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1.
Lancet ; 399(10332): 1281-1282, 2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768610
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667339

ABSTRACT

In 2014 and 2021, two nucleic-acid vaccine candidates named MAV E2 and VGX-3100 completed phase III clinical trials in Mexico and U.S., respectively, for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). These well-tolerated but still unlicensed vaccines encode distinct HPV antigens (E2 versus E6+E7) to elicit cell-mediated immune responses; their clinical efficacy, as measured by HSIL regression or cure, was modest when compared with placebo or surgery (conization), but both proved highly effective in clearing HPV infection, which should help further optimize strategies for enhancing vaccine immunogenicity, toward an ultimate goal of preventing malignancies in millions of patients who are living with persistent, oncogenic HPV infection but are not expected to benefit from current, prophylactic vaccines. The major roadblocks to a highly efficacious and practical product remain challenging and can be classified into five categories: (i) getting the vaccines into the right cells for efficient expression and presentation of HPV antigens (fusion proteins or epitopes); (ii) having adequate coverage of oncogenic HPV types, beyond the current focus on HPV-16 and -18; (iii) directing immune protection to various epithelial niches, especially anogenital mucosa and upper aerodigestive tract where HPV-transformed cells wreak havoc; (iv) establishing the time window and vaccination regimen, including dosage, interval and even combination therapy, for achieving maximum efficacy; and (v) validating therapeutic efficacy in patients with poor prognosis because of advanced, recurrent or non-resectable malignancies. Overall, the room for improvements is still large enough that continuing efforts for research and development will very likely extend into the next decade.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Animals , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , /therapeutic use
3.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 144: 107994, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499650

ABSTRACT

Gene therapies are revolutionizing medicine by providing a way to cure hitherto incurable diseases. The scientific and technological advances have enabled the first gene therapies to become clinically approved. In addition, with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are witnessing record speeds in the development and distribution of gene-based vaccines. For gene therapy to take effect, the therapeutic nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) need to overcome several barriers before they can execute their function of producing a protein or silencing a defective or overexpressing gene. This includes the barriers of the interstitium, the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic barriers and (in case of DNA) the nuclear envelope. Gene electrotransfer (GET), i.e., transfection by means of pulsed electric fields, is a non-viral technique that can overcome these barriers in a safe and effective manner. GET has reached the clinical stage of investigations where it is currently being evaluated for its therapeutic benefits across a wide variety of indications. In this review, we formalize our current understanding of GET from a biophysical perspective and critically discuss the mechanisms by which electric field can aid in overcoming the barriers. We also identify the gaps in knowledge that are hindering optimization of GET in vivo.


Subject(s)
Electroporation , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Gene Transfer Techniques/instrumentation , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /genetics , /therapeutic use
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(10): 100420, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450242

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has had a dramatic global impact on public health and social and economic infrastructures. Here, we assess the immunogenicity and anamnestic protective efficacy in rhesus macaques of an intradermal (i.d.)-delivered SARS-CoV-2 spike DNA vaccine, INO-4800, currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Vaccination with INO-4800 induced T cell responses and induced spike antigen and RBD binding antibodies with ADCP and ADCD activity. Sera from the animals neutralized both the D614 and G614 SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype viruses. Several months after vaccination, animals were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 resulting in rapid recall of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein T cell and neutralizing antibody responses. These responses were associated with lower viral loads in the lung. These studies support the immune impact of INO-4800 for inducing both humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive immune system, which are likely important for providing durable protection against COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Injections, Intradermal , Macaca mulatta , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Viral Load
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317222

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic novel virus that has caused a massive pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Wuhan, a city in China became the epicenter of the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019. The disease was declared a pandemic globally by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta CoV of the Coronaviridae family which usually causes respiratory symptoms that resemble common cold. Multiple countries have experienced multiple waves of the disease and scientific experts are consistently working to find answers to several unresolved questions, with the aim to find the most suitable ways to contain the virus. Furthermore, potential therapeutic strategies and vaccine development for COVID-19 management are also considered. Currently, substantial efforts have been made to develop successful and safe treatments and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Some vaccines, such as inactivated vaccines, nucleic acid-based, and vector-based vaccines, have entered phase 3 clinical trials. Additionally, diverse small molecule drugs, peptides and antibodies are being developed to treat COVID-19. We present here an overview of the virus interaction with the host and environment and anti-CoV therapeutic strategies; including vaccines and other methodologies, designed for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with the hope that this integrative analysis could help develop novel therapeutic approaches against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use
6.
JCI Insight ; 6(10)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197299

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses from zoonotic reservoirs, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have been associated with human-to-human transmission and significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we study both intradermal and intramuscular 2-dose delivery regimens of an advanced synthetic DNA vaccine candidate encoding a full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein, which induced potent binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular immune responses in rhesus macaques. In a MERS-CoV challenge, all immunized rhesus macaques exhibited reduced clinical symptoms, lowered viral lung load, and decreased severity of pathological signs of disease compared with controls. Intradermal vaccination was dose sparing and more effective in this model at protecting animals from disease. The data support the further study of this vaccine for preventing MERS-CoV infection and transmission, including investigation of such vaccines and simplified delivery routes against emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Injections, Intradermal , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
7.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(1): 9-16, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894789

ABSTRACT

Tremendous efforts are undertaken to quickly develop COVID-19 vaccines that protect vulnerable individuals from severe disease and thereby limit the health and socioeconomic impacts of the pandemic. Potential candidates are tested in adult populations, and questions arise of whether COVID-19 vaccination should be implemented in children. Compared to adults, the incidence and disease severity of COVID-19 are low in children, and despite their infectiveness, their role in disease propagation is limited. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccines will need to have fully demonstrated safety and efficacy in preventing not only complications but transmission to justify childhood vaccination. This work summarizes currently tested vaccine platforms and debates practical and ethical considerations for their potential use in children. It also discusses the already deleterious effect of the pandemic on routine childhood vaccine coverage, calling for action to limit the risks for a rise in vaccine-preventable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/ethics , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
9.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(11): 1874-1878, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696790

ABSTRACT

A novel concept in DNA vaccine design is the creation of an inhaled DNA plasmid construct containing a portion of the coronavirus spike protein for treatment and vaccination. The secretion of a spike protein portion will function as a competitive antagonist by interfering with the binding of coronavirus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The secreted protein binding to the ACE2 receptor provides a unique mechanism of action for treatment to all strains of coronavirus in naïve patients, by blocking the ACE2 receptor site. An inhaled plasmid DNA vaccine replicates the route of lung infection taken by coronavirus with transfected cells secreting spike protein portions to induce immunity. Unlike most DNA vaccines with intracellular antigen presentation through MHC I, the current vaccine relies on the secreted proteins presentation through MHC II as well as MHC I to induce immunity. Lung specific production of vaccine particles by inhaled plasmid DNA is appealing since it may have limited systemic side effects, and may induce both humoral and cytotoxic immunity. Finally, the ease and ability to rapidly produce this plasmid construct makes this an ideal solution for managing the emerging threat of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chitosan , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/chemistry
10.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 43-49, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611163

ABSTRACT

There is a strong consensus globally that a COVID-19 vaccine is likely the most effective approach to sustainably controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. An unprecedented research effort and global coordination has resulted in a rapid development of vaccine candidates and initiation of trials. Here, we review vaccine types, and progress with 10 vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 - currently undergoing early phase human trials. We also consider the many challenges of developing and deploying a new vaccine on a global scale, and recommend caution with respect to our expectations of the timeline that may be ahead.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Drug Development , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(5): 355-368, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101831

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, zoonotic RNA viruses. Four CoVs commonly circulate among humans: HCoV2-229E, -HKU1, -NL63 and -OC43. However, CoVs can rapidly mutate and recombine leading to novel CoVs that can spread from animals to humans. The novel CoVs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a severe outbreak of disease (termed COVID-19) in China and multiple other countries, threatening to cause a global pandemic. In humans, CoVs mostly cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical manifestations range from a common cold to more severe disease such as bronchitis, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and even death. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 seem to less commonly affect children and to cause fewer symptoms and less severe disease in this age group compared with adults, and are associated with much lower case-fatality rates. Preliminary evidence suggests children are just as likely as adults to become infected with SARS-CoV-2 but are less likely to be symptomatic or develop severe symptoms. However, the importance of children in transmitting the virus remains uncertain. Children more often have gastrointestinal symptoms compared with adults. Most children with SARS-CoV present with fever, but this is not the case for the other novel CoVs. Many children affected by MERS-CoV are asymptomatic. The majority of children infected by novel CoVs have a documented household contact, often showing symptoms before them. In contrast, adults more often have a nosocomial exposure. In this review, we summarize epidemiologic, clinical and diagnostic findings, as well as treatment and prevention options for common circulating and novel CoVs infections in humans with a focus on infections in children.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
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