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4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 819829, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198682

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a serious public health problem since the first major outbreak in 2007. Current ZIKV diagnostic methods can successfully identify known ZIKV but are impossible to track the origin of viruses and pathogens other than known ZIKV strains. We planned to determine the ability of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) in clinical epidemiology by evaluating whether it can successfully detect the origin of ZIKV in a suspected case of laboratory-acquired infection (LAI). ZIKV found in the patient sample was sequenced with nanopore sequencing technology, followed by the production of the phylogenetic tree, based on the alignment of 38 known ZIKV strains with the consensus sequence. The closest viral strain with the consensus sequence was the strain used in the laboratory, with a percent identity of 99.27%. We think WGS showed its time-effectiveness and ability to detect the difference between strains to the level of a single base. Additionally, to determine the global number of LAIs, a literature review of articles published in the last 10 years was performed, and 53 reports of 338 LAIs were found. The lack of a universal reporting system was worrisome, as in the majority of cases (81.1%), the exposure route was unknown.


Subject(s)
Nanopores , Vaccines , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Phylogeny , Whole Genome Sequencing , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
5.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 87, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196537

ABSTRACT

Misinformation has been a pressing issue since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, threatening our ability to effectively act on the crisis. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of fake news on behavioural intentions. Does exposure to or belief in misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines affect people's intentions to receive such a vaccine? This paper attempts to address this question via three preregistered experiments (N = 3463). In Study 1, participants (n = 1269) were exposed to fabricated pro- or anti-vaccine information or to neutral true information, and then asked about their intentions to get vaccinated. In Study 2, participants (n = 646) were exposed to true pro- and anti-vaccine information, while Study 3 (n = 1548) experimentally manipulated beliefs in novel misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines by increasing exposure to the information. The results of these three studies showed that exposure to false information about the vaccines had little effect on participants' intentions to get vaccinated, even when multiple exposures led them to believe the headlines to be more accurate. An exploratory meta-analysis of studies 1 and 3, with a combined sample size of 2683, showed that exposure to false information both supporting and opposing COVID-19 vaccines actually increased vaccination intentions, though the effect size was very small. We conclude by cautioning researchers against equating exposure to misinformation or perceived accuracy of false news with actual behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Vaccination
6.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 14(6): e1809, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170335

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid therapeutics can be used to control virtually every aspect of cell behavior and therefore have significant potential to treat genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. However, while clinically approved to treat a small number of diseases, the full potential of nucleic acid therapeutics is hampered by inefficient delivery. Nucleic acids are large, highly charged biomolecules that are sensitive to degradation and so the approaches to deliver these molecules differ significantly from traditional small molecule drugs. Current studies suggest less than 1% of the injected nucleic acid dose is delivered to the target cell in an active form. This inefficient delivery increases costs and limits their use to applications where a small amount of nucleic acid is sufficient. In this review, we focus on two of the major barriers to efficient nucleic acid delivery: (1) delivery to the target cell and (2) transport to the subcellular compartment where the nucleic acids are therapeutically active. We explore how nanoparticles can be modified with targeting ligands to increase accumulation in specific cells, and how the composition of the nanoparticle can be engineered to manipulate or disrupt cellular membranes and facilitate delivery to the optimal subcellular compartments. Finally, we highlight how with intelligent material design, nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed to deliver nucleic acids that silence aberrant genes, correct genetic mutations, and act as both therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Lipid-Based Structures.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Vaccines , Humans , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Genetic Therapy/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2076989, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160736
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1485-1496, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159175

ABSTRACT

Treatment with immune-modifying biologics has positively impacted disease control and quality of life in many patients with immune-mediated disorders. However, the higher susceptibility to common and opportunistic pathogens is of concern. Thus, immunization strategies to control vaccine-preventable diseases represent a critical issue in this population. However, limited data exist on the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of available vaccines in patients on biologics, particularly in children. Here, according to published literature and real-life experience and practice, we report the interim indications of the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) Vaccine Committee and of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network (IPINet) Centers on immunization of children and adolescents receiving biologics. Our aim is to provide a practical guidance for the clinician to ensure optimal protection for patients and the community.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Vaccines , Adolescent , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Immunization , Quality of Life , Vaccination , Vaccines/therapeutic use
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960985, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154722

ABSTRACT

One of the primary tasks in vaccine design and development of immunotherapeutic drugs is to predict conformational B-cell epitopes corresponding to primary antibody binding sites within the antigen tertiary structure. To date, multiple approaches have been developed to address this issue. However, for a wide range of antigens their accuracy is limited. In this paper, we applied the transfer learning approach using pretrained deep learning models to develop a model that predicts conformational B-cell epitopes based on the primary antigen sequence and tertiary structure. A pretrained protein language model, ESM-1v, and an inverse folding model, ESM-IF1, were fine-tuned to quantitatively predict antibody-antigen interaction features and distinguish between epitope and non-epitope residues. The resulting model called SEMA demonstrated the best performance on an independent test set with ROC AUC of 0.76 compared to peer-reviewed tools. We show that SEMA can quantitatively rank the immunodominant regions within the SARS-CoV-2 RBD domain. SEMA is available at https://github.com/AIRI-Institute/SEMAi and the web-interface http://sema.airi.net.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antigens , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mucosal Immunol ; 15(6): 1058-1059, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151018

Subject(s)
Milk, Human , Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Milk
12.
Lancet ; 399(10334): 1452-1453, 2022 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150851
13.
Aten Primaria ; 54 Suppl 1: 102462, 2022 Oct.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149326

ABSTRACT

The update of the preventive activities for this year 2022 in the field of infectious diseases is of special relevance due to the importance that prevention has gained and more specifically, vaccination as a tool to control the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared on March 11, 2020. The pandemic has focused much of the prevention efforts on its containment, but the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage of the rest of the recommended vaccines to maintain good control of vaccine-preventable diseases and avoid complications in particularly vulnerable patients should not be forgotten. In this year's review we present a practical document with the aim of providing tools to primary care professionals who work with adults, to make the indication of each vaccine whether it is systematically recommended or if it is because the patient belongs to some risk group due to their condition or underlying pathology. In this way, throughout the document, we will comment on the most innovative aspects of systematic vaccination (flu, pneumococcus, meningococcal vaccines and vaccines against the human papillomavirus [HPV]), the new vaccines (pandemic vaccines against COVID-19, vaccines against herpes zoster of subunits, vaccines against monkeypox) and the recommended vaccines according to risk condition (pregnancy and lactation, travelers, patients with immunosuppression or underlying pathology).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy decreases adult vaccination coverage and has been recognized by WHO as a major health threat. Primary care physicians (PCP) play a key role in vaccination by giving vaccine counselling to their patients. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and barriers (KBAB) associated with own vaccination and patient recommendation in primary care physicians. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were used to search and identify relevant studies based on their title and abstract. In the next step, the full text of each previously selected article was read for eligibility. Articles were selected by two independent reviewers and data extraction was performed using tables. The following information was extracted: methodological characteristics, demographic factors, professional characteristics, and intrinsic or extrinsic factors influencing vaccination or recommendation. RESULTS: Our search yielded 41 eligible papers, data-sources, previous practices, belief in the effectiveness or safety of the vaccine, perceived risk, and trust in health authorities were all shown to be related to own vaccination and patient recommendation. CONCLUSION: Internet is the main source of information for PCP related to vaccine hesitancy. It is therefore essential to increase the presence and access to pro-vaccination content in this area. In addition, involving PCP in the establishment of vaccination recommendations could improve their credibility in the institutions. On the other hand, training in communication skills and establishing reminder systems could reflect higher vaccination coverage among their patients.


Subject(s)
Physicians, Primary Care , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Vaccination , Trust , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
17.
Nat Immunol ; 23(11): 1517-1519, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2147972
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 969370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163169

ABSTRACT

A critical step to reduce the spread of COVID-19 is vaccination. We conducted a mixed methods project that used online surveys and focus groups with 64 Community Health Workers and Promotor/as (CHW/Ps) located near the U.S.-Mexico border to identify barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination among Latino communities that have been historically underrepresented and medically underserved. Overall, personal barriers to vaccination included mistrust of manufacturers and administrators as well as fear of: becoming infected from the vaccine, discrimination/stigmatization from healthcare professionals administering the vaccine, exploitation/manipulation by the government or health authorities, and having personal information mishandled. Environmental and community barriers included being undocumented and fear-inducing myths and beliefs. Additional barriers included limited information and logistics pertaining to vaccination access. Targeted efforts are needed to overcome barriers in a culturally and contextually sensitive manner to prevent harm and reduce risk of infection among communities that have been historically underrepresented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , United States , Humans , Community Health Workers , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Hispanic or Latino
20.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268063, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to identify the drivers of willingness to receive new vaccines against emerging and epidemic diseases. A discrete choice experiment is the ideal approach to evaluating how individuals weigh multiple attributes simultaneously. We assessed the degree to which six attributes were associated with willingness to be vaccinated among university students in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a single-profile discrete choice experiment at Makerere University in 2019. Participants were asked whether or not they would be vaccinated in 8 unique scenarios where attributes varied by disease risk, disease severity, advice for or against vaccination from trusted individuals, recommendations from influential figures, whether the vaccine induced indirect protection, and side effects. We calculated predicted probabilities of vaccination willingness using mixed logistic regression models, comparing health professional students with all other disciplines. FINDINGS: Of the 1576 participants, 783 (49.8%) were health professional students and 685 (43.5%) were female. Vaccination willingness was high (78%), and higher among health students than other students. We observed the highest vaccination willingness for the most severe disease outcomes and the greatest exposure risks, along with the Minister of Health's recommendation or a vaccine that extended secondary protection to others. Mild side effects and recommendations against vaccination diminished vaccination willingness. INTERPRETATION: Our results can be used to develop evidence-based messaging to encourage uptake for new vaccines. Future vaccination campaigns, such as for COVID-19 vaccines in development, should consider acknowledging individual risk of exposure and disease severity and incorporate recommendations from key health leaders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Students , Uganda , Universities , Vaccination
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