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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 61, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758178

ABSTRACT

Variants are globally emerging very quickly following pandemic prototypic SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the cross-protection of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against its variants, we vaccinated rhesus monkeys with three doses of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, followed by challenging with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). These vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants, although there were certain declinations of geometric mean titer (GMT) as compared with prototypic SARS-CoV-2. Of note, in vivo this prototypic vaccine not only reduced the viral loads in nasal, throat and anal swabs, pulmonary tissues, but also improved the pathological changes in the lung infected by variants of Alpha, Beta, and Delta. In summary, the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in this study protected against VOCs to certain extension, which is of great significance for prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Viral Load/drug effects
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1696-1700, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718390

ABSTRACT

Emerging reports of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections entail methodical genomic surveillance for determining the efficacy of vaccines. This study elaborates genomic analysis of isolates from breakthrough infections following vaccination with AZD1222/Covishield and BBV152/Covaxin. Variants of concern B.1.617.2 and B.1.1.7 responsible for cases surge in April-May 2021 in Delhi, were the predominant lineages among breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667345

ABSTRACT

This study compared the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines between people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 120 PLWH and 53 HIV-negative individuals aged 18-59 years who had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in two Chinese cities between April and June 2021. Blood samples were tested for immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were similar between PLWH and HIV-negative individuals. The seropositivity of neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2, of the total amount of antibody (total antibody) and of S-IgG were 71.3%, 81.9%, and 92.6%, respectively, among fully vaccinated PLWH. Among all participants, PLWH had lower neutralizing activity, total antibody, S-IgG, and T-cell-specific immune response levels, compared to HIV-negative individuals, after controlling for types of vaccine, time interval between first and second dose, time after receiving the second dose, and sociodemographic factors. PLWH with a longer interval since HIV diagnosis, who received their second dose 15-28 days prior to study commencement, and who had an interval of ≥21 days between first and second dose had higher neutralizing activity levels. The immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was lower among PLWH as compared to HIV-negative individuals. Vaccination guideline specific for PLWH should be developed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
5.
Mol Immunol ; 143: 94-99, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630068

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral response was analyzed over time in a group of healthcare workers with or without exposure to SARS-CoV-2, who underwent vaccination with BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) vaccine in Argentina. Seroconversion rates in unexposed subjects after the first and second doses were 40 % and 100 %, respectively, showing a significant increase in antibody concentrations from dose 1 to dose 2 (p < 0.0001). The highest antibody concentrations were found in younger subjects and women, remaining significantly associated in a multivariable linear regression model (p = 0.005). A single dose of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine induced a strong antibody response in individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2infection, while a second dose did not increase this response. A sharp increase in antibody concentrations was observed following SARS-CoV-2 infection in those participants who became infected after the first and second doses (p = 0.008). Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 exposure prior to vaccination showed significantly higher anti-spike IgG antibody levels, at all-time points, than those not exposed (p < 0.001). Higher antibody titers were induced by a single dose in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals than those induced in naïve subjects by two doses of the vaccine (p < 0.0001). Three months after the second dose both groups showed a decline in antibody levels, being more abrupt in unexposed subjects. Overall, our results showed a trend towards lower antibody concentrations over time following BBIBP-CorV vaccination. Sex and age seem to influence the magnitude of the humoral response in unexposed subjects while the combination of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 plus vaccination, whatever the sequence of the events was, produced a sharp increase in antibody levels. Evaluation of the humoral responses over time and the analysis of the induction and persistence of memory B and T cell responses, are needed to assess long-term immune protection induced by BBIBP-CorV vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(3): 106298, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627029

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cerebrovascular disease, which has been reported with covid infection as well as covid vaccines, particularly AstraZeneca and Janssen vaccines. We present four consecutive cases of CVT after receiving either Sinopharm or Sinovac vaccine, both of which are composed of an inactivated-virus. All the patients recovered well with anticoagulation and discharged with a good functional outcome. This is the first case series reporting CVT following the administration of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intracranial Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 477-481, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625890

ABSTRACT

The massive and rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several viral variants of concern (VOCs), with the most recent one, B.1.1.529 (Omicron), which accumulated a large number of spike mutations, raising the specter that this newly identified variant may escape from the currently available vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that Omicron variant is markedly resistant to neutralization of sera from convalescents or individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV). However, a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) significantly increased neutralization titers to both WT and Omicron variant. Moreover, at day 14 post the third dose, neutralizing antibody titer reduction for Omicron was less than that for convalescents or individuals who had only two doses of the vaccine, indicating that a homologous or heterologous booster can reduce the Omicron escape from neutralizing. In addition, we tested a panel of 17 SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Omicron resists seven of eight authorized/approved mAbs, as well as most of the other mAbs targeting distinct epitopes on RBD and NTD. Taken together, our results suggest the urgency to push forward the booster vaccination to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
8.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 490, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621267

ABSTRACT

Based on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611175

ABSTRACT

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Virion/immunology , Young Adult
11.
Lancet ; 398(10296): 213-222, 2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CoronaVac, an inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in individuals aged 18 years and older in phase 1/2 trials, and provided a good humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. We present the interim efficacy and safety results of a phase 3 clinical trial of CoronaVac in Turkey. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Volunteers aged 18-59 years with no history of COVID-19 and with negative PCR and antibody test results for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled at 24 centres in Turkey. Exclusion criteria included (but were not limited to) immunosuppressive therapy (including steroids) within the past 6 months, bleeding disorders, asplenia, and receipt of any blood products or immunoglobulins within the past 3 months. The K1 cohort consisted of health-care workers (randomised in a 1:1 ratio), and individuals other than health-care workers were also recruited into the K2 cohort (randomised in a 2:1 ratio) using an interactive web response system. The study vaccine was 3 µg inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virion adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide in a 0·5 mL aqueous suspension. Participants received either vaccine or placebo (consisting of all vaccine components except inactivated virus) intramuscularly on days 0 and 14. The primary efficacy outcome was the prevention of PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 at least 14 days after the second dose in the per protocol population. Safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04582344) and is active but no longer recruiting. FINDINGS: Among 11 303 volunteers screened between Sept 14, 2020, and Jan 5, 2021, 10 218 were randomly allocated. After exclusion of four participants from the vaccine group because of protocol deviations, the intention-to-treat group consisted of 10 214 participants (6646 [65·1%] in the vaccine group and 3568 [34·9%] in the placebo group) and the per protocol group consisted of 10 029 participants (6559 [65·4%] and 3470 [34·6%]) who received two doses of vaccine or placebo. During a median follow-up period of 43 days (IQR 36-48), nine cases of PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 were reported in the vaccine group (31·7 cases [14·6-59·3] per 1000 person-years) and 32 cases were reported in the placebo group (192·3 cases [135·7-261·1] per 1000 person-years) 14 days or more after the second dose, yielding a vaccine efficacy of 83·5% (95% CI 65·4-92·1; p<0·0001). The frequencies of any adverse events were 1259 (18·9%) in the vaccine group and 603 (16·9%) in the placebo group (p=0·0108) with no fatalities or grade 4 adverse events. The most common systemic adverse event was fatigue (546 [8·2%] participants in the vaccine group and 248 [7·0%] the placebo group, p=0·0228). Injection-site pain was the most frequent local adverse event (157 [2·4%] in the vaccine group and 40 [1·1%] in the placebo group, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: CoronaVac has high efficacy against PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 with a good safety and tolerability profile. FUNDING: Turkish Health Institutes Association.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Turkey , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Virion/immunology
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 212-226, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585243

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of COVID-19 variants has necessitated the development of new vaccines that stimulate the formation of high levels of neutralizing antibodies against S antigen variants. A new strategy involves the intradermal administration of heterologous vaccines composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a booster dose with the mutated S1 protein (K-S). Such vaccines improve the immune efficacy by increasing the neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against five variants of the RBD protein. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that both administration schedules (i.e. "1 + 1" and "2 + 1") ensured protection against this strain. These results suggest that the aforementioned strategy is effective for protecting against new variants and enhances the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells
13.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554851

ABSTRACT

The persistent circulation of SARS-CoV-2 represents an ongoing global threat due to the emergence of new viral variants that can sometimes evade the immune system of previously exposed or vaccinated individuals. We conducted a follow-up study of adult individuals that had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, evaluating antibody production and neutralizing activity over a period of 6 months. In addition, we performed mice immunization with inactivated SARS-CoV-2, and evaluated the immune response and pathological outcomes against Gamma and Zeta variant infection. Vaccinated individuals produced high levels of antibodies with robust neutralizing activity, which was significantly reduced against Gamma and Zeta variants. Production of IgG anti-S antibodies and neutralizing activity robustly reduced after 6 months of vaccination. Immunized mice demonstrated cellular response against Gamma and Zeta variants, and after viral infection, reduced viral loads, IL-6 expression, and histopathological outcome in the lungs. TNF levels were unchanged in immunized or not immunized mice after infection with the Gamma variant. Furthermore, serum neutralization activity rapidly increases after infection with the Gamma and Zeta variants. Our data suggest that immunization with inactivated WT SARS-CoV-2 induces a promptly responsive cross-reactive immunity response against the Gamma and Zeta variants, reducing COVID-19 pathological outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Protection , Cytokines/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunization , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Viral Load
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 102: 108383, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: To date, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on people living with HIV (PLWH) were mainly focused on messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines, and little is known about the effects of inactivated virus-based vaccine. This study was designed to determine the effects of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on PLWH. METHODS: Twenty-four HIV-positive individuals and 24 healthy donors (HD) were respectively recruited from Malipo Country People's Hospital and community in Kunming city. Enumeration of lymphocyte and CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Competitive ELISA was used to measure the level of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibody. Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between laboratory indicators and neutralization antibodies in PLWH. T-cell responses (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg) and intracellular expression of cytokines (IL-2 and TNF-α) in CD4 or CD8 were induced by spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-2-S) and further measured by intracellular staining. RESULTS: CD4, B cells, CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells in peripheral blood of PLWH are dramatically decreased in comparison with HD. Importantly, PLWH display comparable neutralizing antibody positive rate to HD after inoculation with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. However, PLWH showed weaker responses to vaccines exhibited by lower levels of neutralizing antibodies. Correlation analysis shows that this is possibly caused by low number of CD4 and B cells. Furthermore, SARS-2-S-induced Th2 and Th17 responses are also decreased in PLWH, while no influences on Treg and other cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ) observed. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH and HD have comparable neutralizing antibodies positive rates, but PLWH display weaker responses to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in magnitude, which suggests that a booster dose or dose adjustment are required for HIV-infected individuals, especially for those with lower counts of CD4 T and B cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1696-1700, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520244

ABSTRACT

Emerging reports of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections entail methodical genomic surveillance for determining the efficacy of vaccines. This study elaborates genomic analysis of isolates from breakthrough infections following vaccination with AZD1222/Covishield and BBV152/Covaxin. Variants of concern B.1.617.2 and B.1.1.7 responsible for cases surge in April-May 2021 in Delhi, were the predominant lineages among breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1442-1449, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516779

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccines are essential for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CoronaVac, which is an inactivated virus vaccine, was the first imported COVID-19 vaccine in Thailand. To investigate the safety and immunogenicity of CoronaVac within the Thai population, we conducted a prospective cohort study among health care workers aged 18-59 years, who received a 2-dose regimen of CoronaVac 21 days apart between March and April 2021 at the hospital in Samut Sakhon, Thailand. We recruited 185 participants with a mean age of 32 years. Total antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 were tested. Total antibodies against RBD were negative before immunization. One volunteer was positive for N, although negative for the RBD antibodies. The seroconversion rate of total antibodies against RBD after the first CoronaVac dose was 67% with a Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 1.98 U/ml. Following CoronaVac dose 2, the seroconversion rate increased to 100% with a GMC of 92.9 U/ml. The seroconversion rates of IgG against N protein were 1% after dose 1 and 62.8% after dose 2. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was 59.5%. Injection-site pain was the most common local adverse event (52.4%), while myalgia was the most common systemic adverse event (31.9%). No serious adverse events were observed. A 0-21 days, 2-dose CoronaVac regimen appears safe, inducing a satisfactory response compared with convalescent serum obtained 4-6 weeks postnatural infection. Antibody responses after 2-dose CoronaVac were comparable to the convalescent plasma but waned rapidly after 3 months. Therefore, we recommend 2-dose CoronaVac administration with possible booster doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion , Thailand/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
17.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1081-1086, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic warrants accelerated efforts to test vaccine candidates. To explore the influencing factors on vaccine-induced effects, antibody responses to an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy individuals who were not previously infected by COVID-19 were assessed. METHODS: All subjects aged 18-60 years who did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of screening from June 19, 2021, to July 02, 2021, were approached for inclusion. All participants received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Serum IgM and IgG antibodies were detected using a commercial kit after the second dose of vaccination. A positive result was defined as 10 AU/mL or more and a negative result as less than 10 AU/mL. This retrospective study included 97 infection-naïve individuals (mean age 35.6 years; 37.1% male, 62.9% female). RESULTS: The seropositive rates of IgM and IgG antibody responses elicited after the second dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were 3.1% and 74.2%, respectively. IgG antibody levels were significantly higher than IgM levels (P<0.0001). Sex had no effect on IgM and IgG antibody response after the second dose. The mean anti-IgG level in older persons (⩾42 years) was significantly lower than that of younger recipients. There was a significantly lower antibody level at > 42 days compared to that at 0-20 days (P<0.05) and 21-31 days (P<0.05) after the second dose. CONCLUSION: IgG antibody response could be induced by inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy individuals (>18 years), which can be influenced by age and detection time after the second dose of vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
20.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
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