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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 785349, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911033

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections present a tremendous threat to public health. Safe and efficacious vaccines are the most effective means in preventing the infections. A variety of vaccines have demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety around the globe. Yet, development of alternative forms of vaccines remains beneficial, particularly those with simpler production processes, less stringent storage conditions, and the capability of being used in heterologous prime/boost regimens which have shown improved efficacy against many diseases. Here we reported a novel DNA vaccine comprised of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fused with CD40 ligand (CD40L) serving as both a targeting ligand and molecular adjuvant. A single intramuscular injection in Syrian hamsters induced significant neutralizing antibodies 3-weeks after vaccination, with a boost substantially improving immune responses. Moreover, the vaccine also reduced weight loss and suppressed viral replication in the lungs and nasal turbinates of challenged animals. Finally, the incorporation of CD40L into the DNA vaccine was shown to reduce lung pathology more effectively than the DNA vaccine devoid of CD40L. These results collectively indicate that this DNA vaccine candidate could be further explored because of its efficacy and known safety profile.


Subject(s)
CD40 Ligand/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Mesocricetus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Models, Animal , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(14): e2119093119, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751830

ABSTRACT

SignificanceUsing SARS-CoV-2 as a relevant case study for infectious disease, we investigate the structure-function relationships that dictate antiviral spherical nucleic acid (SNA) vaccine efficacy. We show that the SNA architecture can be rapidly employed to target COVID-19 through incorporation of the receptor-binding domain, and that the resulting vaccine potently activates human cells in vitro and mice in vivo. Furthermore, when challenged with a lethal viral infection, only mice treated with the SNA vaccine survived. Taken together, this work underscores the importance of rational vaccine design for infectious disease to yield vaccines that elicit more potent immune responses to effectively fight disease.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Nucleic Acids/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Animals , Biotechnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/etiology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Humans , Nucleic Acids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccine Development , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708485

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that a range of vaccines against COVID-19 have already been created and are used for mass vaccination, the development of effective, safe, technological, and affordable vaccines continues. We have designed a vaccine that combines the recombinant protein and DNA vaccine approaches in a self-assembled particle. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was conjugated to polyglucin:spermidine and mixed with DNA vaccine (pVAXrbd), which led to the formation of particles of combined coronavirus vaccine (CCV-RBD) that contain the DNA vaccine inside and RBD protein on the surface. CCV-RBD particles were characterized with gel filtration, electron microscopy, and biolayer interferometry. To investigate the immunogenicity of the combined vaccine and its components, mice were immunized with the DNA vaccine pVAXrbd or RBD protein as well as CCV-RBD particles. The highest antigen-specific IgG and neutralizing activity were induced by CCV-RBD, and the level of antibodies induced by DNA or RBD alone was significantly lower. The cellular immune response was detected only in the case of DNA or CCV-RBD vaccination. These results demonstrate that a combination of DNA vaccine and RBD protein in one construct synergistically increases the humoral response to RBD protein in mice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dextrans/chemistry , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spermidine/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/pharmacology , Vero Cells
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009701, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701737

ABSTRACT

The speed of development, versatility and efficacy of mRNA-based vaccines have been amply demonstrated in the case of SARS-CoV-2. DNA vaccines represent an important alternative since they induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models and in human trials. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA-based vaccine regimens expressing different prefusion-stabilized Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigens upon intramuscular injection followed by electroporation in rhesus macaques. Different Spike DNA vaccine regimens induced antibodies that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and elicited robust T cell responses. The antibodies recognized and potently neutralized a panel of different Spike variants including Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Eta and A.23.1, but to a lesser extent Beta and Gamma. The DNA-only vaccine regimens were compared to a regimen that included co-immunization of Spike DNA and protein in the same anatomical site, the latter of which showed significant higher antibody responses. All vaccine regimens led to control of SARS-CoV-2 intranasal/intratracheal challenge and absence of virus dissemination to the lower respiratory tract. Vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody titers and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis inversely correlated with transient virus levels in the nasal mucosa. Importantly, the Spike DNA+Protein co-immunization regimen induced the highest binding and neutralizing antibodies and showed the strongest control against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Immunization, Passive , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Mice , RNA, Messenger/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/immunology
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 824728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686477

ABSTRACT

We generated an optimized COVID-19 vaccine candidate based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing a full-length prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, termed MVA-CoV2-S(3P). The S(3P) protein was expressed at higher levels (2-fold) than the non-stabilized S in cells infected with the corresponding recombinant MVA viruses. One single dose of MVA-CoV2-S(3P) induced higher IgG and neutralizing antibody titers against parental SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern than MVA-CoV2-S in wild-type C57BL/6 and in transgenic K18-hACE2 mice. In immunized C57BL/6 mice, two doses of MVA-CoV2-S or MVA-CoV2-S(3P) induced similar levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific B- and T-cell immune responses. Remarkably, a single administration of MVA-CoV2-S(3P) protected all K18-hACE2 mice from morbidity and mortality caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, histopathological lesions, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. These results demonstrated that expression of a novel full-length prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 S protein by the MVA poxvirus vector enhanced immunogenicity and efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in animal models, further supporting MVA-CoV2-S(3P) as an optimized vaccine candidate for clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Chick Embryo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/analysis , Female , HeLa Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Plasmids/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/genetics
6.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667339

ABSTRACT

In 2014 and 2021, two nucleic-acid vaccine candidates named MAV E2 and VGX-3100 completed phase III clinical trials in Mexico and U.S., respectively, for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). These well-tolerated but still unlicensed vaccines encode distinct HPV antigens (E2 versus E6+E7) to elicit cell-mediated immune responses; their clinical efficacy, as measured by HSIL regression or cure, was modest when compared with placebo or surgery (conization), but both proved highly effective in clearing HPV infection, which should help further optimize strategies for enhancing vaccine immunogenicity, toward an ultimate goal of preventing malignancies in millions of patients who are living with persistent, oncogenic HPV infection but are not expected to benefit from current, prophylactic vaccines. The major roadblocks to a highly efficacious and practical product remain challenging and can be classified into five categories: (i) getting the vaccines into the right cells for efficient expression and presentation of HPV antigens (fusion proteins or epitopes); (ii) having adequate coverage of oncogenic HPV types, beyond the current focus on HPV-16 and -18; (iii) directing immune protection to various epithelial niches, especially anogenital mucosa and upper aerodigestive tract where HPV-transformed cells wreak havoc; (iv) establishing the time window and vaccination regimen, including dosage, interval and even combination therapy, for achieving maximum efficacy; and (v) validating therapeutic efficacy in patients with poor prognosis because of advanced, recurrent or non-resectable malignancies. Overall, the room for improvements is still large enough that continuing efforts for research and development will very likely extend into the next decade.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Animals , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , /therapeutic use
7.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103762, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines in emergency use are efficacious against COVID-19, yet vaccine-induced prevention against nasal SARS-CoV-2 infection remains suboptimal. METHODS: Since mucosal immunity is critical for nasal prevention, we investigated the efficacy of an intramuscular PD1-based receptor-binding domain (RBD) DNA vaccine (PD1-RBD-DNA) and intranasal live attenuated influenza-based vaccines (LAIV-CA4-RBD and LAIV-HK68-RBD) against SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: Substantially higher systemic and mucosal immune responses, including bronchoalveolar lavage IgA/IgG and lung polyfunctional memory CD8 T cells, were induced by the heterologous PD1-RBD-DNA/LAIV-HK68-RBD as compared with other regimens. When vaccinated animals were challenged at the memory phase, prevention of robust SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasal turbinate was achieved primarily by the heterologous regimen besides consistent protection in lungs. The regimen-induced antibodies cross-neutralized variants of concerns. Furthermore, LAIV-CA4-RBD could boost the BioNTech vaccine for improved mucosal immunity. INTERPRETATION: Our results demonstrated that intranasal influenza-based boost vaccination induces mucosal and systemic immunity for effective SARS-CoV-2 prevention in both upper and lower respiratory systems. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund, General Research Fund and Health and Medical Research Fund in Hong Kong; Outbreak Response to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; Shenzhen Science and Technology Program and matching fund from Shenzhen Immuno Cure BioTech Limited; the Health@InnoHK, Innovation and Technology Commission of Hong Kong; National Program on Key Research Project of China; donations from the Friends of Hope Education Fund; the Theme-Based Research Scheme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Influenza Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vero Cells
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 229-263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575944

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of mankind's greatest medical advances, and their use has drastically reduced and in some cases eliminated (e.g., smallpox) disease and death caused by infectious agents. Traditional vaccine modalities including live-attenuated pathogen vaccines, wholly inactivated pathogen vaccines, and protein-based pathogen subunit vaccines have successfully been used to create efficacious vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. These traditional vaccine modalities, however, take many months to years to develop and have thus proven less effective for use in creating vaccines to emerging or reemerging infectious diseases (EIDs) including influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). As factors such as climate change and increased globalization continue to increase the pace of EID development, newer vaccine modalities are required to develop vaccines that can prevent or attenuate EID outbreaks throughout the world. One such modality, DNA vaccines, has been studied for over 30 years and has numerous qualities that make them ideal for meeting the challenge of EIDs including; (1) DNA vaccine candidates can be designed within hours of publishing of a pathogens genetic sequence; (2) they can be manufactured cheaply and rapidly in large quantities; (3) they are thermostable and have reduced requirement for a cold-chain during distribution, and (4) they have a remarkable safety record in the clinic. Optimizations made in plasmid design as well as in DNA vaccine delivery have greatly improved the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Here we describe the process of making a DNA vaccine to an EID pathogen and describe methods used for assessing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines in small animal models.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
9.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0150421, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546442

ABSTRACT

In the age of COVID, nucleic acid vaccines have garnered much attention, at least in part, because of the simplicity of construction, production, and flexibility to adjust and adapt to an evolving outbreak. Orthopoxviruses remain a threat on multiple fronts, especially as emerging zoonoses. In response, we developed a DNA vaccine, termed 4pox, that protected nonhuman primates against monkeypox virus (MPXV)-induced severe disease. Here, we examined the protective efficacy of the 4pox DNA vaccine delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) electroporation (EP) in rabbits challenged with aerosolized rabbitpox virus (RPXV), a model that recapitulates the respiratory route of exposure and low dose associated with natural smallpox exposure in humans. We found that 4pox-vaccinated rabbits developed immunogen-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, and did not develop any clinical disease, indicating protection against aerosolized RPXV. In contrast, unvaccinated animals developed significant signs of disease, including lesions, and were euthanized. These findings demonstrate that an unformulated, nonadjuvanted DNA vaccine delivered i.m. can protect against an aerosol exposure. IMPORTANCE The eradication of smallpox and subsequent cessation of vaccination have left a majority of the population susceptible to variola virus or other emerging poxviruses. This is exemplified by human monkeypox, as evidenced by the increase in reported endemic and imported cases over the past decades. Therefore, a malleable vaccine technology that can be mass produced and does not require complex conditions for distribution and storage is sought. Herein, we show that a DNA vaccine, in the absence of a specialized formulation or adjuvant, can protect against a lethal aerosol insult of rabbitpox virus.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines/immunology , Orthopoxvirus/immunology , Poxviridae Infections/prevention & control , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia/prevention & control , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Electroporation , Female , Immunization/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines/administration & dosage , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Rabbits , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6871, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537309

ABSTRACT

Several effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are currently in use, but effective boosters are needed to maintain or increase immunity due to waning responses and the emergence of novel variants. Here we report that intranasal vaccinations with adenovirus 5 and 19a vectored vaccines following a systemic plasmid DNA or mRNA priming result in systemic and mucosal immunity in mice. In contrast to two intramuscular applications of an mRNA vaccine, intranasal boosts with adenoviral vectors induce high levels of mucosal IgA and lung-resident memory T cells (TRM); mucosal neutralization of virus variants of concern is also enhanced. The mRNA prime provokes a comprehensive T cell response consisting of circulating and lung TRM after the boost, while the plasmid DNA prime induces mostly mucosal T cells. Concomitantly, the intranasal boost strategies lead to complete protection against a SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Our data thus suggest that mucosal booster immunizations after mRNA priming is a promising approach to establish mucosal immunity in addition to systemic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Genetic Vectors , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , /immunology
11.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 71: 111-116, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531148

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic of unprecedented proportions in recent human history. Less than 18 months since the onset of the pandemic, there are close to two hundred million confirmed cases and four million deaths worldwide. There have also been massive efforts geared towards finding safe and effective vaccines. By July 2021 there were 184 COVID-19 vaccine candidates in pre-clinical development, 105 in clinical development, and 18 vaccines approved for emergency use by at least one regulatory authority. These vaccines include whole virus live attenuated or inactivated, protein-based, viral vector, and nucleic acid vaccines. By mid-2021 three billion doses of COVID-19 vaccine have been administered around the world, mostly in high-income countries. COVID-19 vaccination provides hope for an end to the pandemic, if and only if there would be equal access and optimal uptake in all countries around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
12.
Sci Adv ; 7(45): eabj0611, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515256

ABSTRACT

This work reports a suction-based cutaneous delivery method for in vivo DNA transfection. Following intradermal Mantoux injection of plasmid DNA in a rat model, a moderate negative pressure is applied to the injection site, a technique similar to Chinese báguàn and Middle Eastern hijama cupping therapies. Strong GFP expression was demonstrated with pEGFP-N1 plasmids where fluorescence was observed as early as 1 hour after dosing. Modeling indicates a strong correlation between focal strain/stress and expression patterns. The absence of visible and/or histological tissue injury contrasts with current in vivo transfection systems such as electroporation. Specific utility was demonstrated with a synthetic SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine, which generated host humoral immune response in rats with notable antibody production. This method enables an easy-to-use, cost-effective, and highly scalable platform for both laboratorial transfection needs and clinical applications for nucleic acid­based therapeutics and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , DNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/immunology , Transfection , Vaccines, DNA , Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , DNA/genetics , DNA/immunology , DNA/pharmacology , Male , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Suction , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/pharmacology
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475573

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens with pandemic potential requires safe, protective, inexpensive, and easily accessible vaccines that can be developed and manufactured rapidly at a large scale. DNA vaccines can achieve these criteria, but induction of strong immune responses has often required bulky, expensive electroporation devices. Here, we report an ultra-low-cost (<1 USD), handheld (<50 g) electroporation system utilizing a microneedle electrode array ("ePatch") for DNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The low cost and small size are achieved by combining a thumb-operated piezoelectric pulser derived from a common household stove lighter that emits microsecond, bipolar, oscillatory electric pulses and a microneedle electrode array that targets delivery of high electric field strength pulses to the skin's epidermis. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 induced by this electroporation system in mice were strong and enabled at least 10-fold dose sparing compared to conventional intramuscular or intradermal injection of the DNA vaccine. Vaccination was well tolerated with mild, transient effects on the skin. This ePatch system is easily portable, without any battery or other power source supply, offering an attractive, inexpensive approach for rapid and accessible DNA vaccination to combat COVID-19, as well as other epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Electroporation/economics , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microelectrodes , Needles , Pandemics/prevention & control , Proof of Concept Study , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Transfection , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/instrumentation , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology
14.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472420

ABSTRACT

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is known to cause the most significant disease in the mink industry. It is globally widespread and manifested as a deadly plasmacytosis and hyperglobulinemia. So far, measures to control the viral spread have been limited to manual serological testing for AMDV-positive mink. Further, due to the persistent nature of this virus, attempts to eradicate Aleutian disease (AD) have largely failed. Therefore, effective strategies to control the viral spread are of crucial importance for wildlife protection. One potentially key tool in the fight against this disease is by the immunization of mink against AMDV. Throughout many years, several researchers have tried to develop AMDV vaccines and demonstrated varying degrees of protection in mink by those vaccines. Despite these attempts, there are currently no vaccines available against AMDV, allowing the continuation of the spread of Aleutian disease. Herein, we summarize previous AMDV immunization attempts in mink as well as other preventative measures with the purpose to shed light on future studies designing such a potentially crucial preventative tool against Aleutian disease.


Subject(s)
Aleutian Mink Disease Virus/immunology , Aleutian Mink Disease/prevention & control , Mink , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Aleutian Mink Disease/immunology , Animals , Drug Design , Mink/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
16.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 569-575, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356717

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Molecular forms of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) are continuously emerging to improve the efficacy of the treatment, to shorten the duration of protocols and to prevent any side effects. The present review covers the recent progress in the development of AIT based on nucleic acid encoding allergens or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN). RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccinations with plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) encoding major shrimp Met e 1 or insect For t 2 allergen were effective for the treatment of food or insect bite allergy in respective animal models. DNA expressing hypoallergenic shrimp tropomyosin activated Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells whereas DNA encoding For t 2 down-regulated the expression of pruritus-inducing IL-31. Co-administrations of major cat allergen Fel d 1 with high doses of CpG-ODN reduced Th2 airway inflammation through tolerance induction mediated by GATA3+ Foxp3hi Treg cells as well as early anti-inflammatory TNF/TNFR2 signaling cascade. Non-canonical CpG-ODN derived from Cryptococcus neoformans as well as methylated CpG sites present in the genomic DNA from Bifidobacterium infantis mediated Th1 or Treg cell differentiation respectively. SUMMARY: Recent studies on plasmid DNA encoding allergens evidenced their therapeutic potential for the treatment of food allergy and atopic dermatitis. Unmethylated or methylated CpG-ODNs were shown to activate dose-dependent Treg/Th1 responses. Large clinical trials need to be conducted to confirm these promising preclinical data. Moreover, tremendous success of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 must encourage as well the re-exploration of mRNA vaccine platform for innovative AIT.


Subject(s)
Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/therapy , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Allergens/administration & dosage , Allergens/genetics , Allergens/immunology , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Desensitization, Immunologic/trends , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/immunology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/genetics , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Plasmids/administration & dosage , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 740-750, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356252

ABSTRACT

The world has been suffering from COVID-19 disease for more than a year, and it still has a high mortality rate. In addition to the need to minimize transmission of the virus through non-pharmacological measures such as the use of masks and social distance, many efforts are being made to develop a variety of vaccines to prevent the disease worldwide. So far, several vaccines have reached the final stages of safety and efficacy in various phases of clinical trials, and some, such as Moderna/NIAID and BioNTech/Pfizer, have reported very high safety and protection. The important point is that comparing different vaccines is not easy because there is no set standard for measuring neutralization. In this study, we have reviewed the common platforms of COVID-19 vaccines and tried to present the latest reports on the effectiveness of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317222

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic novel virus that has caused a massive pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Wuhan, a city in China became the epicenter of the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019. The disease was declared a pandemic globally by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta CoV of the Coronaviridae family which usually causes respiratory symptoms that resemble common cold. Multiple countries have experienced multiple waves of the disease and scientific experts are consistently working to find answers to several unresolved questions, with the aim to find the most suitable ways to contain the virus. Furthermore, potential therapeutic strategies and vaccine development for COVID-19 management are also considered. Currently, substantial efforts have been made to develop successful and safe treatments and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Some vaccines, such as inactivated vaccines, nucleic acid-based, and vector-based vaccines, have entered phase 3 clinical trials. Additionally, diverse small molecule drugs, peptides and antibodies are being developed to treat COVID-19. We present here an overview of the virus interaction with the host and environment and anti-CoV therapeutic strategies; including vaccines and other methodologies, designed for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with the hope that this integrative analysis could help develop novel therapeutic approaches against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1390-1403, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268055

ABSTRACT

Global concerns arose as the emerged and rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants might escape host immunity induced by vaccination. In this study, a heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy for COVID-19 was designed to prime with a DNA vaccine encoding wild type (WT) spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) followed by S1 protein-based vaccine in rabbits. Four vaccine-elicited rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RmAbs), including 1H1, 9H1, 7G5, and 5E1, were isolated for biophysical property, neutralization potency and sequence analysis. All RmAbs recognized RBD or S1 protein with KD in the low nM or sub nM range. 1H1 and 9H1, but neither 7G5 nor 5E1, can bind to all RBD protein variants derived from B.1.351. All four RmAbs were able to neutralize wild type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 strain in pseudovirus assay, and 1H1 and 9H1 could neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 WT authentic virus with IC50 values of 0.136 and 0.026 µg/mL, respectively. Notably, 1H1 was able to neutralize all 6 emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants tested including D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.429, P.1, B.1.526, and B.1.351 variants, and 5E1 could neutralize against the above 5 variants except P.1. Epitope binning analysis revealed that 9H1, 5E1 and 1H1 recognized distinct epitopes, while 9H1 and 7G5 may have overlapping but not identical epitope. In conclusion, DNA priming protein boost vaccination was an effective strategy to induce RmAbs with potent neutralization capability against not only SARS-CoV-2 WT strain but also emergent variants, which may provide a new avenue for effective therapeutics and point-of-care diagnostic measures.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Genetic Variation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Domains/physiology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , Virus Attachment
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009374, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264204

ABSTRACT

The development of efficient vaccines against COVID-19 is an emergent need for global public health. The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major target for the COVID-19 vaccine. To quickly respond to the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a nucleic acid-based vaccine is a novel option, beyond the traditional inactivated virus vaccine or recombinant protein vaccine. Here, we report a DNA vaccine containing the spike gene for delivery via electroporation. The spike genes of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 were codon optimized for mammalian cell expression and then cloned into mammalian cell expression vectors, called pSARS-S and pSARS2-S, respectively. Spike protein expression was confirmed by immunoblotting after transient expression in HEK293T cells. After immunization, sera were collected for antigen-specific antibody and neutralizing antibody titer analyses. We found that both pSARS-S and pSARS2-S immunization induced similar levels of antibodies against S2 of SARS-CoV-2. In contrast, only pSARS2-S immunization induced antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. We further found that pSARS2-S immunization, but not pSARS-S immunization, could induce very high titers of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. We further analyzed SARS-CoV-2 S protein-specific T cell responses and found that the immune responses were biased toward Th1. Importantly, pSARS2-S immunization in hamsters could induce protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in vivo. These data suggest that DNA vaccination could be a promising approach for protecting against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/standards , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Electroporation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plasmids , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vero Cells
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