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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264994, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736518

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 severely impacted world health and, as a consequence of the measures implemented to stop the spread of the virus, also irreversibly damaged the world economy. Research shows that receiving the COVID-19 vaccine is the most successful measure to combat the virus and could also address its indirect consequences. However, vaccine hesitancy is growing worldwide and the WHO names this hesitancy as one of the top ten threats to global health. This study investigates the trend in positive attitudes towards vaccines across ten countries since a positive attitude is important. Furthermore, we investigate those variables related to having a positive attitude, as these factors could potentially increase the uptake of vaccines. We derive our text corpus from vaccine-related tweets, harvested in real-time from Twitter. Using Natural Language Processing (NLP), we derive the sentiment and emotions contained in the tweets to construct daily time-series data. We analyse a panel dataset spanning both the Northern and Southern hemispheres from 1 February 2021 to 31 July 2021. To determine the relationship between several variables and the positive sentiment (attitude) towards vaccines, we run various models, including POLS, Panel Fixed Effects and Instrumental Variables estimations. Our results show that more information about vaccines' safety and the expected side effects are needed to increase positive attitudes towards vaccines. Additionally, government procurement and the vaccine rollout should improve. Accessibility to the vaccine should be a priority, and a collective effort should be made to increase positive messaging about the vaccine, especially on social media. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the emotional challenges associated with vaccine uptake and inform policymakers, health workers, and stakeholders who communicate to the public during infectious disease outbreaks. Additionally, the global fight against COVID-19 might be lost if the attitude towards vaccines is not improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Attitude , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Emotions , Global Health , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Natural Language Processing , Optimism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Media , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/trends , /trends , Vaccines
2.
Anesth Analg ; 134(3): 524-531, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases continue to surge in the United States with the emergence of new variants. Statewide variability and inconsistency in implementing risk mitigation strategies are widespread, particularly in regards to enforcing mask mandates and encouraging the public to become fully vaccinated. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on July 31, 2021, utilizing publicly available data from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. The authors abstracted data on total COVID-19-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in the state of Wisconsin. The primary objective was comparison of total COVID-19-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in vaccinated versus unvaccinated people in the state of Wisconsin over a 31-day period (July 2021). Furthermore, we also performed a narrative review of the literature on COVID-19-related outcomes based on mask use and vaccination status. RESULTS: In the state of Wisconsin during July 2021, total COVID-19 cases was 125.4 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 369.2 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.35; P < .001). Total COVID-19 hospitalizations was 4.9 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 18.2 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (OR = 0.27, 98% CI, 0.22-0.32; P < .001). Total COVID-19 deaths was 0.1 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 1.1 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (OR = 0.09, 95% CI, 0.03-0.29; P < .001). Narrative review of the literature demonstrated high vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infection prevention (79%-100% among fully vaccinated people), COVID-19-related hospitalization (87%-98% among fully vaccinated people), and COVID-19-related death (96.7%-98% among fully vaccinated people). Studies have also generally reported that mask use was associated with increased effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 infection ≤70%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict adherence to public mask use and fully vaccinated status are associated with improved COVID-19-related outcomes and can mitigate the spread, morbidity, and mortality of COVID-19. Anesthesiologists and intensivists should adhere to evidence-based guidelines in their approach and management of patients to help mitigate spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cost of Illness , Hospitalization/trends , Mandatory Programs/trends , Masks/trends , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mandatory Programs/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Wisconsin/epidemiology
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 17-20, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703423

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected the ability of health systems to provide essential services globally. The Darfur region, located in the western part of Sudan, has been largely devastated by the war that began in 2003 and has been drawing considerable attention from the international community. The war, which erupted as a result of environmental, political, and economic factors, has led to tragic outcomes. Collapsing health-care infrastructures, health workforce shortages, lack of storage facilities for medicines and medical products, and inadequate access to health services are some of the effects of the war. After Sudan received the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access facility, significant challenges have been implicated in the delivery, storage, and use of the vaccine in the Darfur region. Lack of vaccine storage and transportation facilities, vaccination hesitancy, inequity in the distribution to health facilities, and shortage of health-care professionals resulting from insecurity and instability have added an extra layer of burden on local authorities and their ability to manage COVID-19 vaccinations in the region adequately. Addressing the impact of COVID-19 requires an effectively managed vaccination program. In the face of current challenges in Darfur, ensuring a fully vaccinated population might remain far-fetched and improbable if meaningful efforts are not put in place by all stakeholders and actors to address some of the challenges identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Drug Storage/methods , Drug Storage/standards , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Refrigeration/standards , Sudan , Transportation/standards , Vaccination/trends , /trends
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0140221, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702414

ABSTRACT

Various commercial anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests are used for studies and in clinical settings after vaccination. An international standard for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies has been established to achieve comparability of such tests, allowing conversions to BAU/mL. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of antibody tests regarding the timing of blood collection after vaccination. For this prospective observational study, antibody levels of 50 participants with homologous AZD1222 vaccination were evaluated at 3 and 11 weeks after the first dose and 3 weeks after the second dose using two commercial anti-Spike binding antibody assays (Roche and Abbott) and a surrogate neutralization assay. The correlation between Roche and Abbott changed significantly depending on the time point studied. Although Abbott provided values three times higher than Roche 3 weeks after the first dose, the values for Roche were twice as high as for Abbott 11 weeks after the first dose and 5 to 6 times higher at 3 weeks after the second dose. The comparability of quantitative anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests was highly dependent on the timing of blood collection after vaccination. Therefore, standardization of the timing of blood collection might be necessary for the comparability of different quantitative SARS-COV-2 antibody assays. IMPORTANCE This work showed that the comparability of apparently standardized SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays (Roche, Abbott; both given in BAU/mL) after vaccination depends on the time of blood withdrawal. Initially (3 weeks after the first dose AZD1222), there were 3 times higher values in the Abbott assay, but this relationship inversed before boosting (11 weeks after the first dose) with Roche 2 times greater than Abbott. After the booster, Roche quantified ca. 5 times higher levels than Abbott. This must be considered by clinicians when interpreting SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/trends , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Vaccination/standards
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263871, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686108

ABSTRACT

We use German KiGGS data to add to existing knowledge about trends in vaccination-related attitudes and behavior. Looking at vaccinations against measles, we assess whether a low confidence in vaccination and vaccination complacency is particularly prevalent among parents whose children were born somewhat recently, as compared to parents whose children belong to earlier birth cohorts. We further analyze how these attitudes relate to vaccination rates in the corresponding birth cohorts, and which sociodemographic subgroups are more likely to have vaccination-hesitant attitudes and to act upon them. Results show that the share of parents who report "deliberate" reasons against vaccination has decreased across birth cohorts; at the same time, the children of these parents have become less likely to be vaccinated. This suggests that vaccination-hesitant parents became more willing to act upon their beliefs towards the turn of the millennium. Regarding efforts to convince parents and the public about the benefits of vaccination, the number of parents who think that vaccinations have serious side effects, or that it is better for a child to live through a disease, may have become smaller-but these parents are more determined to follow their convictions. Interestingly, the trend we describe started before the Internet became a widespread source of health-related information.


Subject(s)
Measles/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Germany , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Male , Vaccination/trends
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 204: 161-168, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683176

ABSTRACT

It has been more than one year since the first case of the coronaviruses was infected by COVID-19 in China. The world witnessed three waves of the corona virus till now, and more upcoming is expected, whereas several challenges are presented. Empirical data displayed that the features of the virus effects do vary between the three periods. The severity of the disease, differences in symptoms, attitudes of the people have been reported, although the comparative characteristics of the three waves still keep essentially indefinite. In contrast, the sense of danger toward the cries gradually decreases in most countries. This may be due to some factors, including the approved vaccines, introducing alternative plans from politicians to control and deal with the epidemic, and decreasing the mortality rates. However, the alarm voice started to rise again with the appearance of new variant strains with several mutations in the virus. Several more questions began to be asked without sufficient answers. Mutations in COVID-19 have introduced an extreme challenge in preventing and treating SARS-COV-2. The essential feature for mutations is producing new variants known by high tensmibility, disturbing the viral fitness, and enhancing the virus replication. One of the variants that has emerged recently is the Delta variant (B.1.617.2), which was firstly detected in India. In November 2021, a more ferocious mutant appeared in South Africa, also called omicron (B.1.1.529). These mutants grabbed world attention because of their higher transmissibility than the progenitor variants and spread rapidly. Several information about the virus are still confusing and remains secret. There are eight approved vaccines in the market; however, the investigation race about their effect against reinfection and their role against the new variants is still under investigation. Furthermore, this is the first time vaccinating against COVID-19, so the question remains: Will we need an annual dose of the corona vaccines, and the side effects don't been observed till now?


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination Coverage/trends
7.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1246-1252, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between May 2005 and March 2007, three vaccines were recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for routine use in adolescents in the United States: quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). Understanding historical adolescent vaccination patterns may inform future vaccination coverage efforts for these and emerging adolescent vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective cohort study. All vaccines administered to adolescents aged 11 through 18 years in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016 were examined. Vaccination coverage was assessed by study year for ≥1 dose Tdap or Td, ≥1 dose Tdap, ≥1 dose MenACWY, ≥1 dose HPV, and ≥3 dose HPV. The proportion of vaccine visits with concurrent vaccination (≥2 vaccines administered at the same visit) was calculated by sex and study year. The most common vaccine combinations administered in the study population were described by sex for two time periods: 2007-2010 and 2011-2016. RESULTS: The number of 11-18-year-olds in the study population averaged 522,565 males and 503,112 females per study year. Between January 2007 and December 2016 there were 4,884,553 vaccine visits in this population (45% among males). The overall proportion of concurrent vaccine visits among males was 43% (33-61% by study year). Among females, 39% of all vaccine visits included concurrent vaccination (32-48% by study year). Vaccine coverage for Tdap, MenACWY, and 1- and 3-dose HPV increased across the study period. A wide variety of vaccine combinations were administered among both sexes and in both time periods. CONCLUSIONS: The high vaccine uptake and multitude of vaccine combinations administered concurrently in the adolescent population of the Vaccine Safety Datalink provide historical patterns with which to compare future adolescent vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(12): 1601-1614, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595833

ABSTRACT

To overcome the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination campaigns are the highest priority of majority of countries. Limited supply and worldwide disproportionate availability issues for the approved vaccines, together with concerns about rare side-effects have recently initiated the switch to heterologous vaccination, commonly known as mixing of vaccines. The COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective in the general population. However, none of the vaccines is 100% efficacious or effective, with variants posing more challenges, resulting in breakthrough cases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of immune responses to variants of concern (VOC) and breakthrough infections. Furthermore, we discuss the scope of heterologous vaccination and future strategies to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, including fractionation of vaccine doses and alternative route of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Heterologous , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Mice
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581774

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has become a leading barrier to increasing the US vaccination rate. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate time trends in COVID-19 vaccine intent during the US vaccine rollout, and identify key factors related to and self-reported reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in May 2021. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A COVID-19 survey was offered to US adult Facebook users in several languages yielding 5,088,772 qualifying responses from January 6 to May 31, 2021. Data was aggregated by month. Survey weights matched the sample to the age, gender, and state profile of the US population. EXPOSURE: Demographics, geographic factors, political/COVID-19 environment, health status, beliefs, and behaviors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: "If a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 were offered to you today, would you choose to get vaccinated." Hesitant was defined as responding probably or definitely would not choose to get vaccinated (versus probably or definitely would, or already vaccinated). RESULTS: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy decreased by one-third from 25.4% (95%CI, 25.3, 25.5) in January to 16.6% (95% CI, 16.4, 16.7) in May, with relatively large decreases among participants with Black, Pacific Islander or Hispanic race/ethnicity and ≤high school education. Independent risk factors for vaccine hesitancy in May (N = 525,644) included younger age, non-Asian race, < 4 year college degree, living in a more rural county, living in a county with higher Trump vote share in the 2020 election, lack of worry about COVID-19, working outside the home, never intentionally avoiding contact with others, and no past-year flu vaccine. Differences in hesitancy by race/ethnicity varied by age (e.g., Black adults more hesitant than White adults <35 years old, but less hesitant among adults ≥45 years old). Differences in hesitancy by age varied by race/ethnicity. Almost half of vaccine hesitant respondents reported fear of side effects (49.2% [95%CI, 48.7, 49.7]) and not trusting the COVID-19 vaccine (48.4% [95%CI, 48.0, 48.9]); over one-third reported not trusting the government, not needing the vaccine, and waiting to see if safe. Reasons differed by degree of vaccine intent and by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy varied by demographics, geography, beliefs, and behaviors, indicating a need for a range of messaging and policy options to target high-hesitancy groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , /trends , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , United States , Vaccination/trends
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581757

ABSTRACT

In the past year, the global epidemic situation is still not optimistic, showing a trend of continuous expansion. With the research and application of vaccines, there is an urgent need to develop some optimal vaccination strategies. How to make a reasonable vaccination strategy to determine the priority of vaccination under the limited vaccine resources to control the epidemic and reduce human casualties? We build a dynamic model with vaccination which is extended the classical SEIR model. By fitting the epidemic data of three countries-China, Brazil, Indonesia, we have evaluated age-specific vaccination strategy for the number of infections and deaths. Furthermore, we have evaluated the impact of age-specific vaccination strategies on the number of the basic reproduction number. At last, we also have evaluated the different age structure of the vaccination priority. It shows that giving priority to vaccination of young people can control the number of infections, while giving priority to vaccination of the elderly can greatly reduce the number of deaths in most cases. Furthermore, we have found that young people should be mainly vaccinated to reduce the number of infections. When the emphasis is on reducing the number of deaths, it is important to focus vaccination on the elderly. Simulations suggest that appropriate age-specific vaccination strategies can effectively control the epidemic, both in terms of the number of infections and deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities/trends , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/therapeutic use
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112550, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588217

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a family of viruses that can cause diseases such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The universal outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. The ß-Coronaviruses, which caused SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), have spread in more than 213 countries, infected over 81 million people, and caused more than 1.79 million deaths. COVID-19 symptoms vary from mild fever, flu to severe pneumonia in severely ill patients. Difficult breathing, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney disease, liver damage, and multi-organ failure ultimately lead to death. Researchers are working on different pre-clinical and clinical trials to prevent this deadly pandemic by developing new vaccines. Along with vaccines, therapeutic intervention is an integral part of healthcare response to address the ongoing threat posed by COVID-19. Despite the global efforts to understand and fight against COVID-19, many challenges need to be addressed. This article summarizes the current pandemic, different strains of SARS-CoV-2, etiology, complexities, surviving medications of COVID-19, and so far, vaccination for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/trends , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Vaccination/methods
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6995096, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573872

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, early modelling studies estimated a reduction in childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Regular provision of both curative and preventive services such as antenatal care and childhood immunizations has been negatively affected since the onset of the pandemic. Our study was aimed at examining the impact that the pandemic had on childhood vaccination services at the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH). A mixed methods study design was employed for the study, which was conducted at the Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) of the TTH. With quantitative approach, we retrospectively looked at the uptake of the various vaccines during the pandemic era, defined as the period between 1st March 2020 and 28th February, 2021, and the prepandemic era defined as the period 1st March 2019 to 29th February, 2020. The qualitative approach was used to understand the perspective of five healthcare providers at the CWC and the four caregivers of children who have missed a vaccine or delayed in coming, on the factors accounting for any observed change. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2016 and thematic content analysis. Quantitative data were presented in frequencies, percentages, and line graphs. With the exception of the Measles Rubella (MR) 2 vaccine, we observed a decline ranging from 47% (2298) to 10.5% (116), with the greatest decline seen in the BCG and the least decline seen in the MR1 vaccine. The month of May 2020 saw the greatest decline, that is, 70.6% (813). A decline of 38.3% (4473) was noted when comparison was made between the designated prepandemic and pandemic eras, for all the vaccines in our study. Fear of COVID-19 infection and misinformation were commonly given as reasons for the decline. Catch-up immunization schedule should be instituted to curtail possible future outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs/trends , Vaccination/trends , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Measles Vaccine , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/trends
13.
Theranostics ; 11(20): 10012-10029, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512995

ABSTRACT

Various living organisms have proven to influence human health significantly, either in a commensal or pathogenic manner. Harnessing the creatures may remarkably improve human healthcare and cure the intractable illness that is challenged using traditional drugs or surgical approaches. However, issues including limited biocompatibility, poor biosafety, inconvenience for personal handling, and low patient compliance greatly hinder the biomedical and clinical applications of living organisms when adopting them for disease treatment. Microneedle arrays (MNAs), emerging as a promising candidate of biomedical devices with the functional diversity and minimal invasion, have exhibited great potential in the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, which is expected to improve organism-based therapies. In this review, we systemically summarize the technologies employed for the integration of MNAs with specific living organisms including diverse viruses, bacteria, mammal cells and so on. Moreover, their applications such as vaccination, anti-infection, tumor therapy and tissue repairing are well illustrated. Challenges faced by current strategies, and the perspectives of integrating more living organisms, adopting smarter materials, and developing more advanced technologies in MNAs for future personalized and point-of-care medicine, are also discussed. It is believed that the combination of living organisms with functional MNAs would hold great promise in the near future due to the advantages of both biological and artificial species.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Administration, Cutaneous , Bacteria , Biological Therapy/trends , Cells , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/trends , Needles , Skin/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Viruses
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 17-20, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512902

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected the ability of health systems to provide essential services globally. The Darfur region, located in the western part of Sudan, has been largely devastated by the war that began in 2003 and has been drawing considerable attention from the international community. The war, which erupted as a result of environmental, political, and economic factors, has led to tragic outcomes. Collapsing health-care infrastructures, health workforce shortages, lack of storage facilities for medicines and medical products, and inadequate access to health services are some of the effects of the war. After Sudan received the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access facility, significant challenges have been implicated in the delivery, storage, and use of the vaccine in the Darfur region. Lack of vaccine storage and transportation facilities, vaccination hesitancy, inequity in the distribution to health facilities, and shortage of health-care professionals resulting from insecurity and instability have added an extra layer of burden on local authorities and their ability to manage COVID-19 vaccinations in the region adequately. Addressing the impact of COVID-19 requires an effectively managed vaccination program. In the face of current challenges in Darfur, ensuring a fully vaccinated population might remain far-fetched and improbable if meaningful efforts are not put in place by all stakeholders and actors to address some of the challenges identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Drug Storage/methods , Drug Storage/standards , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Refrigeration/standards , Sudan , Transportation/standards , Vaccination/trends , /trends
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21844, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503889

ABSTRACT

This study assesses attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination and the predictive value of COVID-VAC, a novel scale, among adults in the four largest US metropolitan areas and nationally. A 36-item survey of 6037 Americans was conducted in mid-April 2021. The study reports factors for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among: (1) already vaccinated; (2) unvaccinated but willing to accept a vaccine; and (3) unvaccinated and unwilling to vaccinate. More than 20% were unwilling to vaccinate, expressing concerns about vaccine efficacy and safety and questioning the disease's severity. Poverty, working outside of the home and conservative political views are predictors of unwillingness. Conversely, those who either personally tested positive for COVID-19, or had a family member who did so, were more likely to accept vaccination. Majorities of all respondents supported vaccination mandates for employees and university students. Respondents preferred to receive vaccines in their doctor´s office. Lower income and conservative ideology, but not race, were strongly associated with vaccine unwillingness. The predictive value of COVID-VAC was demonstrated. While vaccination mandates are likely to be accepted, additional effective, targeted interventions to increase vaccine uptake are needed urgently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/trends , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/pharmacology
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258540, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496510

ABSTRACT

As of May 2021, over 286 million coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine doses have been administered across the country. This data is promising, however there are still populations that, despite availability, are declining vaccination. We reviewed vaccine likelihood and receptiveness to recommendation from a doctor or nurse survey responses from 101,048 adults (≥18 years old) presenting to 442 primary care clinics in 8 states and the District of Columbia. Occupation was self-reported and demographic information extracted from the medical record, with 58.3% (n = 58,873) responding they were likely to receive the vaccine, 23.6% (n = 23,845) unlikely, and 18.1% (n = 18,330) uncertain. We found that essential workers were 18% less likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccination. Of those who indicated they were not already "very likely" to receive the vaccine, a recommendation from a nurse or doctor resulted in 16% of respondents becoming more likely to receive the vaccine, although certain occupations were less likely than others to be receptive to recommendations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to look at vaccine intent and receptiveness to recommendations from a doctor or nurse across specific essential worker occupations, and may help inform future early phase, vaccine rollouts and public health measure implementations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Demography/methods , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Class , United States , Vaccination/psychology
18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465472

ABSTRACT

The MMR vaccination program was introduced in Spain in 1981. Consistently high vaccination coverage has led to Spain being declared free of endemic measles transmission since 2014. A few imported and import-related cases were reported during the post-elimination phase (2014 to 2020), with very low incidence: three cases per million of inhabitants a year, 70% in adults. In the post-elimination phase an increasing proportion of measles appeared in two-dose vaccinated individuals (up to 14%), posing a challenge to surveillance and laboratory investigations. Severity and clinical presentation were milder among the vaccinated. The IgM response varied and the viral load decreased, making the virus more difficult to detect. A valid set of samples (serum, urine and throat swab) is strongly recommended for accurate case classification. One third of measles in fully vaccinated people was contracted in healthcare settings, mainly in doctors and nurses, consistent with the important role of high intensity exposure in measles breakthrough cases. Surveillance protocols and laboratory algorithms should be adapted in advanced elimination settings. Reinforcing the immunity of people working in high exposure environments, such as healthcare settings, and implementing additional infection control measures, such as masking and social distancing, are becoming crucial for the global aim of measles eradication.


Subject(s)
Measles/diagnosis , Measles/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine/immunology , Measles Vaccine/pharmacology , Measles virus/pathogenicity , Morbillivirus/pathogenicity , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/trends , Young Adult
19.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003815, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines appear to be safe and efficacious, but only high-income countries have the resources to procure sufficient vaccine doses for most of their eligible populations. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for vaccine prioritisation, but most vaccine impact projections have focused on high-income countries, and few incorporate economic considerations. To address this evidence gap, we projected the health and economic impact of different vaccination scenarios in Sindh Province, Pakistan (population: 48 million). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We fitted a compartmental transmission model to COVID-19 cases and deaths in Sindh from 30 April to 15 September 2020. We then projected cases, deaths, and hospitalisation outcomes over 10 years under different vaccine scenarios. Finally, we combined these projections with a detailed economic model to estimate incremental costs (from healthcare and partial societal perspectives), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for each scenario. We project that 1 year of vaccine distribution, at delivery rates consistent with COVAX projections, using an infection-blocking vaccine at $3/dose with 70% efficacy and 2.5-year duration of protection is likely to avert around 0.9 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.9, 1.0) million cases, 10.1 (95% CrI: 10.1, 10.3) thousand deaths, and 70.1 (95% CrI: 69.9, 70.6) thousand DALYs, with an ICER of $27.9 per DALY averted from the health system perspective. Under a broad range of alternative scenarios, we find that initially prioritising the older (65+) population generally prevents more deaths. However, unprioritised distribution has almost the same cost-effectiveness when considering all outcomes, and both prioritised and unprioritised programmes can be cost-effective for low per-dose costs. High vaccine prices ($10/dose), however, may not be cost-effective, depending on the specifics of vaccine performance, distribution programme, and future pandemic trends. The principal drivers of the health outcomes are the fitted values for the overall transmission scaling parameter and disease natural history parameters from other studies, particularly age-specific probabilities of infection and symptomatic disease, as well as social contact rates. Other parameters are investigated in sensitivity analyses. This study is limited by model approximations, available data, and future uncertainty. Because the model is a single-population compartmental model, detailed impacts of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as household isolation cannot be practically represented or evaluated in combination with vaccine programmes. Similarly, the model cannot consider prioritising groups like healthcare or other essential workers. The model is only fitted to the reported case and death data, which are incomplete and not disaggregated by, e.g., age. Finally, because the future impact and implementation cost of NPIs are uncertain, how these would interact with vaccination remains an open question. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination can have a considerable health impact and is likely to be cost-effective if more optimistic vaccine scenarios apply. Preventing severe disease is an important contributor to this impact. However, the advantage of prioritising older, high-risk populations is smaller in generally younger populations. This reduction is especially true in populations with more past transmission, and if the vaccine is likely to further impede transmission rather than just disease. Those conditions are typical of many low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , Health Impact Assessment/economics , Models, Economic , Vaccination/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cost-Benefit Analysis/trends , Health Impact Assessment/methods , Health Impact Assessment/trends , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Vaccination/trends
20.
J Pediatr ; 237: 292-297, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446894

ABSTRACT

In a national survey of 2074 US parents of children ≤12 years of age conducted in March 2021, 49.4% reported plans to vaccinate their child for coronavirus disease 2019 when available. Lower income and less education were associated with greater parental vaccine hesitancy/resistance; safety and lack of need were primary reasons for vaccine hesitancy/resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/trends , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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