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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(2): 2225640, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244449

ABSTRACT

Although humoral responses elicited by infection or vaccine lost the ability to prevent transmission against Omicron, vaccine-induced antibodies may still contribute to disease attenuation through Fc-mediated effector functions. However, Fc effector function elicited by CoronaVac, as the most widely supplied inactivated vaccine globally, has not been characterized. For the first time, our study depicted Fc-mediated phagocytosis activity induced by CoronaVac, including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody-dependent neutrophil phagocytosis (ADNP) activities, and further compared with that from convalescent individuals and CoronaVac recipients with subsequent breakthrough infections. We showed that 2-dose of CoronaVac effectively induced both ADCP and ADNP, but was substantially lower compared to infection, whereas the booster dose further augmented ADCP and ADNP responses, and remained detectable for 52 weeks. Among CoronaVac recipients, ADCP and ADNP responses also demonstrated cross-reactivity against Omicron subvariants, and breakthrough infection could enhance the phagocytic response. Meanwhile, serum samples from vaccinees, convalescent individuals with wildtype infection, BA.2 and BA.5 breakthrough infection demonstrated differential cross-reactive ADCP and ADNP responses against Omicron subvariants, suggesting the different subvariants of spike antigen exposure might alter the cross-reactivity of Fc effector function. Further, ADCP and ADNP responses were strongly correlated with Spike-specific IgG responses and neutralizing activities, indicating coordinated neutralization activity, ADCP and ADNP responses triggered by CoronaVac. Of note, the ADCP and ADNP responses were more durable and cross-reactive than corresponding Spike-specific IgG titers and neutralizing activities. Our study has important implications for optimal boosting vaccine strategies that may induce potent and broad Fc-mediated phagocytic activities.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Phagocytosis , Humans , Breakthrough Infections , Vaccines, Inactivated , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242666

ABSTRACT

Waning vaccine-induced immunity, coupled with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, has inspired the widespread implementation of COVID-19 booster vaccinations. Here, we evaluated the potential of the GX-19N DNA vaccine as a heterologous booster to enhance the protective immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in mice primed with either an inactivated virus particle (VP) or an mRNA vaccine. We found that in the VP-primed condition, GX-19N enhanced the response of both vaccine-specific antibodies and cross-reactive T Cells to the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC), compared to the homologous VP vaccine prime-boost. Under the mRNA-primed condition, GX-19N induced higher vaccine-induced T Cell responses but lower antibody responses than the homologous mRNA vaccine prime-boost. Furthermore, the heterologous GX-19N boost induced higher S-specific polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses than the homologous VP or mRNA prime-boost vaccinations. Our results provide new insights into booster vaccination strategies for the management of novel COVID-19 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , DNA , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism
3.
Vaccine ; 41(29): 4287-4294, 2023 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence of immune response to COVID-19 vaccine in psoriasis patients on biological agents is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels following vaccination with CoronaVac or Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA in patients using biological agents or methotrexate, high-titer antibody levels achievement rate, and impact of medications on immunogenicity. METHODS: This noninterventional, prospective cohort study included 89 patients and 40 controls vaccinated with two doses of inactivated (CoronaVac) or Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccines. Anti-spike and neutralising antibodies were analysed before and three to six weeks after the second dose. Adverse effects and symptomatic COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: Median anti-spike and neutralising antibody titers after CoronaVac were significantly lower in patients than controls (57.92 U/mL vs 125.4 U/mL, and 1/6 vs 1/32, respectively, p < 0.05). Patients were less likely to achieve high-titer anti-spike antibody levels (25.6 % vs 50 %). Infliximab was associated with attenuated vaccine response. Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine induced comparable median anti-spike (2,080 U/mL vs 2,976.5 U/mL,) and neutralising antibody levels (1/96 vs 1/160) in patients and controls, respectively (p > 0.05). High-titer anti-spike and neutralising antibodies development rates were comparable among patients and controls (95.2 % vs 100 %, and 30.4 % vs 50.0 %, respectively, p > 0.05). Nine (10.1 %) COVID-19 cases- all mild - were identified. Psoriasis flare was seen in 6.74 %, mostly after Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. CONCLUSION: Psoriasis patients treated with biological agents and methotrexate developed similar response to mRNA vaccine but weaker response to inactivated vaccine. Infliximab reduced response to the inactivated vaccine. Adverse effects were more frequent with mRNA vaccine, but none was severe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Psoriasis , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biological Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Infliximab , Methotrexate , Prospective Studies , Psoriasis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1131985, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230927

ABSTRACT

The mRNA vaccines (RVs) can reduce the severity and mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). However, almost only the inactivated vaccines (IVs) but no RVs had been used in mainland China until most recently, and the relaxing of its anti-pandemic strategies in December 2022 increased concerns about new outbreaks. In comparison, many of the citizens in Macao Special Administrative Region of China received three doses of IV (3IV) or RV (3RV), or 2 doses of IV plus one booster of RV (2IV+1RV). By the end of 2022, we recruited 147 participants with various vaccinations in Macao and detected antibodies (Abs) against the spike (S) protein and nucleocapsid (N) protein of the virus as well as neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in their serum. We observed that the level of anti-S Ab or NAb was similarly high with both 3RV and 2IV+1RV but lower with 3IV. In contrast, the level of anti-N Ab was the highest with 3IV like that in convalescents, intermediate with 2IV+1RV, and the lowest with 3RV. Whereas no significant differences in the basal levels of cytokines related to T-cell activation were observed among the various vaccination groups before and after the boosters. No vaccinees reported severe adverse events. Since Macao took one of the most stringent non-pharmaceutical interventions in the world, this study possesses much higher confidence in the vaccination results than many other studies from highly infected regions. Our findings suggest that the heterologous vaccination 2IV+1RV outperforms the homologous vaccinations 3IV and 3RV as it induces not only anti-S Ab (to the level as with 3RV) but also anti-N antibodies (via the IV). It combines the advantages of both RV (to block the viral entry) and IV (to also intervene the subsequent pathological processes such as intracellular viral replication and interference with the signal transduction and hence the biological functions of host cells).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Macau , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , mRNA Vaccines
5.
J Infect ; 87(2): 136-143, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess real-world effectiveness of vaccines against COVID-19. METHODS: A test-negative study was conducted in January-May 2022 during an Omicron BA.2 wave in Hong Kong. COVID-19 was identified by RT-PCR. 1-1 case-control matching was based on propensity score with vaccine effectiveness adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Altogether, 1781 cases and 1737 controls aged 3-105 years were analysed. The mean lag time from the last dose of vaccination to testing for SARS-CoV-2 was 133.9 (SD: 84.4) days. Two doses of either vaccine within 180 days offered a low effectiveness against COVID-19 of all severity combined (VEadj [95% CI] for BNT162b2: 27.0% [4.2-44.5], CoronaVac: 22.9% [1.3-39.7]), and further decreased after 180 days. Two doses of CoronaVac were poorly protective 39.5% [4.9-62.5] against severe diseases for age ≥ 60 years, but the effectiveness increased substantially after the third dose (79.1% [25.7-96.7]). Two doses of BNT162b2 protected age ≥ 60 years against severe diseases (79.3% [47.2, 93.9]); however, the uptake was not high enough to assess three doses. CONCLUSIONS: The current real-world analysis indicates a high vaccine effectiveness of three doses of inactivated virus (CoronaVac) vaccines against Omicron variant, whereas the effectiveness of two doses is suboptimal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , Hong Kong/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2206278, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320726

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-based BNT162b2 and inactivated whole-virus CoronaVac are two widely used COVID-19 vaccines that confer immune protection to healthy individuals. However, hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccination appeared to be common for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) due to the paucity of data on the safety and efficacy in this high-risk patient population. Therefore, we examined the underlying factors associated with vaccine hesitancy across time for NMDs and assessed the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of these two vaccines. Patients aged 8-18 years with no cognitive delay were invited to complete surveys in January and April 2022. Patients aged 2-21 years were enrolled for COVID-19 vaccination between June 2021 and April 2022, and they recorded adverse reactions (ARs) for 7 days after vaccination. Peripheral blood was obtained before and within 49 days after vaccination to measure serological antibody responses compared to healthy children and adolescents. Forty-one patients completed vaccine hesitancy surveys for both timepoints, while 22 joined the reactogenicity and immunogenicity arm of the study. Two or more family members vaccinated against COVID-19 was positively associated with intention of vaccination (odds ratio 11.7, 95% CI 1.81-75.1, p = .010). Pain at the injection site, fatigue, and myalgia were the commonest ARs. Most ARs were mild (75.5%, n = 71/94). All 19 patients seroconverted against the wildtype SARS-CoV-2 after two doses of either vaccine, similar to 280 healthy counterparts. There was lower neutralization against the Omicron BA.1 variant. BNT162b2 and CoronaVac were safe and immunogenic for patients with NMDs, even in those on low-dose corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Diseases , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Child, Preschool , Young Adult
9.
PeerJ ; 11: e15155, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293251

ABSTRACT

Inactivated vaccines are one of the most effective strategies for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the response genes for the protective effect of inactivated vaccines are still unclear. Herein, we analysed the neutralization antibody responses elicited by vaccine serum and carried out transcriptome sequencing of RNAs isolated from the PBMCs of 29 medical staff receiving two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine. The results showed that SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibody titers varied considerably among individuals, and revealed that many innate immune pathways were activated after vaccination. Furthermore, the blue module revealed that NRAS, YWHAB, SMARCA5, PPP1CC and CDC5L may be correlated with the protective effect of the inactivated vaccine. Additionally, MAPK1, CDC42, PPP2CA, EP300, YWHAZ and NRAS were demonstrated as the hub genes having a significant association with vaccines. These findings provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of the host immune response induced by inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transcriptome , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccines, Inactivated , RNA-Binding Proteins , Cell Cycle Proteins
10.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305472

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity confers protection against COVID-19. The longevity of antibody responses after receiving an inactivated vaccine in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Plasma samples were collected from 58 individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and 25 healthy donors (HDs) who had been vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. The neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and S1 domain-specific antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron strains and nucleoside protein (NP)-specific antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using clinical variables and antibodies at different timepoints after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. NAbs targeting the wild-type or Omicron strain were detected in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection at 12 months after infection (wild-type: 81%, geometric mean (GM): 20.3 AU/mL; Omicron: 44%, GM: 9.4 AU/mL), and vaccination provided further enhancement of these antibody levels (wild-type: 98%, GM: 53.3 AU/mL; Omicron: 75%, GM: 27.8 AU/mL, at 3 months after vaccination), which were significantly higher than those in HDs receiving a third dose of inactivated vaccine (wild-type: 85%, GM: 33.6 AU/mL; Omicron: 45%, GM: 11.5 AU/mL). The level of NAbs in individuals with previous infection plateaued 6 months after vaccination, but the NAb levels in HDs declined continuously. NAb levels in individuals with previous infection at 3 months post-vaccination were strongly correlated with those at 6 months post-vaccination, and weakly correlated with those before vaccination. NAb levels declined substantially in most individuals, and the rate of antibody decay was negatively correlated with the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the blood at discharge. These results suggest that the inactivated vaccine induced robust and durable NAb responses in individuals with previous infection up to 9 months after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccination
11.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 160, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The two inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, CoronaVac and BBIBP-CorV, have been widely used to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The influence of multiple factors on inactivated vaccine effectiveness (VE) during long-term use and against variants is not well understood. METHODS: We selected published or preprinted articles from PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, medRxiv, BioRxiv, and the WHO COVID-19 database by 31 August 2022. We included observational studies that assessed the VE of completed primary series or homologous booster against SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe COVID-19. We used DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models to calculate pooled estimates and conducted multiple meta-regression with an information theoretic approach based on Akaike's Information Criterion to select the model and identify the factors associated with VE. RESULTS: Fifty-one eligible studies with 151 estimates were included. For prevention of infection, VE associated with study region, variants, and time since vaccination; VE was significantly decreased against Omicron compared to Alpha (P = 0.021), primary series VE was 52.8% (95% CI, 43.3 to 60.7%) against Delta and 16.4% (95% CI, 9.5 to 22.8%) against Omicron, and booster dose VE was 65.2% (95% CI, 48.3 to 76.6%) against Delta and 20.3% (95% CI, 10.5 to 28.0%) against Omicron; primary VE decreased significantly after 180 days (P = 0.022). For the prevention of severe COVID-19, VE associated with vaccine doses, age, study region, variants, study design, and study population type; booster VE increased significantly (P = 0.001) compared to primary; though VE decreased significantly against Gamma (P = 0.034), Delta (P = 0.001), and Omicron (P = 0.001) compared to Alpha, primary and booster VEs were all above 60% against each variant. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection was moderate, decreased significantly after 6 months following primary vaccination, and was restored by booster vaccination. VE against severe COVID-19 was greatest after boosting and did not decrease over time, sustained for over 6 months after the primary series, and more evidence is needed to assess the duration of booster VE. VE varied by variants, most notably against Omicron. It is necessary to ensure booster vaccination of everyone eligible for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and continue monitoring virus evolution and VE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42022353272.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Regression Analysis , Vaccines, Inactivated
12.
Eur Heart J ; 43(41): 4378-4388, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295117

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate whether a strategy of double-dose influenza vaccination during hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with standard-dose outpatient vaccination (as recommended by current guidelines) would further reduce the risk of major cardiopulmonary events. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vaccination against Influenza to Prevent cardiovascular events after Acute Coronary Syndromes (VIP-ACS) was a pragmatic, randomized, multicentre, active-comparator, open-label trial with blinded outcome adjudication comparing two strategies of influenza vaccination following an ACS: double-dose quadrivalent inactivated vaccine before hospital discharge vs. standard-dose quadrivalent inactivated vaccine administered in the outpatient setting 30 days after randomization. The primary outcome was a hierarchical composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, urgent coronary revascularization, and hospitalization for respiratory causes, analysed by the win ratio method. Patients were followed for 12 months. During two influenza seasons, 1801 participants were included at 25 centres in Brazil. The primary outcome was not different between groups, with 12.7% wins in-hospital double-dose vaccine group and 12.3% wins in the standard-dose vaccine group {win ratio: 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.32], P = 0.84}. Results were consistent for the key secondary outcome, a hierarchical composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke [win ratio: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.66-1.33), P = 0.72]. Time-to-first event analysis for the primary outcome showed results similar to those of the main analysis [hazard ratio 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75-1.24), P = 0.79]. Adverse events were infrequent and did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Among patients hospitalized with an ACS, double-dose influenza vaccination before discharge did not reduce cardiopulmonary outcomes compared with standard-dose vaccination in the outpatient setting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04001504.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Vaccination , Stroke/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28743, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300963

ABSTRACT

Safety profiles and humoral responses to inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have been previously assessed, but cellular immune responses to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remain understudied. Here, we report the comprehensive characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by the BBIBP-CorV vaccine. A total of 295 healthy adults were recruited, and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were detected after stimulation with overlapping peptide pools spanning the entire length of the envelope (E), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N), and spike (S) proteins. Robust and durable CD4+ (p < 0.0001) and CD8+ (p < 0.0001) T-cell responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 were detected following the third vaccination, with an increase in specific CD8+ T-cells, compared to CD4+ T-cells. Cytokine profiles showed that interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor-α were predominantly expressed with the negligible expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, indicating a Th1- or Tc1-biased response. Compared to E and M proteins, N and S activated a higher proportion of specific T-cells with broader functions. The predominant frequency of the N antigen (49/89) was highest for CD4+ T-cell immunity. Furthermore, N19-36 and N391-408 were identified to contain dominant CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes, respectively. In addition, N19-36 -specific CD8+ T-cells were mainly effector memory CD45RA cells, whereas N391-408 -specific CD4+ T-cells were mainly effector memory cells. Therefore, this study reports comprehensive features of T-cell immunity induced by the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BBIBP-CorV and proposes highly conserved candidate peptides which may be beneficial in vaccine optimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peptides , Vaccines, Inactivated
14.
EBioMedicine ; 91: 104563, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant has challenged the control of the COVID-19 pandemic due to its immuno-evasive properties. The administration of a booster dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine showed positive effects in the immunogenicity against SARS-CoV-2, effect that is even enhanced after the administration of a second booster. METHODS: During a phase-3 clinical trial, we evaluated the effect of a second booster of CoronaVac®, an inactivated vaccine administered 6 months after the first booster, in the neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 87). In parallel, cellular immunity (n = 45) was analyzed in stimulated peripheral mononuclear cells by flow cytometry and ELISPOT. FINDINGS: Although a 2.5-fold increase in neutralization of the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 was observed after the second booster when compared with prior its administration (Geometric mean units p < 0.0001; Geometric mean titer p = 0.0002), a poor neutralization against the Omicron variant was detected. Additionally, the activation of specific CD4+ T lymphocytes remained stable after the second booster and, importantly, equivalent activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes against the Omicron variant and the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 were found. INTERPRETATION: Although the neutralizing response against the Omicron variant after the second booster of CoronaVac® was slightly increased, these levels are far from those observed against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and could most likely fail to neutralize the virus. In contrast, a robust CD4+T cell response may confer protection against the Omicron variant. FUNDING: The Ministry of Health, Government of Chile, the Confederation of Production and Commerce, Chile and SINOVAC Biotech.NIHNIAID. The Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
15.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2179, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299017

ABSTRACT

A full understanding of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine-mediated antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 circulating variants will inform vaccine effectiveness and vaccination development strategies. Here, we offer insights into the inactivated vaccine-induced antibody responses after prime-boost vaccination at both the polyclonal and monoclonal levels. We characterized the VDJ sequence of 118 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and found that 20 neutralizing mAbs showed varied potency and breadth against a range of variants including XBB.1.5, BQ.1.1, and BN.1. Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) based on nonoverlapping mAbs exhibited enhanced neutralizing potency and breadth against the most antibody-evasive strains, such as XBB.1.5, BQ.1.1, and BN.1. The passive transfer of mAbs or their bsAb effectively protected female hACE2 transgenic mice from challenge with an infectious Delta or Omicron BA.2 variant. The neutralization mechanisms of these antibodies were determined by structural characterization. Overall, a broad spectrum of potent and distinct neutralizing antibodies can be induced in individuals immunized with the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV, suggesting the application potential of inactivated vaccines and these antibodies for preventing infection by SARS-CoV-2 circulating variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Mice, Transgenic , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibodies, Viral
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1139620, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296693

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 epidemic, vaccination has become the most safe and effective way to prevent severe illness and death. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used type of COVID-19 vaccines in the world. In contrast to spike-based mRNA/protein COVID-19 vaccines, inactivated vaccines generate antibodies and T cell responses against both spike and non-spike antigens. However, the knowledge of inactivated vaccines in inducing non-spike-specific T cell response is very limited. Methods: In this study, eighteen healthcare volunteers received a homogenous booster (third) dose of the CoronaVac vaccine at least 6 months after the second dose. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against a peptide pool from wild-type (WT) non-spike proteins and spike peptide pools from WT, Delta, and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 were examined before and 1-2 weeks after the booster dose. Results: The booster dose elevated cytokine response in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as expression of cytotoxic marker CD107a in CD8+ T cells in response to non-spike and spike antigens. The frequencies of cytokine-secreting non-spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells correlated well with those of spike-specific from WT, Delta, and Omicron. Activation-induced markers (AIM) assay also revealed that booster vaccination elicited non-spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. In addition, booster vaccination produced similar spike-specific AIM+CD4+ and AIM+CD8+ T cell responses to WT, Delta, and Omicron, indicting strong cross-reactivity of functional cellular response between WT and variants. Furthermore, booster vaccination induced effector memory phenotypes of spike-specific and non-spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Conclusions: These data suggest that the booster dose of inactive vaccines broadens both non-spike-specific and spike-specific T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Memory T Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Vaccines, Inactivated
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(2): 178-181, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261732

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critically needed for older adults because of the increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODOLOGY: In this prospective study, we analysed the titre magnitude of the IgG antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 (S1-RBD) antigen in both CoronaVac and Pfizer-BioNTech groups. The samples were tested to detect antibodies that bind to the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique with SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant. The cut-off value was > 50 AU/mL. GraphPad Prism software was used. Statistical significance was defined at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The CoronaVac group (12 females, 13 males) had a mean age of 69.64 ± 1.38 years. The Pfizer-BioNTech group (13 males, 12 females) had a mean age of 72.36 ± 1.44 years. The anti- S1-RBD titre decrease rate from the 1st to the 3rd month for CoronaVac and Pfizer-BioNTech groups was 74.31% and 86.48%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the antibody titre between the 1st month and 3rd month for the CoronaVac group. However, there was a significant difference between the 1st and 3rd month in the Pfizer-BioNTech group. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the genders between the 1st and 3rd month of the antibody titres for both the CoronaVac Pfizer-BioNTech group. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of anti-S1-RBD, the preliminary outcome data of our study, represents one piece of the puzzle of humoral response and duration of vaccination protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vaccination
18.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(12): 1370-1374, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284098

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the safety of inactivated novel coronavirus vaccine inoculation and the fluctuating neutralizing antibody in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: Retrospective and prospective epidemiological research methods were employed. 153 CHB patients who visited the Department of Infectious Diseases at the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from September 2021 to February 2022 were selected as the research subjects. Information on vaccination-related adverse reactions was collected. Colloidal gold immunochromatography was used to identify neutralizing antibodies in the body after 3-6 months of vaccination. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2-test or Fisher's exact test. Results: The positive rates of neutralizing antibodies after inactivated novel coronavirus vaccine inoculation in 153 patients with CHB were 45.50%, 44.70%, 40.00% and 16.20%, respectively, at 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The neutralizing antibody concentrations were 10.00 (2.95, 30.01) U/ml, 6.08 (3.41, 24.50) U/ml, 5.90 (3.93, 14.68) U/ml, and 1.25 (0.92, 3.75) U/ml, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) when the neutralizing antibody positivity rates in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA-negative and positive patients and HBeAg-negative and positive patients at different time points were compared. The overall incidence of adverse reactions following vaccination was 18.30%. Pain at the site of inoculation and fatigue were the main presentations, and no serious adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion: CHB patients, when inoculated with an inactivated novel coronavirus vaccine, can produce neutralizing antibodies, which can stay at certain levels for 3, 4, and 5 months. However, the neutralizing antibody level gradually decreases over time, and the decrease is remarkable at 6 months. So, it is recommended to boost vaccinations at an appropriate time. Additionally, the results of the study suggest that HBV replication status has little effect on the production of neutralizing antibodies in CHB patients with relatively stable liver function, which means the inactivated novel coronavirus vaccine has a good safety profile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 11(7): 613-623, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is the first approved mucosal respiratory COVID-19 vaccine to be used as a booster after the primary immunisation with COVID-19 vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, intramuscular Ad5-nCoV, or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac given as the second booster. METHODS: This is an open-label, parallel-controlled, phase 4 randomised trial enrolling healthy adult participants (≥18 years) who had completed a two-dose primary immunisation and a booster immunisation with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac only) at least 6 months before, in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, China. We recruited eligible participants from previous trials in China (NCT04892459, NCT04952727, and NCT05043259) as cohort 1 (with the serum before and after the first booster dose available), and from eligible volunteers in Lianshui and Donghai counties, Jiangsu Province, as cohort 2. Participants were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1:1, using a web-based interactive response randomisation system, to receive the fourth dose (second booster) of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (0·1 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (0·5 mL of 1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL), or inactivated COVID-19 vaccine CoronaVac (0·5 mL), respectively. The co-primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies against prototype live SARS-CoV-2 virus 28 days after the vaccination, assessed on a per-protocol basis. Non-inferiority or superiority was achieved when the lower limit of the 95% CI of the GMT ratio (heterologous group vs homologous group) exceeded 0·67 or 1·0, respectively. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05303584 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between April 23 and May 23, 2022, from 367 volunteers screened for eligibility, 356 participants met eligibility criteria and received a dose of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV (n=117), intramuscular Ad5-nCoV (n=120), or CoronaVac (n=119). Within 28 days of booster vaccination, participants in the intramuscular Ad5-nCoV group reported a significantly higher frequency of adverse reactions than those in the aerosolised Ad5-nCoV and intramuscular CoronaVac groups (30% vs 9% and 14%, respectively; p<0·0001). No serious adverse events related to the vaccination were reported. The heterologous boosting with aerosolised Ad5-nCoV triggered a GMT of 672·4 (95% CI 539·7-837·7) and intramuscular Ad5-nCoV triggered a serum neutralising antibody GMT of 582·6 (505·0-672·2) 28 days after the booster dose, both of which were significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (58·5 [48·0-71·4]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A heterologous fourth dose (second booster) with either aerosolised Ad5-nCoV or intramuscular Ad5-nCoV was safe and highly immunogenic in healthy adults who had been immunised with three doses of CoronaVac. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Jiangsu Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
20.
Front Immunol ; 14: 952911, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280358

ABSTRACT

Background: People with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) on anti-CD20 therapies (aCD20) and fingolimod have shown inadequate humoral responses to COVID-19 vaccines. Objective: The objective of the study was to pilot larger studies by demonstrating the safety and comparing the immunogenicity of different types of third doses in seronegative pwMS after two doses of BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine. Methods: In December 2021, subject to receiving their third dose, being COVID-19-naiive, and receiving no corticosteroid within two months, we measured the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG in pwMS seronegative after two shots of BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine. Results: We included 20/29 pwMS who received adenoviral vector (AV), 7/29 who received inactivated, and 2/29 who received conjugated third doses. No serious adverse events were reported two weeks post-third dose. The pwMS receiving AV third doses showed significantly increased IgG concentrations, while only the ones not on aCD20 and fingolimod responded to inactivated third doses. An ordinal logistic multivariable generalized linear model indicated that age (per year ß: -0.10, P = 0.04), type of disease-modifying therapy (aCD20 ß: -8.36, P <0.01; fingolimod ß: -8.63, P = 0.01; others: reference), and type of third dose (AV or conjugated ß: 2.36, P = 0.02; inactivated: reference) are predictive of third dose immunogenicity among pwMS who remain seronegative after two shots of BBIBP-CorV vaccine. Statistical significance was not achieved for variables sex, MS duration, EDSS, duration of DMT, duration of third dose to IgG test, and duration from last aCD20 infusion to third dose. Conclusion: This preliminary pilot study highlights the need for further research to determine the optimal COVID-19 third dose vaccination strategy for pwMS living in areas where BBIBP-CorV vaccine has been used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
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