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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18947, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106467

ABSTRACT

COVID vaccination protects individuals and helps end the pandemic, but a sizable minority in Western countries rejects the vaccine. Vaccination status should serve as a group membership, critical communication between groups undermines trust, and we accordingly suggest that calls to get vaccinated by vaccinated sources lead to defensive rejection instead of desired behavior change. We term this the vaccination rift effect. A unique collaboration with national print, online and TV news media yielded a large (N = 1170), age-representative sample of Austrian citizens for our fully randomized experiment. Participants exhibited the vaccination rift: They ascribed less constructive motives, d = 0.28, 95% CI [0.17; 0.40], experienced more threat, d = - 0.30, 95% CI [- 0.42; - 0.19], and ascribed worse personality characteristics to vaccinated (vs. unvaccinated) commenters, d = 0.17, 95% CI [0.06; 0.29]. Constructiveness consistently predicted behavioral measures of counterarguing and vaccination planning (indirect effects B = 0.033, SE = 0.013 and B = - 0.056, SE = 0.014). The vaccination rift was substantially stronger among the critical group of unvaccinated participants, ds = |0.39-0.52|, than among those fully vaccinated, ds = |0.08-0.17|. We discuss how to apply these psychological mechanics of the vaccination rift to public campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Vaccination/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Trust , Austria
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090156

ABSTRACT

Despite the vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being reported to be safe and effective, the unwillingness to vaccinate and doubts are still common. The aim of this international study was to assess the major reasons for the unwillingness to vaccinate in a group of students from Poland (n = 1202), Bangladesh (n = 1586), India (n = 484), Mexico (n = 234), Egypt (n = 566), Philippines (n = 2076), Pakistan (n = 506), Vietnam (n = 98) and China (n = 503). We conducted an online cross-sectional study that aimed to assess (1) the percentage of vaccinated and unvaccinated students and (2) the reasons associated with willingness/unwillingness to the vaccine. The study included 7255 respondents from 9 countries with a mean age of 21.85 ± 3.66 years. Only 22.11% (n = 1604) of students were vaccinated. However, the majority (69.25%, n = 5025) expressed a willingness to be vaccinated. More willing to vaccinate were students in informal relationships who worked mentally, used psychological/psychiatric services before the pandemic, and studied medicine. There are cultural differences regarding the reasons associated with the unwillingness to vaccinate, but some 'universal' might be distinguished that apply to the whole group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/psychology , Students/psychology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082334

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has limited human freedom in many areas. Developing a COVID-19 vaccine has been a key task to contain the spread of the virus. In many countries, there is increasing concern about anti-vaccines due to complications after receiving the vaccine. The research problem concerns the opinions of Polish and Palestinian students after receiving vaccinations against COVID-19. This study involved 657 respondents (332 from Poland and 325 from Palestine) who completed the original questionnaire online. The respondents present two different cultures, embedded in different existential conditions, also in terms of health care, and especially the availability of vaccines. The obtained data indicate that almost 50% of research participants from both countries believe that vaccines are an effective antidote to the pandemic situation. Respondents in both populations believed that it was their personal choice to undergo vaccinations. The social motivation for vaccination in both groups was the desire to participate in public life, and the possibility of free travel for Poles, and the fear of infecting other people for Palestinians. The most common side effect reported after vaccination was pain at the site of the infection. Medical assistance was more often sought by respondents from Palestine. From an existential, psychosocial and health perspective, vaccines contributed to strengthening the vital forces in a large part of the population, allowed rebuilding social interactions and gave a sense of security in the daily functioning of a person.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Humans , Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Poland , Students/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Motivation
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hesitancy and incomplete vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains an obstacle to achieving herd immunity. Because of fear of vaccine reactions, patients with medical and allergic co-morbidities express heightened hesitancy. Limited information is available to guide these patients. We sought to identify factors associated with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines hesitancy and reactogenicity. METHODS: We surveyed employees of a multi-site health system in central Pennsylvania who were offered the COVID-19 vaccine (N = 18,740) inquiring about their experience with the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA-based vaccines. The survey was administered online using the REDCap platform. We used multivariable regression analysis to determine whether a particular factor(s) (e.g., demographics, selected co-morbid allergic and medical conditions, vaccine brand, and prior COVID-19) were associated with vaccine reactogenicity including the occurrence and severity of local and systemic reactions. We also explored factors and reasons associated with vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: Of the 5709 who completed the survey (response rate, 30.4%), 369 (6.5%) did not receive the vaccine. Black race and allergy to other vaccines were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Reaction intensity following the first vaccine dose and allergic co-morbidities were associated with incomplete vaccination. Older individuals (>60 years) experienced less reactogenicity. Females had higher odds of local and systemic reactions and reported more severe reactions. Asians reported more severe reactions. As compared to Pfizer-BioNTech, the Moderna vaccine was associated with higher odds of vaccine reactions of higher severity. Prior COVID-19 resulted in more severe reactions following the first dose, but less severe reactions following the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted campaigns to enhance vaccination acceptance should focus on Black individuals, females, and those with allergic co-morbidities. Prior COVID-19 caused more severe reactions after the first but not the second vaccine dose. Moderna vaccine caused more vaccine reactions. Lessons learned from the early rollout of COVID-19 vaccine may serve to inform future novel vaccine experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Vaccination Hesitancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Beliefs that the risks from a COVID-19 vaccine outweigh the risks from getting COVID-19 and concerns that the vaccine development process was rushed and lacking rigor have been identified as important drivers of hesitancy and refusal to get a COVID-19 vaccine. We tested whether messages designed to address these beliefs and concerns might promote intentions to get a COVID-19 vaccine. METHOD: We conducted an online survey fielded between March 8-23, 2021 with US Veteran (n = 688) and non-Veteran (n = 387) respondents. In a between-subjects experiment, respondents were randomly assigned to a control group (with no message) or to read one of two intervention messages: 1. a fact-box styled message comparing the risks of getting COVID-19 compared to the vaccine, and 2. a timeline styled message describing the development process of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. RESULTS: Most respondents (60%) wanted a COVID-19 vaccine. However, 17% expressed hesitancy and 23% did not want to get a COVID-19 vaccine. The fact-box styled message and the timeline message did not significantly improve vaccination intentions, F(2,358) = 0.86, p = .425, [Formula: see text] = .005, or reduce the time respondents wanted to wait before getting vaccinated, F(2,306) = 0.79, p = .453, [Formula: see text] = .005, compared to no messages. DISCUSSION: In this experimental study, we did not find that providing messages about vaccine risks and the development process had an impact on respondents' vaccine intentions. Further research is needed to identify how to effectively address concerns about the risks associated with COVID-19 vaccines and the development process and to understand additional factors that influence vaccine intentions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Communication , Vaccine Development , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccines
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066087

ABSTRACT

In this study, we surveyed 635 participants to determine: (a) major causes of mental stress during the pandemic and its future impacts, and (b) diversity in public perception of the COVID-19 vaccination and its acceptance (specifically for children). Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant associations between sociodemographic diversity, mental stress causes, and vaccination perception. For instance, statistical results indicate significant dependence between gender (we will use term 'sex' in the rest of the manuscript) and mental stress due to COVID-19 infection (p = 1.7 × 10-5). Over 25% of males indicated work-related stress compared to 35% in females, however, females indicated that they were more stressed (17%) due to relationships compared to males (12%). Around 30% of Asian/Arabic participants do not feel that the vaccination is safe as compared to 8% of white British and 22% of white Europeans, indicating significant dependence (p = 1.8 × 10-8) with ethnicity. More specifically, vaccination acceptance for children is significantly dependent with ethnicity (p = 3.7 × 10-5) where only 47% participants show willingness towards children's vaccination. The primary dataset in this study along with experimental outcomes identifying sociodemographic information diversity with respect to public perception and acceptance of vaccination in children and potential stress factors might be useful for the public and policymakers to help them be better prepared for future epidemics, as well as working globally to combat mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066059

ABSTRACT

To date, we know little about COVID-19-related health literacy among school leaders, particularly in East Asia. The present study aimed to assess the level of COVID-19-related health literacy and associated factors (vaccine hesitancy, self-endangering behaviour, and work satisfaction) among school leaders in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional study of 259 school leaders was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic between April 2021 and February 2022. COVID-19-related health literacy using HLS-COVID-Q22, three subscales of self-endangering work behaviour scales (i.e., "extensification of work", "intensification of work" and "quality reduction"), and two dimensions of Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) (i.e., psychosomatic complaints and exhaustion) were used. The study employed independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and multilinear regression models. The findings show that more than half (53.7%) of school leaders had insufficient health literacy. Participants with insufficient health literacy scored significantly higher in the following factors: exhaustion related to work situation (p = 0.029), psychosomatic complaints (p < 0.001), attitude about vaccination (i.e., less agree with vaccination) (p < 0.001), level of informing on COVID-19 related information (i.e., felt less informed) (p < 0.001), and level of confusion about COVID-19-related information (i.e., felt more confused) (p < 0.001). In a linear regression model predicting attitude about coronavirus vaccination, age (ß, -0.188, 95% CI, -0.024, -0.005, p = 0.002) and health literacy (ß, -0.395, 95% CI, -0.716, -0.361, p < 0.001) were the negative predictors, F(5, 214) = 11.859, p < 0.001. For the linear regression model adjusted for sex and age for predicting health literacy, the model was insignificant. Despite being a highly educated group, this study reveals that one in two Hong Kong school leaders have insufficient health literacy. Inadequate health literacy was strongly associated with a negative attitude about vaccination, low information, and confusion about COVID-19-related information. Additionally, insufficient health literacy was associated with the two secondary symptoms of burnouts. The study highlights an urgent need to develop intervention programmes to promote the COVID-19-specific as well as overall health literacy of the school leaders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Schools , Vaccination/psychology
8.
Hum Immunol ; 83(11): 755-767, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061224

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new single-stranded RNA coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, appeared in China and quickly spread around the world leading to a pandemic. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 generates symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to severe, occasionally requiring hospitalization in intensive care units, and, in more severe cases, leading to death. Scientists and researchers around the world have made a real race against time to develop various vaccines to slow down and stop the spread of the virus. In addition to conventional viral vector vaccines, new generation mRNA vaccines, BNT152b2 (Comirnaty) and mRNA-1273 (Spikevax), have been developed respectively by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. These vaccines act on immune cells to induce an immune response with the production of specific antibodies against Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and to stimulate the differentiation of T and B memory cells. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed picture of the validity of these new vaccines and the safety of vaccination. Not only was the immunogenic effect of mRNA vaccines evaluated, but also the psychosocial impact they had on the population. The data collected show that this type of vaccine can also be an excellent candidate for future treatment and eradication of possible new pathologies with viral and non-viral etiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination/psychology
9.
J Health Commun ; 27(7): 495-509, 2022 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050943

ABSTRACT

Misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines is widely available in the public communication environment. Exposure to the misinformation may increase perceived risk of and evoke negative emotions toward COVID-19 vaccines that may eventually reduce COVID-19 vaccination intentions. The negative influences of misinformation may vary by aspects of individuals' social networks. Expanding the reasoned action approach, we proposed a comprehensive model to examine the roles of misinformation beliefs, perceived risk, fear, worry, and social networks in explaining COVID-19 vaccination intentions. We tested the model using survey data of South Korean adults, collected when the Korean government launched its nationwide vaccination program in April 2021 (n = 744). The results from our step-by-step path analyses indicated that COVID-19 vaccination intentions had positive direct associations with vaccination-specific factors such as attitudes toward, injunctive norms on, and perceived behavioral control over COVID-19 vaccination. Perceived risk was also directly linked to intentions. Among these factors, attitudes and injunctive norms were most strongly related to intentions. Misinformation beliefs and worry had negative indirect relationships with intentions via the mediation of these variables directly connected to intentions. The negative influences of misinformation beliefs were greater among respondents reported stronger tie strengths. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Communication
10.
J Psychol ; 156(8): 535-551, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to examine the association between mindfulness and COVID-19 vaccination intention, and the mediating role of presence of meaning in life and moral elevation in such association. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study design, a total of 1733 health care workers (81.1% females, Mage = 34.16 ± 9.03) from four cities in China were recruited and completed an online survey that measured mindfulness, moral elevation, presence of meaning in life and COVID-19 vaccination intention. RESULTS: It has been found that 73.1% of the participants reported an intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Mindfulness was positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention; Mediation analyses using structural equation modeling showed a significant indirect effect of mindfulness on COVID-19 vaccination intention, accounting for 42.4% of the total effect. Mindfulness was positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention directly via presence of meaning in life, and indirectly via moral elevation and presence of meaning in life. CONCLUSIONS: The findings add knowledge of how mindfulness may increase COVID-19 vaccination intention, and underscore the potential need for mindfulness training, positive emotion promotion, presence of meaning in life interventions to improve acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Intention , Male , Psychology, Positive , Vaccination/psychology
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063469, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Contributing factors to COVID-19 vaccination intention in low-income and middle-income countries have received little attention. This study examined COVID-19-related anxiety and obsessive thoughts and situational factors associated with Pakistani postpartum women's intention to get COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study administering a survey by a telephone interview format between 15 July and 10 September 2020. SETTING: Four centres of Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children-Garden, Kharadar, Karimabad and Hyderabad-in Sindh Province, Pakistan. PARTICIPANTS: Women who were enrolled in our longitudinal Pakistani cohort study were approached (n=1395), and 990 women (71%) participated in the survey, of which 941 women who were in their postpartum period were included in the final analysis. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE AND FACTORS: COVID-19 vaccine intention, sociodemographic and COVID-19-related factors, Coronavirus anxiety, obsession with COVID-19 and work and social adjustment were assessed. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with women's intentions. RESULTS: Most women would accept a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves (66.7%). Only 24.4% of women were undecided about vaccination against COVID-19, and a small number of women rejected the COVID-19 vaccine (8.8%). Women with primary education were less likely to take a COVID-19 vaccine willingly than those with higher education. COVID-19 vaccine uncertainty and refusal were predicted by having no experience of COVID-19 infection, childbirth during the pandemic, having no symptoms of Coronavirus anxiety and obsession with COVID-19. Predictors for women's intention to vaccinate themselves and their children against COVID-19 were similar. CONCLUSION: Understanding the factors shaping women's intention to vaccinate themselves or their children would enable evidence-based strategies by healthcare providers to enhance the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine and achieve herd immunity against Coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Pakistan/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Vaccination/psychology
12.
Am Psychol ; 77(6): 743-759, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016575

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread availability of COVID-19 vaccines, the United States has a depressed rate of vaccination relative to similar countries. Understanding the psychology of vaccine refusal, particularly the possible sources of variation in vaccine resistance across U.S. subpopulations, can aid in designing effective intervention strategies to increase vaccination across different regions. Here, we demonstrate that county-level moral values (i.e., Care, Fairness, Loyalty, Authority, and Purity) are associated with COVID-19 vaccination rates across 3,106 counties in the contiguous United States. Specifically, in line with our hypothesis, we find that fewer people are vaccinated in counties whose residents prioritize moral concerns about bodily and spiritual purity. Further, we find that stronger endorsements of concerns about Fairness and Loyalty to the group predict higher vaccination rates. These associations are robust after adjusting for structural barriers to vaccination, the demographic makeup of the counties, and their residents' political voting behavior. Our findings have implications for health communication, intervention strategies based on targeted messaging, and our fundamental understanding of the moral psychology of vaccination hesitancy and behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Morals , United States , Vaccination/psychology
13.
Vaccine ; 40(37): 5459-5463, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant individuals are frequently excluded from clinical trials. Yet, inclusion of Pregnant individuals is of interest in vaccinology including during health crisis. Promotion of clinical trials by midwives may facilitate the decision making of Pregnant individuals. Attitudes of midwives about pregnant individuals participation in a vaccine clinical trial have been little explored. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous survey from the 11th of September to the 11th of November 2020. Primary endpoint was the willingness to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in a hypothetical respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine clinical trial. RESULTS: Among 398 midwives who answered the questionnaire, 113 (28.3 %) were likely to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in the vaccine clinical trial, this proportion ranged from 25 % in senior midwives to 34.5 % among the students. After adjustment on age, parenthood, previous personal attitudes of vaccine hesitancy, and psychological antecedents of vaccinations (5C-model), the only predictor of the promotion of the clinical trial was the experience of vaccine education (evaluated by a 20-point score) with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.09 (1.01-1.18, p = 0.027) for a one-point increase. Vaccine hesitancy and psychological antecedents of vaccinations were not associated with a lower promotion of pregnant individuals trial participation by midwives. CONCLUSION: Few respondents were likely to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in a vaccine clinical trial. Midwives who considered themselves to have a good training about vaccines were more prone to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in a RSV vaccine clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Midwifery , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(11): 3839-3849, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007146

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to test the influence of vaccination characteristics and gain/loss-framing of information, on parental acceptance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination for their minor children. A discrete choice experiment was conducted among parents of children aged 0-17 years from September to October 2021 in Hong Kong. Respondents were randomly assigned to four groups with different framing of information and asked to choose hypothetical vaccination alternatives, described by seven attributes that were derived from prior qualitative interviews. A mixed logit model was adopted to analyze the effect of attributes and information framing on parental vaccination acceptance. The vaccine acceptance rates under different scenarios were also estimated. A total of 298 valid responses were obtained. It was found that the BioNTech brand, higher efficacy, less serious adverse events and more vaccination coverage in children significantly improved parental acceptance. Additionally, loss-framing increased parental acceptance compared with gain-framing, while the presentation of mortality information did not make a difference. Acceptance was also associated with parental uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine and the children's age. CONCLUSION: The findings imply that factors including gain/loss information framing, importance of vaccine characteristics, and peer influence have a significant effect on parents' decisions to get their children vaccinated. Parents with younger children had greater vaccine hesitancy, and information framing techniques should be considered in vaccination promotion for combating such vaccine hesitancy. Future studies could be conducted to identify the moderators and mediators of information framing to facilitate its implementation. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Parental acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine was found to be associated with various socio-economic and psychosocial factors, while the evidence on impact of vaccination characteristics was limited. • Behavioral interventions, including information framing, have been used to promote various health behaviors. WHAT IS NEW: • Loss-framing of information on vaccine effectiveness improves vaccine acceptance, while additional information on how the vaccine reduces death does not make a difference, which can be used to inform communication with the public in vaccination promotion. • The social norm (i.e., the vaccine uptake amongst other people) is important for increasing the parental vaccine acceptance rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Parents/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14445, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000928

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been largely debated by the press. To understand how mainstream and alternative media debated vaccines, we introduce a paradigm reconstructing time-evolving narrative frames via cognitive networks and natural language processing. We study Italian news articles massively re-shared on Facebook/Twitter (up to 5 million times), covering 5745 vaccine-related news from 17 news outlets over 8 months. We find consistently high trust/anticipation and low disgust in the way mainstream sources framed "vaccine/vaccino". These emotions were crucially missing in alternative outlets. News titles from alternative sources framed "AstraZeneca" with sadness, absent in mainstream titles. Initially, mainstream news linked mostly "Pfizer" with side effects (e.g. "allergy", "reaction", "fever"). With the temporary suspension of "AstraZeneca", negative associations shifted: Mainstream titles prominently linked "AstraZeneca" with side effects, while "Pfizer" underwent a positive valence shift, linked to its higher efficacy. Simultaneously, thrombosis and fearful conceptual associations entered the frame of vaccines, while death changed context, i.e. rather than hopefully preventing deaths, vaccines could be reported as potential causes of death, increasing fear. Our findings expose crucial aspects of the emotional narratives around COVID-19 vaccines adopted by the press, highlighting the need to understand how alternative and mainstream media report vaccination news.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cognition , Emotions , Humans , Immunization Programs , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/psychology
16.
J Health Commun ; 27(6): 375-381, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996985

ABSTRACT

We sought to identify barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake among persons who are socially vulnerable in light of the natural cycle of innovation diffusion. Widespread adoption of a health innovation requires a cadre of opinion leaders to build on successes experienced by early adopters. One type of opinion leader in healthcare are health mavens: members of a community who maintain up-to-date health knowledge and share their knowledge others. We surveyed 139 persons who are socially vulnerable regarding their COVID-19 vaccination intention, and evaluated their responses based on psychological traits captured by two scales: innovativeness and health mavenism. Health mavenism was not strongly correlated with COVID-19 vaccine intention. Health mavens often relied on their own healthcare providers (n = 46) and health agency websites (n = 42) for vaccine information. Those who relied on their faith leaders (n = 4) reported a lower likelihood of getting vaccinated (31.5% vs. 76.0%, p < .05). The observed lack of support by health mavens represents a critical barrier to COVID-19 vaccine uptake; targeting campaigns to health mavens may increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake in socially vulnerable communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Diffusion of Innovation
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 310: 115278, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984064

ABSTRACT

What types of vaccines are citizens most likely to accept? We argue that citizens' identification with their nation may lead them to prefer vaccines developed and produced within their national borders, to the exclusion and/or detriment of vaccines from other nations. We administered a conjoint experiment requesting 15,000 adult citizens across 14 individual countries from around the world to assess 450,000 profiles of vaccines that randomly varied on seven attributes. Beyond vaccine fundamentals such as efficacy rate, number of doses, and duration of the protection, we find that citizens systematically favor vaccines developed and produced in their own country of residence. The extent of preference in favor of vaccines developed and produced within the national borders is particularly large among citizens who identify more strongly with their nation, suggesting nationalism plays a role in explaining the bias in favor of vaccines developed and produced locally. This public opinion bias on vaccine preferences has significant theoretical and practical implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Public Opinion , Vaccination/psychology
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 310: 115275, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A movement of parents refusing vaccines for their children has contributed to increasingly large outbreaks of diseases that are preventable by vaccines. Research has identified multiple factors that relate to parents' vaccination behaviors (i.e., whether not they vaccinate their children), including their beliefs about vaccines' safety and utility and their trust in those who recommend vaccines. Here we examine the role of more fundamental psychological processes that may contribute to multiple vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors: cognitive associations. METHODS: Using a large sample of U.S. parents (pre-COVID-19), we investigated parents' associations between vaccines and helpfulness/harmfulness, as well as between the self and vaccines (vaccine identity), and their relation to parents' beliefs about vaccine safety and utility, trust in authorities' vaccine recommendations, and prior vaccination refusal for their children. To capture a more complete understanding of people's associations, we examined both explicit associations (measured via self-report) and implicit associations (measured by the Implicit Association Test). RESULTS: Both implicit and explicit associations correlated with beliefs, trust, and vaccination refusal. Results from structural equation models indicated that explicit vaccine-identity and vaccine-helpfulness associations and implicit vaccine helpfulness associations were indirectly related to vaccination refusal via their relation with vaccine beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, study findings suggest that vaccine associations-especially those related to helpfulness/harmfulness-may serve as psychological building blocks for parental vaccine beliefs and behaviors.


Subject(s)
Parents , Vaccination Refusal , Vaccines , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccines/adverse effects
19.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 570-578, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975260

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Unvaccinated emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are at increased risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and potentially transmitting the virus to their families, coworkers, and patients. Effective vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus exist; however, vaccination rates among EMS professionals remain largely unknown. Consequently, we sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the COVID-19 vaccines were widely available. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding COVID-19 illness and vaccine effectiveness. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 860 EMS professionals completed the survey, of whom 74.7% reported receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Most respondents believed that COVID-19 is a serious threat to the population, that they are personally at higher risk of infection, that vaccine side effects are outweighed by illness prevention, and the vaccine is safe and effective. Despite this, only 18.7% supported mandatory vaccination for EMS professionals. Statistically significant differences were observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness, recall of employer vaccine recommendation, perceived risk of infection, degree of threat to the population, and trust in government to take actions to limit the spread of disease. Unvaccinated respondents cited reasons such as belief in personal health and natural immunity as protectors against infection, concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness, inadequate vaccine knowledge, and lack of an employer mandate for declining the vaccine. Predictors of vaccination included belief in vaccine safety (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, P=<0.001) and effectiveness (OR 4.6, P=<0.001); importance of vaccination to protect patients (OR 15.5, P=<0.001); perceived personal risk of infection (OR 1.8, P=0.04); previous receipt of influenza vaccine (OR 2.5, P=0.003); and sufficient knowledge to make an informed decision about vaccination (OR 2.4, P=0.024). CONCLUSION: In this survey of EMS professionals, over a quarter remained unvaccinated for COVID-19. Given the identified predictors of vaccine acceptance, EMS systems should focus on countering misinformation through employee educational campaigns as well as on developing policies regarding workforce immunization requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Health Personnel , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , North Carolina , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969272

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study performed during the fourth wave of the pandemic was to analyse differences in sociodemographic and psychological variables between those who cite concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccination and those who do not, as well as the differences between those whose concerns stem from a negative evaluation of vaccines and those whose concerns are based on a positive evaluation of vaccines. The study included 417 participants aged 18 to 76 years (M = 34, SD = 13.9). Among the respondents, 89% were female. A survey questionnaire on sociodemographic variables and standardized research tools were used: mood (UMACL), emotions (PANAS), satisfaction with life (SWLS), optimism (LOT-R), and coping with stress (CISS). The results of the study indicate that the elderly and working people are concerned about inadequate vaccination of the population, whereas students are concerned about the pressure of compulsory vaccination. People who are concerned about inadequate vaccination of population are more likely to experience concerns about various stressors. Our results do not indicate a relationship between psychological variables and vaccination-related concerns. The results obtained may be the basis for the identification of target groups in order to adapt social campaigns promoting vaccination against COVID-19 in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology
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