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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638085

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed at exploring the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and their incidences among health workers in three different districts of central and western Nepal following the first dose of Covishield vaccine,. It also aimed at studying the association of AEFI with demographic and clinical characteristics of vaccinees, pre-vaccination anxiety level and prior history of COVID-19 infection (RT- PCR confirmed) status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out via face-to-face or telephonic interview among 1006 health workers one week after receiving their first dose of the Covishield vaccine. Incidence of adverse events was calculated in percentage while Chi-square Test was used to check the association of AEFI with independent variables. Logistic regression was used to find out the adjusted odd's ratio at 95% CI. RESULTS: Incidence of AEFI was 79.8% with local and systemic AEFI being 68.0% and 59.7% respectively. Injection site tenderness was the commonest manifestation. Local and systemic symptoms resolved in less than one week among 96.8% and 98.7% vaccinees respectively. Females were more likely to develop AEFI than males (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Vaccinees aged 45-59 years were 50% less likely to develop AEFI as compared to those aged less than 30 years (AOR 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). Most of the vaccinees had not undergone RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 (59.8%). Those who were not tested for COVID-19 prior were 1.5 odds more likely to develop AEFI compared to those who were negative (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1). CONCLUSION: More than two-third of the vaccinees developed one or more forms of adverse events, but most events were self-limiting. Females and young adults were more prone to develop AEFI.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Time Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/psychology
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 33, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines are advised for pregnant women in the United Kingdom (UK) however COVID-19 vaccine uptake among pregnant women is inadequate. METHODS: An online survey and semi-structured interviews were used to investigate pregnant women's views on COVID-19 vaccine acceptability for themselves when pregnant, not pregnant and for their babies. One thousand one hundred eighty-one women, aged over 16 years, who had been pregnant since 23rd March 2020, were surveyed between 3rd August-11th October 2020. Ten women were interviewed. RESULTS: The majority of women surveyed (81.2%) reported that they would 'definitely' or were 'leaning towards' accepting a COVID-19 vaccine when not pregnant. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was significantly lower during pregnancy (62.1%, p < 0.005) and for their babies (69.9%, p < 0.005). Ethnic minority women were twice as likely to reject a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves when not pregnant, pregnant and for their babies compared to women from White ethnic groups (p < 0.005). Women from lower-income households, aged under 25-years, and from some geographic regions were more likely to reject a COVID-19 vaccine when not pregnant, pregnant and for their babies. Multivariate analysis revealed that income and ethnicity were the main drivers of the observed age and regional differences. Women unvaccinated against pertussis in pregnancy were over four times more likely to reject COVID-19 vaccines when not pregnant, pregnant and for their babies. Thematic analysis of the survey freetext responses and interviews found safety concerns about COVID-19 vaccines were common though wider mistrust in vaccines was also expressed. Trust in vaccines and the health system were also reasons women gave for accepting COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSION: Safety information on COVID-19 vaccines must be clearly communicated to pregnant women to provide reassurance and facilitate informed pregnancy vaccine decisions. Targeted interventions to promote COVID-19 vaccine uptake among ethnic minority and lower-income women may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Income , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261559, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The massive, free and unrestricted exchange of information on the social media during the Covid-19 pandemic has set fertile grounds for fear, uncertainty and the rise of fake news related to the virus. This "viral" spread of fake news created an "infodemic" that threatened the compliance with public health guidelines and recommendations. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the trust in social media platforms and the exposure to fake news about COVID-19 in Lebanon and to explore their association with vaccination intent. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Lebanon during July-August, 2020, a random sample of 1052 participants selected from a mobile-phone database responded to an anonymous structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent (response rate = 40%). The questionnaire was conducted by telephone and measured socio-demographics, sources and trust in sources of information and exposure to fake news, social media activity, perceived threat and vaccination intent. RESULTS: Results indicated that the majority of participants (82%) believed that COVID-19 is a threat and 52% had intention to vaccinate. Exposure to fake/ unverified news was high (19.7% were often and 63.8% were sometimes exposed, mainly to fake news shared through Watsapp and Facebook). Trust in certain information sources (WHO, MoPH and TV) increased while trust in others (Watsapp, Facebook) reduced vaccination intent against Covid-19. Believing in the man-made theory and the business control theory significantly reduced the likelihood of vaccination intent (Beta = 0.43; p = 0.01 and Beta = -0.29; p = 0.05) respectively. CONCLUSION: In the context of the infodemic, understanding the role of exposure to fake news and of conspiracy believes in shaping healthy behavior is important for increasing vaccination intent and planning adequate response to tackle the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lebanon , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629533

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the key factors influencing the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines and develop a model based on the theory of reasoned action, belief in conspiracy theory, awareness, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. The authors created and distributed a self-administered online questionnaire using Google Forms. Data were collected from 351 respondents ranging in age from 19 to 30 years, studying at the graduate and postgraduate levels at various public universities in Bangladesh. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) method was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that belief in conspiracy theory undermines COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, thereby negatively impacting the individual attitudes, subjective norms, and acceptance. Individual awareness, on the other hand, has a strong positive influence on the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Furthermore, the perceived usefulness of vaccination and the perceived ease of obtaining the vaccine positively impact attitude and the acceptance of immunization. Individuals' positive attitudes toward immunization and constructive subjective norms have a positive impact on vaccine acceptance. This study contributes to the literature by combining the theory of reasoned action with conspiracy theory, awareness, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use to understand vaccine acceptance behavior. Authorities should focus on campaigns that could reduce misinformation and conspiracy surrounding COVID-19 vaccination. The perceived usefulness of vaccination to prevent pandemics and continue normal education will lead to vaccination success. Furthermore, the ease with which people can obtain the vaccine and that it is free of cost will encourage students to get vaccinated to protect themselves, their families, and society.


Subject(s)
Awareness , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Attitude , Bangladesh , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 439, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617002

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 led to rapid vaccine development. However, there remains considerable vaccine hesitancy in some countries. We investigate vaccine willingness in three nations with very different vaccine histories: Israel, Japan and Hungary. Employing an ecological-systems approach we analyse associations between health status, individual cognitions, norms, trust in government, COVID-19 myths and willingness to be vaccinated, with data from three nationally representative samples (Israel, Jan. 2021, N = 1011; Japan, Feb. 2021, N = 997; Hungary, April 2021, N = 1130). Vaccine willingness was higher in Israel (74%) than Japan (51%) or Hungary (31%). In all three countries vaccine willingness was greatest amongst who would regret not being vaccinated and respondents who trusted their government. Multi-group latent class analysis identified three groups of COVID myths, with particular concern about alteration of DNA (Israel), allergies (Hungary) and infection from the vaccine (Japan). Intervention campaigns should address such cultural myths while emphasising both individual and social benefits of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/psychology , /methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hungary , Israel , Japan , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595589

ABSTRACT

Vaccine rejection is a problem severely impacting the global society, especially considering the COVID-19 outbreak. The need to understand the psychological mechanisms underlying the active involvement of the pro-vaccine and anti-vaccine movements is therefore very important both from a theoretical and practical perspective. This paper investigates the group identities of people with positive and negative attitudes towards vaccination, and their attitudes toward general science. A targeted sample study of 192 pro-vaccine and 156 anti-vaccine group members showed that the group identity of pro-vaccine individuals is higher than of anti-vaccine individuals. and that both pro-vaccine and anti-vaccine individuals had a positive attitude toward science. Results are discussed in context of the heterogeneity of motivations causing vaccine rejection and the relation between active involvement in online discussion and group identity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Vaccination Movement , COVID-19 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Online Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261273, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594457

ABSTRACT

Vaccination willingness is a critical factor in pandemics, including the COVID-19 crisis. Therefore, investigating underlying drivers of vaccination willingness/hesitancy is an essential social science contribution. The present study of German residents investigates the mental shortcuts people are using to make sense of unfamiliar vaccine options by examining vaccination willingness for different vaccines using an experimental design in a quantitative survey. German vaccines were preferred over equivalent foreign vaccines, and the favorability ratings of foreign countries where COVID-19 vaccines were developed correlated with the level of vaccination willingness for each vaccine. The patterns in vaccination willingness were more pronounced when the national origin was shown along with the vaccine manufacturer label. The study shows how non-scientific factors drive everyday decision-making about vaccination. Taking such social psychological and communication aspects into account in the design of vaccination campaigns would increase their effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Decision Making , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(52)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594409

ABSTRACT

Although declines in intent to vaccinate had been identified in international surveys conducted between June and October 2020, including in the United States, some individuals in the United States who previously expressed reluctance said, in spring 2021, that they were willing to vaccinate. That change raised the following questions: What factors predicted an increased willingness to inoculate against COVID-19? And, to what extent was the change driven by COVID-specific factors, such as personal worry about the disease and COVID-specific misinformation, and to what extent by background (non-COVID-specific) factors, such as trust in medical authorities, accurate/inaccurate information about vaccination, vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance? This panel study of more than 8,000 individuals found that trust in health authorities anchored acceptance of vaccination and that knowledge about vaccination, flu vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance played a more prominent role in shifting individuals from vaccination hesitance to acceptance than COVID-specific factors. COVID-specific conspiracy beliefs did play a role, although a lesser one. These findings underscore the need to reinforce trust in health experts, facilitate community engagement with them, and preemptively communicate the benefits and safety record of authorized vaccines. The findings suggest, as well, the need to identify and deploy messaging able to undercut health-related conspiracy beliefs when they begin circulating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior , Communication , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , United States , Vaccination/ethics , Young Adult
9.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12308, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between perceived organizational support (POS) and COVID-19 vaccination intention as well as the influence of the implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. METHODS: We analyzed data from an Internet survey of workers aged 20-65 years conducted in December 2020, during a period of widespread COVID-19 infection in Japan. RESULTS: Of the 23 846 participants in this survey, 1958 (8%) reported very high POS. In the group with very high POS, 836 (43%) workers wanted the COVID-19 vaccination; in contrast 1382 (36%) workers in the group with very low POS wanted the vaccination. POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.06). In the analysis with POS as a categorical variable, very high POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (reference: very low POS) (OR = 1.34). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.17). High POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (OR = 1.17) but not with vaccination intention after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: High POS during the COVID-19 pandemic increased employees' vaccination intention. The relationship between POS and vaccination intention was strongly influenced by implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. Implementing appropriate workplace infection prevention measures in the event of an emerging infectious disease outbreak may influence the vaccination behavior of employees, which may contribute to the acquisition of herd immunity in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Organizational Culture , Vaccination , Workplace , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581757

ABSTRACT

In the past year, the global epidemic situation is still not optimistic, showing a trend of continuous expansion. With the research and application of vaccines, there is an urgent need to develop some optimal vaccination strategies. How to make a reasonable vaccination strategy to determine the priority of vaccination under the limited vaccine resources to control the epidemic and reduce human casualties? We build a dynamic model with vaccination which is extended the classical SEIR model. By fitting the epidemic data of three countries-China, Brazil, Indonesia, we have evaluated age-specific vaccination strategy for the number of infections and deaths. Furthermore, we have evaluated the impact of age-specific vaccination strategies on the number of the basic reproduction number. At last, we also have evaluated the different age structure of the vaccination priority. It shows that giving priority to vaccination of young people can control the number of infections, while giving priority to vaccination of the elderly can greatly reduce the number of deaths in most cases. Furthermore, we have found that young people should be mainly vaccinated to reduce the number of infections. When the emphasis is on reducing the number of deaths, it is important to focus vaccination on the elderly. Simulations suggest that appropriate age-specific vaccination strategies can effectively control the epidemic, both in terms of the number of infections and deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities/trends , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/therapeutic use
12.
J Med Ethics ; 47(8): 547-548, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537986

ABSTRACT

Rapid, large-scale uptake of new vaccines against COVID-19 will be crucial to decrease infections and end the pandemic. In a recent article in this journal, Julian Savulescu argued in favour of monetary incentives to convince more people to be vaccinated once the vaccine becomes available. To evaluate the potential of his suggestion, we conducted an experiment investigating the impact of payments and the communication of individual and prosocial benefits of high vaccination rates on vaccination intentions. Our results revealed that none of these interventions or their combinations increased willingness to be vaccinated shortly after a vaccine becomes available. Consequently, decision makers should be cautious about introducing monetary incentives and instead focus on interventions that increase confidence in vaccine safety first, as this has shown to be an especially important factor regarding the demand for the new COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 , Motivation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Education , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1388-1395, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518654

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunization, as a process of fighting against the COVID-19, has gained important research appeal, but very limited endeavor has been paid for vaccine behavioral studies in underdeveloped and developing countries. This study explores the vaccine demand, hesitancy, and nationalism as well as vaccine acceptance and domestic vaccine preference among young adults in Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY: This quantitative study followed the snowball sampling technique and collected responses from 1,018 individuals from various social media platforms. The analysis covered both descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square, F-statistic, and logistic regression. RESULTS: The findings of the fully-adjusted regression model suggest that the individuals who had more vaccine demand were 3.29 times (95% confidence interval = 2.39-4.54; p < 0.001) higher to accept vaccine compared to those who had no vaccine demand. Conversely, vaccine hesitancy was negatively associated with vaccine acceptance. Here, the odds ratio was found 0.70 (95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.80; p < 0.001), which means that those who had higher vaccine hesitancy were about 30% less likely to accept vaccines than those who had no hesitancy. In addition, the persons who had vaccine nationalism were 1.75 times (95% confidence interval = 1.62-1.88; p < 0.001) more prone to prefer domestic vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that policymakers may take initiatives for making people aware and knowledgeable about the severity and vulnerability to specific health threats. In this concern, perception and efficacy-increasing programs may take part in increasing protection motivation behaviors like vaccine acceptance and (domestic) vaccine preference.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Motivation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259513, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high population level of vaccination is required to control the COVID-19 pandemic, but not all Canadians are convinced of the value and safety of vaccination. Understanding more about these individuals can aid in developing strategies to increase their acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. The objectives of this study were to describe COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy and refusal rates and associated factors in Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS: This is a cross-sequential study that consisted of pooled responses from weighted samples of 9,252 Saskatchewan adults (≥18 years) across nine rounds of data collection between May 4, 2020 and April 3, 2021. The outcome variable was vaccine intention: vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and refusal. The independent variables were layered into socio-demographic factors, risk of exposure to coronavirus, mitigating behaviours, and perceptions of COVID-19. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression and a classification and regression tree. RESULTS: Seventy-six percent of the respondents indicated that they had been or were willing to be vaccinated, 13% had not yet decided, and the remaining 11% said they would not be vaccinated. Factors that increased the likelihood of vaccine refusal and hesitancy were lower education level, financial instability, Indigenous status, and not being concerned about spreading the coronavirus. Perceiving COVID-19 to be more of a threat to one's community and believing that one had a higher risk of illness or death from COVID-19 decreased the likelihood of both vaccine refusal and hesitancy. Women and newcomers to Canada were more likely to be unsure about getting vaccinated. Respondents who did not plan to be vaccinated were less likely to wear face masks and practice physical distancing. CONCLUSION: While many Canadians have voluntarily and eagerly become vaccinated already, reaching sufficient coverage of the population is likely to require targeted efforts to convince those who are resistant or unsure. Identifying and overcoming any barriers to vaccination that exist within the socio-demographic groups we found were least likely to be vaccinated is a crucial component.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saskatchewan/epidemiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21844, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503889

ABSTRACT

This study assesses attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination and the predictive value of COVID-VAC, a novel scale, among adults in the four largest US metropolitan areas and nationally. A 36-item survey of 6037 Americans was conducted in mid-April 2021. The study reports factors for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among: (1) already vaccinated; (2) unvaccinated but willing to accept a vaccine; and (3) unvaccinated and unwilling to vaccinate. More than 20% were unwilling to vaccinate, expressing concerns about vaccine efficacy and safety and questioning the disease's severity. Poverty, working outside of the home and conservative political views are predictors of unwillingness. Conversely, those who either personally tested positive for COVID-19, or had a family member who did so, were more likely to accept vaccination. Majorities of all respondents supported vaccination mandates for employees and university students. Respondents preferred to receive vaccines in their doctor´s office. Lower income and conservative ideology, but not race, were strongly associated with vaccine unwillingness. The predictive value of COVID-VAC was demonstrated. While vaccination mandates are likely to be accepted, additional effective, targeted interventions to increase vaccine uptake are needed urgently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/trends , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/pharmacology
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132548, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499192

ABSTRACT

Importance: Compared with the general population, veterans are at high risk for COVID-19 and have a complex relationship with the government. This potentially affects their attitudes toward receiving COVID-19 vaccines. Objective: To assess veterans' attitudes toward and intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional web-based survey study used data from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients' Veterans Insight Panel, fielded between March 12 and 28, 2021. Of 3420 veterans who were sent a link to complete a 58-item web-based survey, 1178 veterans (34%) completed the survey. Data were analyzed from April 1 to August 25, 2021. Exposures: Veterans eligible for COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes of interest were veterans' experiences with COVID-19, vaccination status and intention groups, reasons for receiving or not receiving a vaccine, self-reported health status, and trusted and preferred sources of information about COVID-19 vaccines. Reasons for not getting vaccinated were classified into categories of vaccine deliberation, dissent, distrust, indifference, skepticism, and policy and processes. Results: Among 1178 respondents, 974 (83%) were men, 130 (11%) were women, and 141 (12%) were transgender or nonbinary; 58 respondents (5%) were Black, 54 veterans (5%) were Hispanic or Latino, and 987 veterans (84%) were non-Hispanic White. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 66.7 (10.1) years. A total of 817 respondents (71%) self-reported being vaccinated against COVID-19. Of 339 respondents (29%) who were not vaccinated, those unsure of getting vaccinated were more likely to report fair or poor overall health (32 respondents [43%]) and mental health (33 respondents [44%]) than other nonvaccinated groups (overall health: range, 20%-32%; mental health: range, 18%-40%). Top reasons for not being vaccinated were skepticism (120 respondents [36%] were concerned about side effects; 65 respondents [20%] preferred using few medications; 63 respondents [19%] preferred gaining natural immunity), deliberation (74 respondents [22%] preferred to wait because vaccine is new), and distrust (61 respondents [18%] did not trust the health care system). Among respondents who were vaccinated, preventing oneself from getting sick (462 respondents [57%]) and contributing to the end of the COVID-19 pandemic (453 respondents [56%]) were top reasons for getting vaccinated. All veterans reported the VA as 1 of their top trusted sources of information. The proportion of respondents trusting their VA health care practitioner as a source of vaccine information was higher among those unsure about vaccination compared with those who indicated they would definitely not or probably not get vaccinated (18 respondents [26%] vs 15 respondents [15%]). There were no significant associations between vaccine intention groups and age (χ24 = 5.90; P = .21) or gender (χ22 = 3.99; P = .14). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide information needed to develop trusted messages used in conversations between VA health care practitioners and veterans addressing specific vaccine hesitancy reasons, as well as those in worse health. Conversations need to emphasize societal reasons for getting vaccinated and benefits to one's own health.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Veterans/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Veterans/statistics & numerical data
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259059, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496525

ABSTRACT

As safe and effective vaccines become widely available, attaining herd immunity and limiting the spread of COVID-19 will depend on individuals choosing to vaccinate-and doing so quickly enough to outpace mutations. Using online surveys conducted across six Latin American countries in January 2021, we experimentally assess messages designed to counteract informational deficiencies and collective action problems that may drive hesitancy. We first find that basic vaccine information persuades around 8% of hesitant individuals to become willing to vaccinate, reduces intended wait to vaccinate by 0.4 months, and increases willingness to encourage others to vaccinate. Rather than facilitating free riding, learning, or social conformity, additional information about others' behavior increases vaccine acceptance when respondents expect herd immunity will be achieved. Finally, priming the social approval benefits of vaccinating also increases vaccine acceptance. These results suggest that providing information and shaping social expectations and incentives could both significantly increase vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Latin America , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Persuasive Communication , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/trends , Vaccines/pharmacology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258540, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496510

ABSTRACT

As of May 2021, over 286 million coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine doses have been administered across the country. This data is promising, however there are still populations that, despite availability, are declining vaccination. We reviewed vaccine likelihood and receptiveness to recommendation from a doctor or nurse survey responses from 101,048 adults (≥18 years old) presenting to 442 primary care clinics in 8 states and the District of Columbia. Occupation was self-reported and demographic information extracted from the medical record, with 58.3% (n = 58,873) responding they were likely to receive the vaccine, 23.6% (n = 23,845) unlikely, and 18.1% (n = 18,330) uncertain. We found that essential workers were 18% less likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccination. Of those who indicated they were not already "very likely" to receive the vaccine, a recommendation from a nurse or doctor resulted in 16% of respondents becoming more likely to receive the vaccine, although certain occupations were less likely than others to be receptive to recommendations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to look at vaccine intent and receptiveness to recommendations from a doctor or nurse across specific essential worker occupations, and may help inform future early phase, vaccine rollouts and public health measure implementations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Demography/methods , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Class , United States , Vaccination/psychology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0248325, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, many pharmaceutical companies have been racing to develop a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine. Simultaneously, rumors and misinformation about COVID-19 are still widely spreading. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 misinformation among the Yemeni population and its association with vaccine acceptance and perceptions. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in four major cities in Yemen. The constructed questionnaire consisted of four main sections (sociodemographic data, misinformation, perceptions (perceived susceptibility, severity, and worry), and vaccination acceptance evaluation). Subject recruitment and data collection were conducted online utilizing social websites and using the snowball sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS version 27. RESULTS: The total number of respondents was 484. Over 60% of them were males and had a university education. More than half had less than 100$ monthly income and were khat chewers, while only 18% were smokers. Misinformation prevalence ranged from 8.9% to 38.9%, depending on the statement being asked. Men, university education, higher income, employment, and living in urban areas were associated with a lower misinformation level (p <0.05). Statistically significant association (p <0.05) between university education, living in urban areas, and being employed with perceived susceptibility were observed. The acceptance rate was 61.2% for free vaccines, but it decreased to 43% if they had to purchase it. Females, respondents with lower monthly income, and those who believed that pharmaceutical companies made the virus for financial gains were more likely to reject the vaccination (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the acceptance rate to take a vaccine was suboptimal and significantly affected by gender, misinformation, cost, and income. Furthermore, being female, non-university educated, low-income, and living in rural areas were associated with higher susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19. These findings show a clear link between misinformation susceptibility and willingness to vaccinate. Focused awareness campaigns to decrease misinformation and emphasize the vaccination's safety and efficacy might be fundamental before initiating any mass vaccination in Yemen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Vaccination Refusal , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Yemen/epidemiology
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