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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 396, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first description of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in Africa in the 1920's, it has brazenly spread beyond Africa into the Middle East, Europe and most recently Asia. In 2017 the first atypical LSDV recombinant strain was reported in Russia, composed of both a live-attenuated Neethling vaccine strain and Kenyan vaccine strain. An increase in LSDV research enabled a public release of numerous full genome sequences of unique recombinant LSDV strains from Kazakhstan, Russia, China and Vietnam. Prior to the recombinant strain first described in China in 2019, every new recombinant strain was genetically unique and each of these recombinants clustered in a monophyletic lineage. In this work, we provide the complete genome sequences of two novel recombinant strains of LSDV from Russia and attempt to gain more insight into genomic composition of all the recombinant strains currently available. This analysis will provide new insight into the global molecular epidemiology of LSDV. RESULTS: By sequencing and analyzing two novel recombinant strains Khabarovsk/2020 and Tomsk/2020, this study investigates the differences and similarities of all five the available recombinant LSDV lineages from different countries based on the SNPs inherited from the aforementioned parental strains. A total of seven recombinant strains: LSDV/Russia/Saratov/2017, LSDV/Russia/Udmurtya/2019, LSDV/KZ-Kostanay/Kazakhstan/2018, LSDV/Russia/Tyumen/2019, LSDV/GD01/China/2020 Khabarovsk/2020 and Tomsk/2020 were examined. It was observed that strains isolated prior to 2020 were composed of unique combinations of open reading frames, whilst from 2020 onwards all circulating strains in Russia and South-Eastern Asia belonged to a single lineage radiating out in the region. The first representative of this lineage is LSDV/GD01/China/2020. Interestingly, the other four unique recombinant strains as well as the newly established lineage, exhibit consistent patterns of targeted selection pointing to regions constantly selected for during the recombination-driven processes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the inexplicable emergence of novel recombinant strains to be unique introductions of sibling viruses, with the most recent recombinant lineage establishing as the dominant strain across the south eastern Asian countries as evidenced by full genome sequence data. Overall, these findings indicate that LSDVs are subjected to accelerated evolutionary changes due to recombination in the face of homologous live attenuated vaccines as well as the slow genetic drift commonly observed in capripoxviruses curculatign in the field with hardly any genetic changes over decades.


Subject(s)
Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Computational Biology , Disease Outbreaks , Kenya , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lumpy skin disease virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Vaccines, Attenuated
2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875808

ABSTRACT

Despite the existence of an effective live-attenuated vaccine, measles can appear in vaccinated individuals. We investigated breakthrough measles cases identified during our surveillance activities within the measles/rubella surveillance network (MoRoNet) in Milan and surrounding areas (Northern Italy). Between 2017 and 2021, we confirmed measles virus (genotypes B3 or D8) infections in 653 patients and 51 of these (7.8%) were vaccinees. Among vaccinated individuals whose serum was available, a secondary failure was evidenced in 69.4% (25/36) of cases while 11 patients (30.6%) were non-responders. Non-responders were more frequently hospitalized and had significantly lower Ct values in both respiratory and urine samples. Median age and time since the last immunization were similar in the two groups. Importantly, we identified onward transmissions from vaccine failure cases. Vaccinees were involved in 20 outbreaks, in 10 of them they were able to transmit the virus, and in 8 of them, they were the index case. Comparing viral hemagglutinin sequences from vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects did not show a specific mutation pattern. These results suggest that vaccination failure was likely due to the poor immune response of single individuals and highlights the importance of identifying breakthrough cases and characterizing their clinical and virologic profiles.


Subject(s)
Measles , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Measles virus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated
3.
Avian Pathol ; 51(3): 244-256, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873688

ABSTRACT

To achieve long term protection of laying and breeding hens against aberrant egg production caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a vaccination programme incorporating both live-attenuated and inactivated IBV vaccines is required. High quality IBV vaccines of both types are widely available, but the number of IBV variants of global importance continues to increase and it is not possible to develop vaccines against each one of them. Therefore, it is desirable to perform studies under controlled conditions to determine which IBV vaccine(s) provide the best protection for laying hens against different IBV challenges. Previous vaccination and challenge studies have shown that it is possible to obtain relevant data in a small number of laying hens housed under conditions of strict isolation. The present work extends this finding by investigating the efficacy, against challenge with five IBV strains of global importance, of an IBV vaccination programme including two live-attenuated IBV vaccines (Massachusetts and 793B types) and three different commercially available inactivated vaccines each containing antigen against at least one IBV strain. The results reported here confirm the importance of IBV vaccination for laying hens, show that efficient live priming makes a beneficial contribution to this protection and confirm that inactivated IBV vaccines contribute significantly to effective protection against at least the five IBV challenge strains used here. Furthermore, we provide data to support the "protectotype concept", long-established using different live-attenuated IBV vaccines in young chickens, is valid in broadening protection against IBV challenges in laying birds.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSIBV vaccination is essential as an aid in protecting laying hens against IBV infection.Live priming is a beneficial part of the IBV vaccination programme.IBV inactivated vaccine improves IBV protection.Heterologous IBV protection is confirmed in laying hens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Inactivated
4.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3705-3712, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2015, Tajikistan became the second country in Central Asia to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program. Before vaccine introduction, rotavirus was estimated to cause > 40% of pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in Tajikistan. We aimed to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus disease burden and estimate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS: Using surveillance data from 2013 through 2019, we examined trends in monthly hospital admissions among children < 5 years old, before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Poisson regression was used to quantify decreases. VE was estimated using a test-negative case control design, with data from admissions during 2017 - 2019. Immunization records were obtained from clinics. RESULTS: Among enrolled children, rotavirus positivity declined from 42% to 25% in the post-vaccine introduction period, a decrease of 41% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 36 - 45%). Declines were greatest in children < 12 months of age. Estimated VE of a complete course of rotavirus vaccine was 55% (95% CI: 21 - 73%) among children 5 - 59 months of age and 64% (95% CI: 36 - 80%) among children 5 - 23 months of age. VE point estimates were higher among children receiving both doses of rotavirus vaccine non-concurrently with OPV and among children receiving their first dose of rotavirus vaccine at 4 - 11 months of age, but CIs were wide and overlapping. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that rotavirus vaccine introduction was associated with a substantial reduction in pediatric rotavirus hospitalization burden in Tajikistan, and that rotavirus vaccination is effective in Tajik children.


Subject(s)
Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
6.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862915

ABSTRACT

Live-attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines received relatively little attention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite this, several methods of obtaining attenuated coronaviruses are known. In this systematic review, the strategies of coronavirus attenuation, which may potentially be applied to SARS-CoV-2, were identified. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Embase databases were searched to identify relevant articles describing attenuating mutations tested in vivo. In case of coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV-2, sequence alignment was used to exclude attenuating mutations that cannot be applied to SARS-CoV-2. Potential immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of the attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were discussed based on animal studies data. A total of 27 attenuation strategies, used to create 101 different coronaviruses, have been described in 56 eligible articles. The disruption of the furin cleavage site in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was identified as the most promising strategy. The replacement of core sequences of transcriptional regulatory signals, which prevents recombination with wild-type viruses, also appears particularly advantageous. Other important attenuating mutations encompassed mostly the prevention of evasion of innate immunity. Sufficiently attenuated coronaviruses typically caused no meaningful disease in susceptible animals and protected them from challenges with virulent virus. This indicates that attenuated COVID-19 vaccines may be considered as a potential strategy to fight the threat posed by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
7.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(5): 588-601, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830046

ABSTRACT

Live attenuated vaccines might elicit mucosal and sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 that the existing mRNA, adenoviral vector and inactivated vaccines fail to induce. Here, we describe a candidate live attenuated vaccine strain of SARS-CoV-2 in which the NSP16 gene, which encodes 2'-O-methyltransferase, is catalytically disrupted by a point mutation. This virus, designated d16, was severely attenuated in hamsters and transgenic mice, causing only asymptomatic and nonpathogenic infection. A single dose of d16 administered intranasally resulted in sterilizing immunity in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of hamsters, thus preventing viral spread in a contact-based transmission model. It also robustly stimulated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, thus conferring full protection against lethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in a transgenic mouse model. The neutralizing antibodies elicited by d16 effectively cross-reacted with several SARS-CoV-2 variants. Secretory immunoglobulin A was detected in the blood and nasal wash of vaccinated mice. Our work provides proof-of-principle evidence for harnessing NSP16-deficient SARS-CoV-2 for the development of live attenuated vaccines and paves the way for further preclinical studies of d16 as a prototypic vaccine strain, to which new features might be introduced to improve safety, transmissibility, immunogenicity and efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2020573, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799504

ABSTRACT

Limited information is available about post-marketing safety of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines. Using data from SmartVax, an active surveillance system for monitoring vaccine safety, adverse events following immunizations (AEFIs) were compared between the two JE vaccines available in Australia (a chimeric live attenuated vaccine [Imojev] and a Vero cell-derived inactivated vaccine [JEspect]). Data from 2756 patients (1855 Imojev and 901 JEspect) were included. Overall (7.0%), systemic (2.8%), and local (1.9%) AEFIs were uncommon. There were no significant differences in the odds of overall (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 0.91-1.77), systemic (OR = 1.23; 95%CI: 0.74-2.06), or local (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 0.65-2.22) AEFIs with Imojev compared to JEspect. There was an increase in odds of overall AEFI in patients aged <5 years (OR = 2.39; 95%CI: 1.10-5.19) compared to those aged >50 years. Both JE vaccines available in Australia are safe and well tolerated. Odds of AEFIs were age-dependent, young children should be carefully observed for AEFIs after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis, Japanese , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines , Animals , Australia , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vero Cells , Watchful Waiting
9.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0205921, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788916

ABSTRACT

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious global pathogen prevalent in all types of poultry flocks. IBV is responsible for economic losses and welfare issues in domestic poultry, resulting in a significant risk to food security. IBV vaccines are currently generated by serial passage of virulent IBV field isolates through embryonated hens' eggs. The different patterns of genomic variation accumulated during this process means that the exact mechanism of attenuation is unknown and presents a risk of reversion to virulence. Additionally, the passaging process adapts the virus to replicate in chicken embryos, increasing embryo lethality. Vaccines produced in this manner are therefore unsuitable for in ovo application. We have developed a reverse genetics system, based on the pathogenic IBV strain M41, to identify genes which can be targeted for rational attenuation. During the development of this reverse genetics system, we identified four amino acids, located in nonstructural proteins (nsps) 10, 14, 15, and 16, which resulted in attenuation both in vivo and in ovo. Further investigation highlighted a role of amino acid changes, Pro85Leu in nsp 10 and Val393Leu in nsp 14, in the attenuated in vivo phenotype observed. This study provides evidence that mutations in nsps offer a promising mechanism for the development of rationally attenuated live vaccines against IBV, which have the potential for in ovo application. IMPORTANCE The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute, highly contagious, economically important disease of poultry. Vaccination is achieved using a mixture of live attenuated vaccines for young chicks and inactivated vaccines as boosters for laying hens. Live attenuated vaccines are generated through serial passage in embryonated hens' eggs, an empirical process which achieves attenuation but retains immunogenicity. However, these vaccines have a risk of reversion to virulence, and they are lethal to the embryo. In this study, we identified amino acids in the replicase gene which attenuated IBV strain M41, both in vivo and in ovo. Stability assays indicate that the attenuating amino acids are stable and unlikely to revert. The data in this study provide evidence that specific modifications in the replicase gene offer a promising direction for IBV live attenuated vaccine development, with the potential for in ovo application.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids/chemistry , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2412: 483-501, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756649

ABSTRACT

A vaccine is an immunogen, the administration of which is intended to stimulate the immune system to prevent, ameliorate, or treat a disease or infection. A vaccine may be a live attenuated preparation of microorganisms, inactivated (killed) whole organisms, living irradiated cells, crude fractions, or purified immunogens, including those derived from recombinant DNA in a host cell, conjugates formed by covalent linkage of components, synthetic antigens, polynucleotides (such as the plasmid DNA vaccines), mRNA, living vectored cells expressing specific heterologous immunogens, or cells pulsed with immunogen. Vaccines are highly complex products that differ from small molecule drugs because of the biological nature of the source materials such as those derived from microorganisms as well as the various cell substrates from which some are derived. Regardless of the technology used, because of their complexities, vaccines must undergo extensive testing and characterization. Special expertise and procedures are required for the manufacture, control, and regulation of vaccines. Throughout their life cycle from preclinical evaluation to post-licensure lot release testing, vaccines are subject to rigorous testing and oversight by manufacturers and national regulatory authorities. In this chapter, an overview of the regulatory evaluation and testing requirements for vaccines is presented.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Antigens , Humans , Licensure , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010282, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753213

ABSTRACT

Immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) can confer sterilizing protection against malaria, although the mechanisms behind this protection are incompletely understood. We performed a systems biology analysis of samples from the Immunization by Mosquito with Radiation Attenuated Sporozoites (IMRAS) trial, which comprised P. falciparum RAS-immunized (PfRAS), malaria-naive participants whose protection from malaria infection was subsequently assessed by controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Blood samples collected after initial PfRAS immunization were analyzed to compare immune responses between protected and non-protected volunteers leveraging integrative analysis of whole blood RNA-seq, high parameter flow cytometry, and single cell CITEseq of PBMCs. This analysis revealed differences in early innate immune responses indicating divergent paths associated with protection. In particular, elevated levels of inflammatory responses early after the initial immunization were detrimental for the development of protective adaptive immunity. Specifically, non-classical monocytes and early type I interferon responses induced within 1 day of PfRAS vaccination correlated with impaired immunity. Non-protected individuals also showed an increase in Th2 polarized T cell responses whereas we observed a trend towards increased Th1 and T-bet+ CD8 T cell responses in protected individuals. Temporal differences in genes associated with natural killer cells suggest an important role in immune regulation by these cells. These findings give insight into the immune responses that confer protection against malaria and may guide further malaria vaccine development. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01994525.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Inflammation , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Sporozoites/immunology , Adult , Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Female , Humans , Immunization/methods , Insect Bites and Stings/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Male , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100531, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679775

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against the influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk afford broad protection against antigenically drifted viruses. In this issue of Cell Reports Medicine, Yegorov et al.1 identify that current vaccine formulations induce neutralizing stalk antibodies in children-a highly vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Child , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccines, Attenuated
14.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 404-412, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672208

ABSTRACT

Cocirculation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses could pose unpredictable risks to health systems globally, with recent studies suggesting more severe disease outcomes in coinfected patients. The initial lack of a readily available coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine has reinforced the importance of influenza vaccine programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an important tool in protecting against influenza, particularly in children. However, it is unknown whether LAIV administration influences the outcomes of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection or disease. To investigate this, quadrivalent LAIV was administered to ferrets 3 days before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection. LAIV administration did not exacerbate the SARS-CoV-2 disease course or lung pathology with either regimen. In addition, LAIV administered before SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication and shedding in the upper respiratory tract. This study demonstrated that LAIV administration in close proximity to SARS-CoV-2 infection does not exacerbate mild disease and can reduce SARS-CoV-2 shedding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Virus Shedding , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Lung , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Virus Replication
15.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103762, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines in emergency use are efficacious against COVID-19, yet vaccine-induced prevention against nasal SARS-CoV-2 infection remains suboptimal. METHODS: Since mucosal immunity is critical for nasal prevention, we investigated the efficacy of an intramuscular PD1-based receptor-binding domain (RBD) DNA vaccine (PD1-RBD-DNA) and intranasal live attenuated influenza-based vaccines (LAIV-CA4-RBD and LAIV-HK68-RBD) against SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: Substantially higher systemic and mucosal immune responses, including bronchoalveolar lavage IgA/IgG and lung polyfunctional memory CD8 T cells, were induced by the heterologous PD1-RBD-DNA/LAIV-HK68-RBD as compared with other regimens. When vaccinated animals were challenged at the memory phase, prevention of robust SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasal turbinate was achieved primarily by the heterologous regimen besides consistent protection in lungs. The regimen-induced antibodies cross-neutralized variants of concerns. Furthermore, LAIV-CA4-RBD could boost the BioNTech vaccine for improved mucosal immunity. INTERPRETATION: Our results demonstrated that intranasal influenza-based boost vaccination induces mucosal and systemic immunity for effective SARS-CoV-2 prevention in both upper and lower respiratory systems. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund, General Research Fund and Health and Medical Research Fund in Hong Kong; Outbreak Response to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; Shenzhen Science and Technology Program and matching fund from Shenzhen Immuno Cure BioTech Limited; the Health@InnoHK, Innovation and Technology Commission of Hong Kong; National Program on Key Research Project of China; donations from the Friends of Hope Education Fund; the Theme-Based Research Scheme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Influenza Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vero Cells
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 229-263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575944

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of mankind's greatest medical advances, and their use has drastically reduced and in some cases eliminated (e.g., smallpox) disease and death caused by infectious agents. Traditional vaccine modalities including live-attenuated pathogen vaccines, wholly inactivated pathogen vaccines, and protein-based pathogen subunit vaccines have successfully been used to create efficacious vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. These traditional vaccine modalities, however, take many months to years to develop and have thus proven less effective for use in creating vaccines to emerging or reemerging infectious diseases (EIDs) including influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). As factors such as climate change and increased globalization continue to increase the pace of EID development, newer vaccine modalities are required to develop vaccines that can prevent or attenuate EID outbreaks throughout the world. One such modality, DNA vaccines, has been studied for over 30 years and has numerous qualities that make them ideal for meeting the challenge of EIDs including; (1) DNA vaccine candidates can be designed within hours of publishing of a pathogens genetic sequence; (2) they can be manufactured cheaply and rapidly in large quantities; (3) they are thermostable and have reduced requirement for a cold-chain during distribution, and (4) they have a remarkable safety record in the clinic. Optimizations made in plasmid design as well as in DNA vaccine delivery have greatly improved the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Here we describe the process of making a DNA vaccine to an EID pathogen and describe methods used for assessing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines in small animal models.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 193-208, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574895

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health emergency. Several vaccine candidates have been developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. One approach is to construct live-recombinant viruses expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) as vaccine candidates. The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector is a mature vaccine platform which was successfully developed as a vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), leading to its licensure by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2019. Based on this work, we developed two live, replication-competent VSV-vectored vaccines against SARS-CoV-2: (1) a VSV expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and (2) a bivalent VSV expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV. This protocol describes the methodologies for the design, cloning, rescue, and preparation of these recombinant VSV vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Synthetic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105188, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568934

ABSTRACT

The best and most effective way to combat pandemics is to use effective vaccines and live attenuated vaccines are among the most effective vaccines. However, one of the major problems is the length of time it takes to get the attenuated vaccines. Today, the CRISPR toolkit (Clustered Regularly Inerspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) has made it possible to make changes with high efficiency and speed. Using this toolkit to make point mutations on the RNA virus's genome in a coculture of permissive and nonpermissive cells and under controlled conditions can accelerate changes in the genome and accelerate natural selection to obtain live attenuated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , Endonucleases/genetics , Endonucleases/immunology , Gene Expression , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Proteins/immunology
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(1): 25-56, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565370

ABSTRACT

Inactivated and live attenuated vaccines have improved human life and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of several human infectious diseases. However, these vaccines have faults, such as reactivity or suboptimal efficacy and expensive and time-consuming development and production. Additionally, despite the enormous efforts to develop vaccines against some infectious diseases, the traditional technologies have not been successful in achieving this. At the same time, the concerns about emerging and re-emerging diseases urge the need to develop technologies that can be rapidly applied to combat the new challenges. Within the last two decades, the research of vaccine technologies has taken several directions to achieve safe, efficient, and economic platforms or technologies for novel vaccines. This review will give a brief overview of the current state of the novel vaccine technologies, new vaccine candidates in clinical trial phases 1-3 (listed by European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)), and vaccines based on the novel technologies which have already been commercially available (approved by EMA and FDA) with the special reference to pandemic COVID-19 vaccines. KEY POINTS: • Vaccines of the new generation follow the minimalist strategy. • Some infectious diseases remain a challenge for the vaccine development. • The number of new vaccine candidates in the late phase clinical trials remains low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(50)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560743

ABSTRACT

Single-dose vaccines with the ability to restrict SARS-CoV-2 replication in the respiratory tract are needed for all age groups, aiding efforts toward control of COVID-19. We developed a live intranasal vector vaccine for infants and children against COVID-19 based on replication-competent chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (B/HPIV3) that express the native (S) or prefusion-stabilized (S-2P) SARS-CoV-2 S spike protein, the major protective and neutralization antigen of SARS-CoV-2. B/HPIV3/S and B/HPIV3/S-2P replicated as efficiently as B/HPIV3 in vitro and stably expressed SARS-CoV-2 S. Prefusion stabilization increased S expression by B/HPIV3 in vitro. In hamsters, a single intranasal dose of B/HPIV3/S-2P induced significantly higher titers compared to B/HPIV3/S of serum SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (12-fold higher), serum IgA and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 S protein (5-fold and 13-fold), and IgG to the receptor binding domain (10-fold). Antibodies exhibited broad neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 of lineages A, B.1.1.7, and B.1.351. Four weeks after immunization, hamsters were challenged intranasally with 104.5 50% tissue-culture infectious-dose (TCID50) of SARS-CoV-2. In B/HPIV3 empty vector-immunized hamsters, SARS-CoV-2 replicated to mean titers of 106.6 TCID50/g in lungs and 107 TCID50/g in nasal tissues and induced moderate weight loss. In B/HPIV3/S-immunized hamsters, SARS-CoV-2 challenge virus was reduced 20-fold in nasal tissues and undetectable in lungs. In B/HPIV3/S-2P-immunized hamsters, infectious challenge virus was undetectable in nasal tissues and lungs; B/HPIV3/S and B/HPIV3/S-2P completely protected against weight loss after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. B/HPIV3/S-2P is a promising vaccine candidate to protect infants and young children against HPIV3 and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Genetic Vectors , Immunization , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine/genetics , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
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