential for considerable gain in mortality averted, but considering delivery limitations modulates this. CONCLUSION: At a subnational scale, our results support the strategy adopted by the COVAX initiative at a global scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Madagascar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(777): 702-706, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789998

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has strongly impacted the elderly population with a particularly high mortality rate due to several reasons: sometimes difficult and delayed diagnosis, multimorbidity, immunosenescence, frailty, which seems to be a better prognostic marker than age. Treatment includes both therapies specifically directed against SARS CoV-2 (monoclonal antibodies, systemic corticosteroids, tocilizumab, remdesivir) and symptomatic and palliative treatments. Vaccination, especially the booster, is essential to reduce the risk of infection and severe forms. The emergence of variants is a challenge because of their impact on vaccine and treatment efficacy. Specific studies in the elderly are needed to improve their management.


Le Covid-19 a fortement impacté la population âgée avec un taux de mortalité particulièrement élevé dû à plusieurs raisons: diag nostic parfois difficile et retardé, multimorbidité, immunosénescence, fragilité, qui semble d'ailleurs être un meilleur marqueur pronostique que l'âge. Le traitement inclut autant des thérapies spécifiquement dirigées contre le SARS CoV-2 (anticorps monoclonaux, corticothérapie systémique, tocilizumab, remdésivir) que des traitements symptomatiques et palliatifs. La vaccination, notamment le rappel, est primordiale pour diminuer le risque infectieux et les formes graves. L'apparition de variants représente un défi en raison de leur impact sur l'efficacité du vaccin et des traitements. Des études réalisées spécifiquement chez les sujets âgés sont nécessaires pour améliorer leur prise en charge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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