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1.
Public Health ; 209: e7-e8, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232572
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(3): 699-710, 2023 Mar.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326648

ABSTRACT

The scope of this study is to analyze the risk classification of transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in the 853 municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais (MG) two years after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is an epidemiological study with secondary data on vaccination coverage and dropout rate of ten immuno-biologicals recommended for under 2-year-old children in 2021 in MG. With respect to the dropout rate, this indicator was only evaluated for the multidose vaccines. After calculating all the indicators, the municipalities of the state were classified according to the transmission risk of VPDs into five categories: very low, low, medium, high, and very high risk. Minas Gerais had 80.9% of municipalities classified as high transmission risk for VPDs. Regarding the homogeneity of vaccination coverage (HCV), large municipalities had the highest percentage of HCV classified as very low, and 100% of these municipalities were classified as high or very high risk for transmission of VPDs, with statistical significance. The use of immunization indicators by municipality is effective for the classification of the scenario of each territory and the proposal of public policies seeking to increase vaccination coverage.


O objetivo é analisar a classificação de risco de transmissão de doenças imunopreveníveis nos 853 municípios de Minas Gerais (MG) após dois anos de início da pandemia de COVID-19. Estudo epidemiológico com dados secundários da cobertura vacinal e taxa de abandono de dez imunobiológicos recomendados para crianças menores de 2 anos, no ano de 2021, em MG. Em relação à taxa de abandono, este indicador foi avaliado somente para as vacinas multidoses. Após o cálculo de todos os indicadores, os municípios do estado foram classificados de acordo com o risco de transmissão de doenças imunopreveníveis em cinco estratos. Minas Gerais apresentou 80,9% dos municípios classificados como alto risco para transmissão de doenças imunopreveníveis. Em relação à homogeneidade das coberturas vacinais (HCV), os municípios de grande porte apresentaram a maior porcentagem de HCV classificada como muito baixa e 100% desses municípios foram classificados como de alto ou muito alto risco para transmissão de doenças imunopreveníveis, com significância estatística. A utilização de indicadores de imunização por município é efetiva para o delineamento do cenário de cada território e a proposição de políticas públicas em saúde visando o aumento das coberturas vacinais.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Child, Preschool , Brazil/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e071381, 2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321709

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historic disruption in health infrastructure combined with data from a recent vaccine coverage survey suggests there are likely significant immunity gaps to vaccine preventable diseases and high risk of outbreaks in Timor-Leste. Community-based serological surveillance is an important tool to augment understanding of population-level immunity achieved through vaccine coverage and/or derived from prior infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This national population-representative serosurvey will take a three-stage cluster sample and aims to include 5600 individuals above 1 year of age. Serum samples will be collected by phlebotomy and analysed for measles IgG, rubella IgG, SARS-CoV-2 antispike protein IgG, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antigen using commercially available chemiluminescent immunoassays or ELISA. In addition to crude prevalence estimates and to account for differences in Timor-Leste's age structure, stratified age-standardised prevalence estimates will be calculated, using Asia in 2013 as the standard population. Additionally, this survey will derive a national asset of serum and dried blood spot samples which can be used for further investigation of infectious disease seroepidemiology and/or validation of existing and novel serological assays for infectious diseases. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Research Ethics and Technical Committee of the Instituto Nacional da Saúde, Timor-Leste and the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research, Australia. Co-designing this study with Timor-Leste's Ministry-of-Health and other relevant partner organisations will allow immediate translation of findings into public health policy, which may include changes to routine immunisation service delivery and/or plans for supplementary immunisation activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Timor-Leste/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Northern Territory
4.
Ann Med ; 55(1): 2196436, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300893

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite recommendations for influenza and COVID-19 vaccines, studies have documented gaps and disparities in vaccination coverage for adults and adolescents. Understanding the proportion and demographics of those unvaccinated against influenza and/or COVID-19 is important for tailoring appropriate messaging and strategies to increase confidence and uptake. METHODS: Using the 2021 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we assessed the prevalence of four vaccination patterns (exclusive influenza vaccination, exclusive COVID-19 vaccination, dual influenza and COVID-19 vaccination, and neither vaccination) by sociodemographic and other characteristics among adults and adolescents 12-17 years. Adjusted multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with each of the four vaccination categories among adults and adolescents. RESULTS: In 2021, 42.5% of adults and 28.3% of adolescents received both influenza and COVID-19 vaccines, while approximately a quarter (22.4%) of adults and a third (34.0%) of adolescents did not receive either vaccine. Among adults and adolescents, 6.0% and 11.4% were exclusively vaccinated against influenza and 29.1% and 26.4% were exclusively vaccinated against COVID-19, respectively. Among adults, exclusive COVID-19 or dual vaccination was more likely to be associated with older age, non-Hispanic multi/other race, and having a college degree compared to their respective counterparts. Exclusive influenza or neither vaccination was more likely to be associated with younger age, having a high school diploma or less, living below the poverty level, and having a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, approximately two-thirds of adolescents and three-fourths of adults received exclusive influenza or COVID-19 vaccines or both vaccines in 2021. Vaccination patterns differed by sociodemographic and other characteristics. Promoting confidence in vaccines and reducing barriers to access is needed to protect individuals and families from severe health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases. Being up-to-date with all recommended vaccinations can prevent a future resurgence of hospitalizations and cases.Key messages42.5% of adults and 28.3% of adolescents received both influenza and COVID-19 vaccines in 2021, while approximately a quarter (22.4%) of adults and a third (34.0%) of adolescents did not receive either vaccine; 6.0% of adults and 11.4% of adolescents were exclusively vaccinated against influenza and 29.1% of adults and 26.4% of adolescents were exclusively vaccinated against COVID-19.Among adults, exclusive COVID-19 vaccination or dual vaccination was more likely to be associated with older age, non-Hispanic multi/other race, and having a college degree or higher compared to their respective counterparts; exclusive influenza vaccination or neither vaccination was more likely to be associated with younger age, having a high school diploma or less, living below poverty level, and having a previous COVID-19 diagnosis compared to their respective counterparts.Promoting confidence in vaccines and reducing barriers to access is needed to protect individuals and families from severe health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases. Being up-to-date with all recommended vaccinations can prevent a future resurgence of hospitalizations and cases, especially as new variants emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 Testing , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(2): 26-32, 2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204203

ABSTRACT

State and local school vaccination requirements protect students and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage and exemptions to vaccination among children in kindergarten in 49 states† and the District of Columbia and provisional enrollment or grace period status for kindergartners in 27 states§ for the 2021-22 school year. Nationwide, vaccination coverage with 2 doses of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR) was 93.5%¶; with the state-required number of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) doses was 93.1%**; with poliovirus vaccine (polio) was 93.5%††; and with the state-required number of varicella vaccine doses was 92.8%.§§ Compared with the 2020-21 school year, vaccination coverage decreased 0.4-0.9 percentage points for all vaccines. Although 2.6% of kindergartners had an exemption for at least one vaccine,¶¶ an additional 3.9% who did not have an exemption were not up to date with MMR. Although there has been a nearly complete return to in-person learning after COVID-19 pandemic-associated disruptions, immunization programs continued to report COVID-19-related impacts on vaccination assessment and coverage. Follow-up with undervaccinated students and catch-up campaigns remain important for increasing vaccination coverage to prepandemic levels to protect children and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , Pandemics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Vaccination , Schools , District of Columbia
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(7): 2154099, 2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166140

ABSTRACT

With multiple waves and variants, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected routine vaccination programs globally. Its impact is also visible in Pakistan as routine health services continue to be disrupted. Consequently, thousands of children have emerged as vulnerable in the face of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), which have already started causing outbreaks in the country. Infections with polio and measles have been significantly reported, especially during the last few years. This reemergence of both diseases is posing great challenges for the country at local, national, and global levels. These impacts are being multiplied by the 2022 flooding - called "super floods" - in the country. Hence, relevant stakeholders, such as the Pakistani government and the World Health Organization (WHO), need to revisit the entire vaccination program to address and resolve issues occurring at the management or local levels. It is highly important to pay attention to the context that provides a fertile ground to negatively affect vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Poliomyelitis , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pakistan/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Floods , Vaccination , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Measles Vaccine
8.
Vaccine ; 41(6): 1254-1264, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults are at increased risk for adverse health outcomes when having an influenza, pneumococcal disease, pertussis, or herpes zoster infection. Despite the ability of vaccinations to prevent these adverse outcomes, vaccination coverage is low in the European Union. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health-related characteristics associated with vaccination willingness for these vaccine-preventable diseases. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from wave 6 (years 2013-2017) of the population-based Doetinchem Cohort Study was analysed, with 3063 participants aged 46-86 years included. The outcome was the self-reported willingness to get vaccinated against influenza, pneumococcal disease, pertussis, and herpes zoster (willing, neutral, not willing). Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics associated with vaccination willingness. RESULTS: For influenza 36 % was willing to get vaccinated, 35 % was neutral and 28 % was not willing to get vaccinated. The willingness to get vaccinated for the relatively unfamiliar vaccine-preventable diseases was lower: 26 % for pneumococcal disease (neutral: 50 %, not willing: 23 %), 26 % for pertussis (neutral 53 %, not willing: 22 %), and 23 % for herpes zoster (neutral 54 %, not willing: 24 %). A relative lower willingness was found among those 46-64 years old (compared to those 65 years or older). Women, having a high SES, being employed and having a good health were all associated with lower willingness to get vaccinated, which was the case for all vaccine-preventable diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults were generally more willing to get vaccinated against influenza than for the three less familiar diseases. Characteristics of those less willing may be used to improve strategies to increase vaccination coverage. Additional studies are needed to investigate the willingness to get vaccinated during and after the COVID-19 pandemic that may have changed the feel of urgency for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Whooping Cough , Humans , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Vaccination , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S203-S207, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162896

ABSTRACT

Global emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 curtailed vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) surveillance activities, but little is known about which surveillance components were most affected. In May 2021, we surveyed 214 STOP (originally Stop Transmission of Polio) Program consultants to determine how VPD surveillance activities were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic throughout 2020, primarily in low- and middle-income countries, where program consultants are deployed. Our report highlights the responses from 154 (96%) of the 160 consultants deployed to the World Health Organization African Region, which comprises 75% (160/214) of all STOP Program consultants deployed globally in early 2021. Most survey respondents observed that VPD surveillance activities were somewhat or severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Reprioritization of surveillance staff and changes in health-seeking behaviors were factors commonly perceived to decrease VPD surveillance activities. Our findings suggest the need for strategies to restore VPD surveillance to prepandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , World Health Organization
10.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(11): e426-e430, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110337

ABSTRACT

The landscape of pediatric vaccination has changed dramatically due to changing attitudes toward immunizations and recent world events. The rise of vaccine hesitancy and refusal related to the concurrent rise of social media and anti-vaccination messages with misinformation campaigns have led to populations of children being unimmunized or under-immunized. These populations have been left vulnerable to the rapid spread of vaccine-preventable infection. Additionally, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the clinical syndrome known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in the emergence of a worldwide pandemic. Control measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 resulted in numerous reports of children missing routine vaccines along with the stopping of many public health immunization programs. Finally, armed conflicts and war have led to large family migrations from their homelands to various countries and regions leading to increased risk for missed maternal and child immunization as well as difficulty in keeping vaccination records. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(11):e426-e430.].


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization Programs , Disinformation , Emigration and Immigration , Mothers , Vaccination Refusal
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7285-7289, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as a global pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted health services, including immunization programs, with a consequent reduction in vaccination coverage in those categories for which the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases is strongly recommended. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on the general population and on PLWHs, comparing anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage data in 2019, before COVID-19 pandemic, and the 2020 data, after the announcement of the pandemic state and the lockdown and the implementation of restrictive measures to contain the contagion. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, 2020 data show a 42% reduction in HPV vaccine coverage in the general population and 36% in PLWHs. The greatest reduction in anti-HPV vaccination coverage occurred during periods of greatest restriction and mainly concerned the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases remains essential. Above all, it is essential to increase and recover the anti-HPV vaccine coverage, in consideration of the data that show its preventive oncological efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
14.
Vaccine ; 40(42): 6017-6022, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031735

ABSTRACT

In 2020, 26 million refugees resettled in a new country-fleeing their homes due to conflict and persecution. Due to low immunization coverage and underlying health conditions, refugees commonly face an increased risk of contracting vaccine-preventable diseases. We collected and analyzed existing routine immunization policies for refugees across 20 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and 20 high-income countries (HICs), each with the highest number of refugees per 1000 residents. Primary and secondary data sources were used to collect policy evidence. Across 20 LMICs, 13 countries specified standing nationwide routine immunization policies for refugees, while 14 out of the 20 HICs included refugees in their national routine immunization programs. LMICs and HICs should include refugees in their national routine immunization policies and provide accessible and affordable immunizations. Such efforts would reduce vaccine-preventable diseases and protect the health of refugee populations-especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Pandemics , Policy
15.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(11): 1621-1636, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a threat that has posed a challenge to public health response and threatens immunization programs globally. Despite recommendations to continue routine immunization services, disruptions have been observed to these and mass vaccination campaigns. This may result in setbacks to immunization initiative successes and a rise in cases of vaccine-preventable diseases. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies globally that described how indicators of health system resilience, defined using the Resilient Health System Framework, enabled routine immunizations to continue during the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search was conducted in Embase, Web of Science, PsychInfo, medRxiv, bioRxiv, and the gray literature between 1 January 2020, and 12 November 2021. Information was extracted from the studies identified describing how the specific elements of resiliency (being aware, diverse, self-regulating, integrated, and adaptive) were applied to their routine immunization programs. EXPERT OPINION: Our study demonstrates the use of tools that contributed to immunization program resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic in all geographic regions and for countries with different income levels. These tools may help inform preparations for other immunization programs to catch up from the COVID-19 pandemic or mitigate the impact of future threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Immunization
16.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(11): 1541-1553, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004905

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the first months of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic that begun in 2020, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been adopted worldwide. However, the effects of NPI implementation go beyond slowing the spread of COVID-19. Here, we review the non-intended effects that may have arisen from prolonged application of NPIs. AREAS COVERED: NPIs also affected the epidemiology of other infectious diseases, with unprecedentedly low circulation of several respiratory and gastrointestinal viruses being observed worldwide in 2020. While this was a welcome effect for already strained health-care systems, prolonged low exposure to pathogens may result in an increased pool of individuals susceptible to certain diseases. Out-of-season or unusually intense outbreaks of non-vaccine preventable diseases have already been documented as NPIs were gradually eased. In the context of widespread and important disruptions in national vaccination programs during the early phase of the pandemic, the risk of vaccine-preventable disease resurgence after NPIs are lifted cannot be excluded either. EXPERT OPINION: Awareness must be raised of the risk of vaccine-preventable disease resurgence, and efforts need to be made to mitigate this risk, where possible, by increasing vaccination coverage. Research and regulatory opportunities brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic should be seized.


In the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the only methods available to slow the spread of the disease were non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as lockdowns, mask wearing, social distancing, school closures, and travel bans. Even after vaccines against COVID-19 became available, combinations of non-pharmaceutical interventions continued to be implemented by most countries, to various extents. Although these measures lowered the number of people who got sick before vaccines and therapies against COVID-19 were available, they also had other consequences for public health. The non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented worldwide have slowed or even stopped the spread of several infectious diseases: since 2020, fewer cases of flu, bronchiolitis, gastroenteritis, and other diseases were recorded compared to pre-pandemic times. This relatively long 2-year period during which people, especially children, were exposed to fewer infections might mean that their immune systems are less prepared to fight these diseases. In addition, vaccination against diseases other than COVID-19 dropped in the early months of the pandemic, meaning that the number of children and adults who are not protected against vaccine-preventable disease has potentially increased. Easing of COVID-19 restrictions has caused a comeback of some diseases against which no vaccine is available, sometimes with more cases than during the pre-pandemic years; there is a risk that this might happen with vaccine-preventable diseases as well. To prevent outbreaks, routine and catch-up vaccinations against other diseases besides COVID-19 should be encouraged and promoted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e05922021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968887

ABSTRACT

Over the years, vaccinations have provided significant advances in public health, because they substantially reduce the morbimortality of vaccine-preventable diseases. Nevertheless, many people are still hesitant to be vaccinated. Brazil is a region of many anti-vaccine movements, and several outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as yellow fever and measles, have occurred in the country during the last few years. To avoid new outbreaks, immunization coverage must be high; however, this is a great challenge to achieve due to the countless anti-vaccine movements. The World Health Organization has suggested new actions for the next decade via the Immunization Agenda 2030 to control, reduce, or eradicate vaccine-preventable diseases. Nonetheless, the vaccination coverage has decreased recently. To resolve the anti-vaccine issue, it is necessary to propose a long-term approach that involves innovative education programs on immunization and critical thinking, using different communication channels, including social media. Cooperation among biology and health scientists, ethicists, human scientists, policymakers, journalists, and civil society is essential for an in-depth understanding of the social action of vaccine refusal and planning effective education measures to increase the vaccine coverage.


Subject(s)
Measles , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Anti-Vaccination Movement , Brazil , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Vaccination
19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(7): 1551-1561, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920346

ABSTRACT

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) such as influenza or herpes zoster contribute significantly to the increased risk of older adults for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, neurological, and renal complications in the period after illnesses. However, since the period of elevated risk can persist well beyond the duration of the acute illness, the connection is not always recognized. To obtain insights into the relationship between diagnoses for vaccine-preventable disease and for other conditions, we analyzed principal and secondary diagnoses for 3,127,768 inpatient admissions of adults 50 years and older in the United States, using medical insurance claims drawn from the IBM® MarketScan® Research Databases (Marketscan). The Marketscan data indicated that overall, 3.1% of these hospitalizations had a principal diagnosis of VPD with variation by month of admission, and age. However, hospitalizations with a principal non-VPD diagnosis but secondary VPD diagnoses were 2.8 times more frequent, with particularly high rates in those whose principal diagnoses were non-VPD respiratory or circulatory disease. Hospitalized patients with a secondary VPD diagnosis tended to have poorer discharge outcomes, and longer length of stay in comparison to hospitalized patients without a secondary VPD diagnosis. In total, these data are consistent with suggestions that VPDs play a significant and potentially under-estimated role in hospitalization and outcomes, which may be potentially preventable by improved vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
Herpes Zoster , Influenza, Human , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , United States , Vaccination
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060407, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896058

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity among the highly vulnerable occupants of residential aged care facilities (RACFs). The burden of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) among RACFs residents is mostly unknown and there is a lack of quality data from population-based prospective VPD surveillance in RACFs. The increasing burden of emerging and existing VPDs (eg, COVID-19, influenza, pneumococcal, pertussis and varicella-zoster) necessitates the establishment of an active enhanced surveillance system to provide real-time evidence to devise strategies to reduce the burden of VPDs in RACFs. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: This study proposes a prospective active enhanced surveillance that will be implemented in RACFs across the Central Queensland (CQ) region. The study aims to measure the burden, identify aetiologies, risk factors, predictors of severe outcomes (eg, hospitalisations, mortality) and impact of the existing National Immunization Program (NIP) funded vaccines in preventing VPDs in this vulnerable population. CQ Public Health Unit (CQPHU) will implement the active surveillance by collecting demographic, clinical, pathological, diagnostic, therapeutic and clinical outcome data from the RACFs based on predefined selection criteria and case report forms as per routine public health practices. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate regression analysis will be conducted to identify the predictors of morbidity and clinical outcomes following infection. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the CQHHS Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) (reference number HREC/2021/QCQ/74305). This study involves data that is routinely collected as part of the surveillance of notifiable conditions under the Public Health Act 2005. The CQHHS HREC approved a request to waive consent requirements of study participants as researchers will be provided non-identifiable data. The findings from the study will be actively disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social and print media, federal, state, and local authorities to reflect on the results that may facilitate revision of policy and highlight the stakeholders, funding bodies both locally and internationally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Aged , Humans , Queensland , Prospective Studies , Australia/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic
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