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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274382, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021969

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an extremely contagious disease that causes great damage to the U.S. pork industry. PRRS is not subject to official control in the U.S., but most producers adopt control strategies, including vaccination. However, the PRRS virus mutates frequently, facilitating its ability to infect even vaccinated animals. In this paper we analyze how increased vaccination on sow farms reduces PRRS losses and when vaccination is profitable. We develop a SIR model to simulate the spread of an outbreak between and within swine farms located in a region of Minnesota. Then, we estimate economic losses due to PRRS and calculate the benefits of vaccination. We find that increased vaccination of sow farms increases the private profitability of vaccination, and also transmits positive externalities to farms that do not vaccinate. Although vaccination reduces industry losses, a low to moderate vaccine efficacy implies that large PRRS losses remain, even on vaccinated farms. Our approach provides useful insight into the dynamics of an endemic animal disease and the benefits of different vaccination regimens.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Farms , Female , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Swine , Vaccination/veterinary
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 323, 2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is the leading cause of calf morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. Cow's vaccination in last stage of pregnancy is one of the most important measures to mitigate the risk of NCD outbreaks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prepartum single dose vaccination against NCD, especially Bovine Rotavirus type A (BoRVA) and Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV), in Nelore dams and offspring. A total of 117 pregnant cows (n = 81) and heifers (n = 36) were distributed in two groups, vaccinated (VAC: cows = 40; heifers = 19) and non-vaccinated (NVAC: cows = 41; heifers = 17). Vaccination occurred between 60 to 50 days before the expected calving date with a single dose of a water-in-oil (W/O) vaccine, and NVAC group received a dose of saline solution 0.9%. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and 30 days after to evaluate the antibody (Ab) response. Specific IgG1 Abs against BoRVA and BCoV were measured by using an Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Calves' births were monitored, and the transference of passive immunity was evaluated. Diarrhea was monitored in the first 30 days of age, and fecal samples were collected for identification of the etiological agent. RESULTS: Higher titers of IgG1 Ab against BoRVA and BCoV was observed in the VAC group than NVAC group in the cow (P < 0.0001) and total dams categories (P < 0.0001). The titer of specific IgG1 Abs in the calves' serum reflected the dams response, observing higher IgG1 Ab titers for BoRVA (P < 0.0016) and BCoV (P < 0.0095) in the offspring born to VAC cows and higher IgG1 Ab titers for BoRVA(P < 0.0171) and BCoV (P < 0.0200) in the offspring born to VAC total dams. The general incidence of diarrhea observed was 18.6% (11/59) and 29.3% (17/58) in the calves born to the VAC and NVAC group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prepartum vaccination with a single dose of the vaccine tested increased the titers of IgG1 Ab against BCoV and BoRVA, and it could be used as a preventive strategy to decrease the NCD occurrence in Nelore calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/veterinary , Female , Immunoglobulin G , Pregnancy , Vaccination/veterinary
3.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(12): 1482-1488, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess US veterinarians' perceptions regarding vaccine concerns (their own and owners') and the association between owners' vaccine concerns and COVID-19 antivaccination sentiments. SAMPLE: Members of the Veterinary Information Network. PROCEDURES: An electronic survey distributed via the Veterinary Information Network data collection portal. RESULTS: 1,341 US veterinarians completed the survey. Top veterinarian concerns for vaccinating a healthy adult dog were anaphylaxis, soreness at injection site, and lethargy; for cats, these concerns included vaccine-associated sarcoma, lethargy, and soreness at injection site. Veterinarians reported that the most common concerns mentioned by owners included that the pet does not go outside, that vaccinations are unnecessary, that vaccinations can lead to chronic or severe illness, and cost. Veterinarians reported an increased number of dog and cat owners reluctant about or resistant to the idea of rabies vaccines and core vaccines since the time that COVID-19 vaccines became widely available. There was an association between veterinarians' perceptions of local COVID-19 antivaccination sentiments and the increase in the number of vaccine-resistant or -concerned clients. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There appears to be little overlap between veterinarians' primary concerns related to vaccinations and their perception of dog and cat owners' primary concerns. The fact that the number of resistant clients is positively associated with the presence of veterinarians' perceptions of a local COVID-19 antivaccination sentiment suggests that human antivaccination sentiments impact pet owners' views of companion animal vaccinations. A better understanding of the cognitive biases that impact owners' vaccine decisions can help veterinarians better communicate with vaccine-reluctant clients and increase vaccination compliance rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Veterinarians , Veterinary Medicine , Humans , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Veterinarians/psychology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lethargy/veterinary , Ownership , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/veterinary
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9995, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900651

ABSTRACT

Interactions between the gut microbiota and the immune system may be involved in vaccine and infection responses. In the present study, we studied the interactions between caecal microbiota composition and parameters describing the immune response in six experimental inbred chicken lines harboring different MHC haplotypes. Animals were challenge-infected with the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and half of them were previously vaccinated against this pathogen. We explored to what extent the gut microbiota composition and the genetic line could be related to the immune response, evaluated through flow cytometry. To do so, we characterized the caecal bacterial communities with a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach performed one week after the IBV infectious challenge. We observed significant effects of both the vaccination and the genetic line on the microbiota after the challenge infection with IBV, with a lower bacterial richness in vaccinated chickens. We also observed dissimilar caecal community profiles among the different lines, and between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals. The effect of vaccination was similar in all the lines, with a reduced abundance of OTU from the Ruminococcacea UCG-014 and Faecalibacterium genera, and an increased abundance of OTU from the Eisenbergiella genus. The main association between the caecal microbiota and the immune phenotypes involved TCRϒδ expression on TCRϒδ+ T cells. This phenotype was negatively associated with OTU from the Escherichia-Shigella genus that were also less abundant in the lines with the highest responses to the vaccine. We proved that the caecal microbiota composition is associated with the IBV vaccine response level in inbred chicken lines, and that the TCRϒδ+ T cells (judged by TCRϒδ expression) may be an important component involved in this interaction, especially with bacteria from the Escherichia-Shigella genus. We hypothesized that bacteria from the Escherichia-Shigella genus increased the systemic level of bacterial lipid antigens, which subsequently mitigated poultry γδ T cells.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Microbiota , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Vaccination/veterinary
5.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875800

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromise is a common condition in cats, especially due to widespread infections with immunosuppressive viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), but also due to chronic non-infectious diseases, such as tumours, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease, as well as treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, such as glucocorticoids, cyclosporins, or tumour chemotherapy. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from eleven European countries, discusses the current knowledge and rationale for vaccination of immunocompromised cats. So far, there are few data available on vaccination of immunocompromised cats, and sometimes studies produce controversial results. Thus, this guideline summarizes the available scientific studies and fills in the gaps with expert opinion, where scientific studies are missing. Ultimately, this review aims to help veterinarians with their decision-making in how best to vaccinate immunocompromised cats.


Subject(s)
Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline , Leukemia Virus, Feline , Animals , Cats , Europe , Vaccination/veterinary
6.
Avian Pathol ; 51(3): 244-256, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873688

ABSTRACT

To achieve long term protection of laying and breeding hens against aberrant egg production caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a vaccination programme incorporating both live-attenuated and inactivated IBV vaccines is required. High quality IBV vaccines of both types are widely available, but the number of IBV variants of global importance continues to increase and it is not possible to develop vaccines against each one of them. Therefore, it is desirable to perform studies under controlled conditions to determine which IBV vaccine(s) provide the best protection for laying hens against different IBV challenges. Previous vaccination and challenge studies have shown that it is possible to obtain relevant data in a small number of laying hens housed under conditions of strict isolation. The present work extends this finding by investigating the efficacy, against challenge with five IBV strains of global importance, of an IBV vaccination programme including two live-attenuated IBV vaccines (Massachusetts and 793B types) and three different commercially available inactivated vaccines each containing antigen against at least one IBV strain. The results reported here confirm the importance of IBV vaccination for laying hens, show that efficient live priming makes a beneficial contribution to this protection and confirm that inactivated IBV vaccines contribute significantly to effective protection against at least the five IBV challenge strains used here. Furthermore, we provide data to support the "protectotype concept", long-established using different live-attenuated IBV vaccines in young chickens, is valid in broadening protection against IBV challenges in laying birds.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSIBV vaccination is essential as an aid in protecting laying hens against IBV infection.Live priming is a beneficial part of the IBV vaccination programme.IBV inactivated vaccine improves IBV protection.Heterologous IBV protection is confirmed in laying hens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Inactivated
7.
Science ; 375(6585): 1088-1089, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736007

ABSTRACT

How much do COVID-19 vaccines reduce transmission? The answer is a moving target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Herd , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/veterinary
8.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(4): 751-759, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539004

ABSTRACT

It has been a few months since the first batch of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines arrived in the Kurdistan region, and the priority was given to health workers at the forefront of the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The rollout is slow, and there is little evidence to suggest that the whole Kurdistan region is vaccinated anytime soon. This comprehensive and national survey was conducted to investigate the perception of the people of the Kurdistan region towards COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. An adjusted valid and dependable questionnaire was deployed via social media platforms (Facebook and Viber) to invite participants aged 18 and over from the residents of the four provinces of the Kurdistan region. A total of 450 individuals participated in this study. The majority of the participants were male (54.4%) who were aged 26-40 years with bachelor's degrees (44.3%). Moreover, they were full-time employees (37.8%) with a household income of 0-$5,000 (53.3%). They were the residence of urban regions (81.9%) and Sulaymaniyah province (87.7%). On the probability of getting a COVID-19 vaccine shot, the responses were very likely (26.7%), somewhat likely (24.9%), not likely (20%), and definitely not (28.4%). The vaccine hesitancy prevalence was high among individuals aged 26-40, students with low incomes, unemployed, and those from the suburban areas, while respondents with the least perceived threat to get infected with the COVID-19 in the next year had the highest level of vaccine hesitancy. It is evident that vaccine hesitancy is high, and multiple strategies across the Kurdistan region needed to be implemented to encourage people to get vaccinated; therefore, scientific communication is necessary with the help of mass media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/veterinary
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3114-3119, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526431

ABSTRACT

Current results do not provide conclusive evidence on the effect of BCG vaccination on COVID-19 alone or in combination with other factors. To address this limitation, in this study we used a citizen science initiative on the COVID-19 pandemic to collect data worldwide during 2 October 2020-30 October 2020 (1,233 individuals) in a structured way for analysing factors and characteristics of affected individuals in relation to BCG vaccination. For the first time, the results of our study suggested that vaccination with BCG may increase the risk for COVID-19 at certain age, particularly in individuals vaccinated at childhood. Childhood BCG vaccination increased the likelihood of being diagnosed with COVID-19 fivefold in COVID-19 low-incidence countries and threefold in high-incidence countries. A reasonable explanation for this effect is the activation of certain innate immunity mechanisms associated with inflammatory reactions. These factors should be considered when analysing the risks associated with this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Citizen Science , Animals , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/veterinary , Child , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/veterinary
10.
12.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104560, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857004

ABSTRACT

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an economically important avian disease that considerably threatens the global poultry industry. This is partly, as a result of its negative consequences on egg production, weight gain as well as mortality rate.The disease is caused by a constantly evolving avian infectious bronchitis virus whose isolates are classified into several serotypes and genotypes that demonstrate little or no cross protection. In order to curb the menace of the disease therefore, broad based vaccines are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to develop a recombinant DNA vaccine candidate for improved protection of avian infectious bronchitis in poultry. Using bioinformatics and molecular cloning procedures, sets of monovalent and bivalent DNA vaccine constructs were developed based on the S1 glycoprotein from classical and variants IBV strains namely, M41 and CR88 respectively. The candidate vaccine was then encapsulated with a chitosan and saponin formulated nanoparticle for enhanced immunogenicity and protective capacity. RT-PCR assay and IFAT were used to confirm the transcriptional and translational expression of the encoded proteins respectively, while ELISA and Flow-cytometry were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine following immunization of various SPF chicken groups (A-F). Furthermore, histopathological changes and virus shedding were determined by quantitative realtime PCR assay and lesion scoring procedure respectively following challenge of various subgroups with respective wild-type IBV viruses. Results obtained from this study showed that, groups vaccinated with a bivalent DNA vaccine construct (pBudCR88-S1/M41-S1) had a significant increase in anti-IBV antibodies, CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells responses as compared to non-vaccinated groups. Likewise, the bivalent vaccine candidate significantly decreased the oropharyngeal and cloacal virus shedding (p < 0.05) compared to non-vaccinated control. Chickens immunized with the bivalent vaccine also exhibited milder clinical signs as well as low tracheal and kidney lesion scores following virus challenge when compared to control groups. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing dual S1 glycoprotein induced strong immune responses capable of protecting chickens against infection with both M41 and CR88 IBV strains. Moreso, it was evident that encapsulation of the vaccine with chitosan-saponin nanoparticle further enhanced immune responses and abrogates the need for multiple booster administration of vaccine. Therefore, the bivalent DNA vaccine could serve as efficient and effective alternative strategy for the control of IB in poultry.


Subject(s)
Chitosan/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchitis/immunology , Bronchitis/prevention & control , Bronchitis/veterinary , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Chickens , Chitosan/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Protection , Immunity, Cellular , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Saponins/chemistry , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, DNA/chemistry , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 230-236, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826691

ABSTRACT

Houhai acupoint (HA) is a site for acupuncture stimulation, located in the fossa between the anus and tail base in animals. To evaluate HA as a potential immunization site, the immune responses were compared when HA and the conventional site nape were vaccinated in rats. The results showed that injection of a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccine in HA induced significantly higher IgG, IgG1, IgG2, splenocyte proliferation and mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ than in the nape. To search for the underlying mechanisms, the draining lymph nodes for HA and the nape were investigated. When rats were injected in HA with Indian ink, 11 lymph nodes including caudal mesenteric lymph node and bilateral gluteal lymph nodes, posterior inguinal lymph nodes, lumbar lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes and popliteal lymph nodes were visibly stained with the ink and injection of a model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) in HA resulted in detection of OVA by western blotting while in the same lymph nodes only a pair of lymph nodes (central brachial lymph nodes) were observed when Indian ink or OVA was injected in the nape. IL-2 mRNA expression was detected in all the lymph nodes when PEDV vaccine was injected. Therefore, the enhanced immune response elicited by vaccination in HA may be attributed to more lymphocytes activated.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/physiopathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination/veterinary , Animals , Female , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 21-28, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822641

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific-pathogen-free chickens. Most common field vaccine programmes were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco/SF1/2016 (Mor-H9N2) were thus inoculated to commercial chickens. We showed that vaccination with two heterologous IBV vaccines (H120 at day one and 4/91 at day 14 of age) reduced the severity of clinical signs as well as macroscopic lesions after simultaneous experimental challenge. In addition, LPAI H9N2 vaccination was more efficient at day 7 than at day 1 in limiting disease post simultaneous challenge.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Simultaneous challenge with IBV and AIV H9N2 induced higher pathogenicity in SPF birds than inoculation with IBV or AIV H9N2 alone.Recommended vaccination programme in commercial broilers to counter Mor-IT02 IBV and LPAIV H9N2 simultaneous infections: IB live vaccine H120 (d1), AIV H9N2 inactivated vaccine (d7), IB live vaccine 4-91 (d14).


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chick Embryo , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Morocco , Oropharynx/virology , Pilot Projects , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Trachea/pathology , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines , Virus Shedding
15.
Vet Rec ; 186(9): 262, 2020 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820519
16.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104553, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808667

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes an emerging and re-emerging coronavirus disease characterized by vomiting, acute diarrhea, dehydration, and up to 100% mortality in neonatal suckling piglets, leading to huge economic losses in the global swine industry. Vaccination remains the most promising and effective way to prevent and control PEDV. However, effective vaccines for PEDV are still under development. Understanding the genomic structure and function of PEDV and the influence of the viral components on innate immunity is essential for developing effective vaccines. In the current review, we systematically describe the recent developments in vaccine against PEDV and the roles of structural proteins, non-structural proteins and accessory proteins of PEDV in affecting viral virulence and regulating innate immunity, which will provide insight into the rational design of effective and safe vaccines for PEDV or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunity, Innate , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virulence
17.
Br Poult Sci ; 62(1): 32-37, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740058

ABSTRACT

1. A vaccination regime is a schedule for the administration of vaccines which may vary according to country or even by farm. This study aimed to measure the production and health performance of broilers treated with different vaccination regimes. 2. A total of 108 Cobb 500 broiler birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups, with six replicates consisting of six birds per replicate. Each treatment group was administered with different vaccination regimes against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bronchitis (IB) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD). Treatment 1 (T1) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB and IBD on days 7 and 14 of age, respectively (control); Treatment 2 (T2) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB on days 3 and 7 of age, and IBD on day 14; and Treatment 3 (T3) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB on days 7 and 21 and IBD on day 14. Throughout the 42-day study period, data and samples were collected to determine the growth performance, immune status, carcase characteristics and meat quality. 3. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) on growth performance (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and cumulative feed conversion ratio), white blood cell count (heterophils percentage, lymphocytes percentage and heterophils to lymphocytes ratio), carcase characteristics (kill-out weight, de-feathered weight, dressing percentage, drumsticks and gastrointestinal tract weight) and meat quality (cooking loss and drip loss) between treatments. T1 broilers showed better growth, white blood cell count, carcase characteristics and meat quality compared to T2 and T3 broilers. 4. Based on findings from the current work, vaccination against ND+IB and IBD on days 7 and 14 proved to be the best vaccination regime for broiler production, due to the better production performance and health status of broilers.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed , Chickens , Newcastle Disease , Vaccination , Animals , Meat , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Vaccination/veterinary
18.
Vaccine ; 38(33): 5123-5130, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592011

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19 has set off an urgent search for an effective vaccine. This search may well benefit from the experiences of the animal health profession in the development and use of coronavirus vaccines in domestic animal species. These animal vaccines will in no way protect humans against COVID-19 but knowledge of the difficulties encountered in vaccinating animals may help avoid or minimize similar problems arising in humans. Diverse coronaviruses can infect the domestic species from dogs and cats, to cattle and pigs to poultry. Many of these infections are controlled by routine vaccination. Thus, canine coronavirus vaccines are protective in puppies but the disease itself is mild and self-limiting. Feline coronavirus infections may be mild or may result in a lethal immune-mediated disease - feline infectious peritonitis. As a result, vaccination of domestic cats must seek to generate- protective immunity without causing immune-mediated disease. Vaccines against bovine coronavirus are widely employed in cattle where they protect against enteric and respiratory disease in young calves. Two major livestock species suffer from economically significant and severe coronavirus diseases. Thus, pigs may be infected with six different coronaviruses, one of which, porcine epidemic diarrhea, has proven difficult to control despite the development of several innovative vaccines. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus undergoes frequent genetic changes. Likewise, infectious bronchitis coronavirus causes an economically devastating disease of chickens. It too undergoes frequent genetic shifts and as a result, can only be controlled by extensive and repeated vaccination. Other issues that have been encountered in developing these animal vaccines include a relatively short duration of protective immunity, and a lack of effectiveness of inactivated vaccines. On the other hand, they have been relatively cheap to make and lend themselves to mass vaccination procedures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Livestock , Pets , Vaccination/veterinary , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Cats , Cattle , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dogs , Poultry , Swine
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