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2.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 45(1): 98-106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612704

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are effective measures that can mitigate the high burden of diseases. However, vaccine refusal poses serious challenges for achieving coverage for population immunity. With the availability of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, limited information is available about the university students' acceptability and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. This article reports study findings regarding factors that influence university students' decision of acceptability to the COVID-19 vaccine in Jordan. Results highlight the continued need for clear and consistent information about the vaccine by health care decision-makers and university administrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Jordan , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 11, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicines and vaccines supply chains represent critical systems for realising one of the major targets of the United Nations' third Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)-access to safe, effective, quality, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines, for all. However, evidence suggests the system is confronted with several challenges in many low-medium income countries, including Nigeria. This scoping review aims to summarize the available evidence on the challenges of medicines and vaccines supply chain system in Nigeria. RESULTS: We searched relevant databases including Scopus and Web of Science for studies published between January 2005 and August 2020 on the challenges associated with medicines and vaccines supply chain systems in Nigeria. Our findings implicate several factors including difficulty with medicines or vaccines selection, procurement, distribution, and inventory management. Others included poor storage infrastructure, financial constraints, insecurity, transportation challenges, inadequate human resources, weak, or poorly implemented policies. These challenges mostly resulted in stock-outs of essential medicines which notably got worsened during the current COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our study is a wake-up call on the need to prioritise the critical sector of the supply chain systems for medicines and vaccines in Nigeria. Effective implementation of existing policies, improved security, strengthening of the health system through adequate budgetary allocations, and provision of infrastructure including regular availability of electricity are keys to surmounting the challenges and improving access to medicines or vaccines in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(6): 6-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606565

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 added urgency to the quest for the development of new vaccines, and academic researchers and biotechnology companies responded by capitalizing on already-in-the-pipeline advances and swiftly transitioning products from the lab to the clinic. Their efforts reaped rewards. According to a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services analysis, the COVID vaccines delivered in the USA from January to May 2021 resulted in 39,000 fewer deaths and 107,000 fewer hospitalizations, and prevented another 265,000 cases among Medicare recipients alone [1].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Medicare , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
5.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 70-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) the willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine among Medicare beneficiaries, (2) the associated factors, and (3) the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: Data were taken from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) 2020 Fall COVID-19 Supplement, conducted October-November 2020. Willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine was measured by respondents' answer to whether they would get a COVID-19 vaccine when available. We classified responses of "definitely" and "probably" as "willing to get," and responses "probably not," "definitely not," and "not sure" as "vaccine hesitancy." Reasons for vaccine hesitancy were assessed by a series of yes/no questions focusing on 10 potential reasons. The analytical sample included 6715 adults 65 years and older. We conducted a logistic regression model to assess demographic factors and other factors associated with the willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine. All analyses were conducted in Stata 14 and accounted for the complex survey design of MCBS. RESULTS: Overall, 61.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.1-63.0) of Medicare beneficiaries would be willing to get a vaccine when available. Among those who were hesitant, more than 40% reported that mistrust of the government and side effects as the main reasons. Logistic regression model results showed that non-Hispanic Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.24-0.44) and Hispanics (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.77) were less willing to get a vaccine than non-Hispanic Whites; beneficiaries with an income of less than $25 000 (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.81) were less willing to get the vaccine than those with an income of $25 000 or more; those who did not think that the COVID-19 virus was more contagious (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41-0.69) or more deadly (AOR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.65) were also less willing to get the vaccine than those who thought that the virus was more contagious or more deadly than the influenza virus. CONCLUSIONS: The 2020 MCBS survey data showed that close to 40% of Medicare beneficiaries were hesitant about getting a COVID-19 vaccine, and the hesitancy was greater in racial/ethnic minorities. Medicare beneficiaries were concerned about the safety of the vaccine, and some appeared to be misinformed. Evidence-based educational and policy-level interventions need to be implemented to further promote COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Medicare , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e057127, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine SARS-CoV-2 vaccine confidence, attitudes and intentions in Australian adults as part of the iCARE Study. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional online survey conducted when free COVID-19 vaccinations first became available in Australia in February 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1166 Australians from general population aged 18-90 years (mean 52, SD of 19). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: responses to question 'If a vaccine for COVID-19 were available today, what is the likelihood that you would get vaccinated?'.Secondary outcome: analyses of putative drivers of uptake, including vaccine confidence, socioeconomic status and sources of trust, derived from multiple survey questions. RESULTS: Seventy-eight per cent reported being likely to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Higher SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions were associated with: increasing age (OR: 2.01 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.77)), being male (1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.72)), residing in least disadvantaged area quintile (2.27 (95% CI 1.53 to 3.37)) and a self-perceived high risk of getting COVID-19 (1.52 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.14)). However, 72% did not believe they were at a high risk of getting COVID-19. Findings regarding vaccines in general were similar except there were no sex differences. For both the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and vaccines in general, there were no differences in intentions to vaccinate as a function of education level, perceived income level and rurality. Knowing that the vaccine is safe and effective and that getting vaccinated will protect others, trusting the company that made it and vaccination recommended by a doctor were reported to influence a large proportion of the study cohort to uptake the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Seventy-eight per cent reported the intent to continue engaging in virus-protecting behaviours (mask wearing, social distancing, etc) postvaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Most Australians are likely to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Key influencing factors identified (eg, knowing vaccine is safe and effective, and doctor's recommendation to get vaccinated) can inform public health messaging to enhance vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Vaccines , Adult , Attitude , Australia , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Male , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597522

ABSTRACT

Environmental surveillance was recommended for risk mitigation in a novel oral polio vaccine-2 (nOPV2) clinical trial (M5-ABMG) to monitor excretion, potential circulation, and loss of attenuation of the two nOPV2 candidates. The nOPV2 candidates were developed to address the risk of poliovirus (PV) type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) as part of the global eradication strategy. Between November 2018 and January 2020, an environmental surveillance study for the clinical trial was conducted in parallel to the M5-ABMG clinical trial at five locations in Panama. The collection sites were located upstream from local treatment plant inlets, to capture the excreta from trial participants and their community. Laboratory analyses of 49 environmental samples were conducted using the two-phase separation method. Novel OPV2 strains were not detected in sewage samples collected during the study period. However, six samples were positive for Sabin-like type 3 PV, two samples were positive for Sabin-like type 1 PV, and non-polio enteroviruses NPEVs were detected in 27 samples. One of the nOPV2 candidates has been granted Emergency Use Listing by the World Health Organization and initial use started in March 2021. This environmental surveillance study provided valuable risk mitigation information to support the Emergency Use Listing application.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring/methods , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus/immunology , Humans , Panama/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/virology , Poliovirus/pathogenicity , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Sewage/virology , Vaccines
8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): e222-e233, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595466

ABSTRACT

For the past 20 years, the notion of bioterror has been a source of considerable fear and panic worldwide. In response to the terror attacks of 2001 in the USA, extensive research funding was awarded to investigate bioterror-related pathogens. The global scientific legacy of this funding has extended into the present day, highlighted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Unsurprisingly, the surge in biodefence-related research and preparedness has been met with considerable apprehension and opposition. Here, we briefly outline the history of modern bioterror threats and biodefence research, describe the scientific legacy of biodefence research by highlighting advances pertaining to specific bacterial and viral pathogens, and summarise the future of biodefence research and its relevance today. We sought to address the sizeable question: have the past 20 years of investment into biodefence research and preparedness been worth it? The legacy of modern biodefence funding includes advancements in biosecurity, biosurveillence, diagnostics, medical countermeasures, and vaccines. In summary, we feel that these advances justify the substantial biodefence funding trend of the past two decades and set a precedent for future funding.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/economics , Bioterrorism/prevention & control , Financial Support , Humans , Investments , Risk Assessment , Vaccines/immunology
9.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 123, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593662

ABSTRACT

A framework for guiding risk communication and community engagement (RCCE) during COVID-19 vaccination roll-out is worthwhile in order to guide interventions aimed at improving vaccine uptake. This requires setting up standardised early-warning indicators to predict or detect low uptake; coordination of response activities by all partners, real-time information exchange, innovativeness in designing strategies to deal with arising and anticipated challenges; flexibility to adapt quickly to changing demands and evolving circumstances; and documentation of progress and lessons learnt.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Developing Countries , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 153(1): 86-87.e2, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With many states in the United States permitting dentists to administer the COVID-19 vaccine, there is much discussion about their scope of practice in relation to delivering other vaccines. METHODS: Survey questions were developed to assess dentists' awareness about their vaccine administration scope of practice and attitudes and barriers if choosing to incorporate vaccine delivery into their practice scope. The survey was deployed electronically to members of the American Dental Association Clinical Evaluators (ACE) Panel (N = 989) on September 2, 2021, and remained open for 2 weeks. Data were summarized descriptively in Qualtrics and SAS Version 9.4. RESULTS: Of the 330 ACE Panel members who responded to the survey, 42% were not aware of which vaccines their state permits them to deliver. More than one-half (55%) would be willing to administer influenza or COVID-19 vaccines in their practice setting, but at present only 2% of respondents administer vaccines. To overcome vaccine administration barriers, the top 3 resources respondents want access to are the following: training or education, financial support, and access to protocols. Of all the respondents, 91% indicated the dental hygienist should be involved in certain capacities. CONCLUSIONS: Few dentists are administering vaccines, possibly owing to a number of challenges. Dental hygienists may play an integral role in the administration of vaccines in the dental clinic, but few dentists are educating their patients about vaccines. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although dentists wishing to administer vaccines in their practice may encounter barriers, support at the state, federal, and organizational levels could help them overcome these challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , American Dental Association , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dental Hygienists , Dentists , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591388

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis and thrombocytopaenia secondary to ChAdOx-1 nCov-19 vaccine is a new phenomenon that usually occurs after the first dose of vaccine. Most of these patients are healthy without any prior history of thromboembolic events or heparin use. Hall marks of this condition include detectable antibodies to platelet factor 4 and thrombosis at atypical sites particularly cerebral veins and sinuses mimicking atypical heparin induced thrombocytopaenia. We describe a case of a patient who was diagnosed with this rare condition and treated successfully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 119-121, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591380

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to investigate the maternal death rate among admitted pregnant patients with SARS-COV-2 during its 4th wave in Pakistan. It was a cross-sectional analytical study, carried on pregnant patients admitted due to COVID-19, in Sadiq Abbasi Hospital from 15th August to 15th September, 2021. Thirty-three PCR confirmed and HRCT suggestive patients were included with mean age of 28 ± 4.5 years and mean gestational age of 28.5 ± 6 weeks. Twenty-seven (81%) were non-vaccinated, 22 (66%) were admitted with severe disease, 13 (39.4%) and 11 (33.3%) were on non-invasive and invasive ventilator support, respectively. Only nine (27%) patients could continue their pregnancy. Fifteen (45%) patients had severe oligohydramnios. Twenty-two (66.7%) patients were died, all were unvaccinated. Regression analysis for maternal mortality predicted by severity and vaccination status was significant with R2=.68, F (1, 31) =66.6, p <.001 CI (-.69, -.42) and R2=.44, F (1, 31) = 24.8, p <.001 CI (-1.14, -.48), respectively. There was substantial mortality in the admitted and non-vaccinated pregnant patients with COVID-19. Key Words: Pregnancy, Vaccination, Severe COVID, Maternal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Vaccines , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Maternal Mortality , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(1): 52-53, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591272
14.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 24(4): 383-403, 2021 10 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599805

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to measure anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity of hospital workers after a completed 2-dose Pfizer-BionTech vaccination, and to examine factors potentially associated with immunity status. Side effects of the vaccine were also studied. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of General University Hospital of Castellon workers, vaccinated with two doses in January and February 2021. We measured IgG antibodies against protein N (IgG-NP), IgM against protein S (IgM-S), and quantitative levles of IgG against protein S (IgG-Quant) one month after the last dose. We obtained information on demographic, risk factors, and vaccine side effects via a self-completed questionnaire. For the statistical analysis we used multiple regression models. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-five workers participated (96.8%, 275/284). Positive IgG-Quant, IgM-S, and IgG-NP were 99.6%, 14.9% and 4.4%, respectively. Adjusted IgG-Quant levels increased significantly with obesity, nonsmoking status, positive IgM-S, and/or IgG-NP. The prevalence of IgM-S was higher in males, and associated with the same factors as those for IgG-Quant. Among those with a history of COVD-19 infection, 42.9% did not have IgG-NP. Overall 86.5% of participants had side effects, which were associated with positive IgG-NP, high IgG-Quant levels, younger age, and being female. CONCLUSIONS: All but one participant developed immunity. Those who had suffered from COVID-19 infection had higher antibody levels. A high proportion of participants had mild secondary effects, especially those with previous COVID-19 infection.


Introducción: Evaluar la inmunidad de los trabajadores de un hospital tras haber completado la vacunación Pfizer-BionTech, y su relación con factores individuales. También describir los efectos adversos de la vacuna. Método: Estudio transversal de una muestra de los trabajadores del Hospital General Universitario de Castellón vacunados con dos dosis en enero y febrero de 2021. Un mes después se detectaron: anticuerpos IgG frente a la proteína N (IgG-NP), de IgM frente a la proteína S (IgM-S) y detección cuantitativa de IgG frente a la proteína S (IgG-Quant). Se utilizó un cuestionario para recoger datos demográficos, factores de riesgo y efectos secundarios. En el análisis estadístico se utilizaron modelos de regresión múltiple. Resultados: La participación fue del 96,8% (275/284). Presentaron IgG-Quant el 99,6%, 14,9% IgM-S, y 4,4% IgG-NP. El nivel ajustado de IgG-Quant aumentó significativamente con la obesidad, en no fumadores y con positividad IgM-S y/o IgG-NP. La prevalencia de IgM-S era mayor en varones, y se asociaba con los mismos factores que la IgG-Quant. De los infectados por COVID-19, el 42,9% no presentaron IgG-NP. Un 86,5% sufrió algún efecto secundario que se asoció a tener IgG-NP, mayores niveles de IgG-Quant, y fue más frecuente en jóvenes y mujeres. Conclusiones: Todos los participantes desarrollaron inmunidad humoral excepto uno. Tuvieron mayores niveles de anticuerpos los que habían padecido la COVID-19. Un porcentaje alto desarrolló efectos secundarios leves, más frecuentes en los que habían padecido la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(3): 442-451, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599725

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus of the coronavirus family, which causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019). This virus is responsible for the current pandemic, which, since its emergence in late 2019, has caused millions of deaths and has had a global impact not only on public health but also on social and economic areas. Therefore, this article aims to review the most up-to-date information on SARS-CoV-2, beginning with the description of the pathophysiology and phylogenetics of the virus. Also, we will present the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, their relevance for local and global public health, their epidemiology in Peru, and finally, the role and importance of vaccines in this context.


El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus ARN monocatenario de la familia de los coronavirus, causante de la COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019). Este virus es responsable de la pandemia actual que, desde su aparición a finales de 2019, ha provocado la muerte de millones de personas y ha tenido un impacto global no solo a nivel sanitario sino también económico y social. Por ello, el presente artículo tiene como objetivo revisar la información más actualizada sobre el SARS-CoV-2, empezando por describir los mecanismos de transmisión del virus, su fisiopatología y filogenética. Asimismo, presentará a las variantes emergentes del SARS-CoV-2, su relevancia para la salud pública local y global, su epidemiología en Perú, y finalmente, el rol y la importancia de las vacunas en este contexto.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 763687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598820

ABSTRACT

Within almost the last 2 years, the world has been shaken by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has affected the lives of all people. With nearly 4.92 million deaths by October 19, 2021, and serious health damages in millions of people, COVID-19 has been the most serious global challenge after the Second World War. Besides lost lives and long-term health problems, devastating impact on economics, education, and culture will probably leave a lasting impression on the future. Therefore, the actual extent of losses will become obvious only after years. Moreover, despite the availability of different vaccines and vaccination programs, it is still impossible to forecast what the next steps of the virus are or how near we are to the end of the pandemic. In this article, the route of molecular evolution of the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is thoroughly compiled, highlighting the changes that the virus has undergone during the last 2 years and discussing the approaches that the medical community has undertaken in the fight against virus-induced damages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Vaccines , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 303-306, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597815

ABSTRACT

In principle, mandatory vaccination in employment could be justified in certain circumstances. These include: (1) the availability of safe and effective vaccination; (2) if alternative, less coercive strategies did not work; and, (3) the costs to the individual were proportionate. However, in COVID-19, the long term safety of vaccines is yet to be established. Vaccines should be made available by employers, and voluntary vaccination encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Nature ; 601(7892): 174-175, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595693
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(52)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594409

ABSTRACT

Although declines in intent to vaccinate had been identified in international surveys conducted between June and October 2020, including in the United States, some individuals in the United States who previously expressed reluctance said, in spring 2021, that they were willing to vaccinate. That change raised the following questions: What factors predicted an increased willingness to inoculate against COVID-19? And, to what extent was the change driven by COVID-specific factors, such as personal worry about the disease and COVID-specific misinformation, and to what extent by background (non-COVID-specific) factors, such as trust in medical authorities, accurate/inaccurate information about vaccination, vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance? This panel study of more than 8,000 individuals found that trust in health authorities anchored acceptance of vaccination and that knowledge about vaccination, flu vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance played a more prominent role in shifting individuals from vaccination hesitance to acceptance than COVID-specific factors. COVID-specific conspiracy beliefs did play a role, although a lesser one. These findings underscore the need to reinforce trust in health experts, facilitate community engagement with them, and preemptively communicate the benefits and safety record of authorized vaccines. The findings suggest, as well, the need to identify and deploy messaging able to undercut health-related conspiracy beliefs when they begin circulating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior , Communication , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , United States , Vaccination/ethics , Young Adult
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