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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2020573, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799504

ABSTRACT

Limited information is available about post-marketing safety of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines. Using data from SmartVax, an active surveillance system for monitoring vaccine safety, adverse events following immunizations (AEFIs) were compared between the two JE vaccines available in Australia (a chimeric live attenuated vaccine [Imojev] and a Vero cell-derived inactivated vaccine [JEspect]). Data from 2756 patients (1855 Imojev and 901 JEspect) were included. Overall (7.0%), systemic (2.8%), and local (1.9%) AEFIs were uncommon. There were no significant differences in the odds of overall (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 0.91-1.77), systemic (OR = 1.23; 95%CI: 0.74-2.06), or local (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 0.65-2.22) AEFIs with Imojev compared to JEspect. There was an increase in odds of overall AEFI in patients aged <5 years (OR = 2.39; 95%CI: 1.10-5.19) compared to those aged >50 years. Both JE vaccines available in Australia are safe and well tolerated. Odds of AEFIs were age-dependent, young children should be carefully observed for AEFIs after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis, Japanese , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines , Animals , Australia , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vero Cells , Watchful Waiting
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e056872, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assessing safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole virus particle vaccine. DESIGN: Single-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase I (stage I: 18-50, stage II: 51-75 years), phase II (18-75 years) clinical trials. SETTING: 29 December 2020 to 22 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Stage I-phase I: 56 participants; stage II-phase I: 32; phase II: 280. INTERVENTION: During stage I, participants randomly (3:3:1) received 3 µg, 5 µg vaccine or placebo in a 14-day interval. Participants in stage II received two shots of 5 µg vaccine or placebo (3:1). In phase II, participants received 5 µg vaccine or placebo (4:1) in a 28-day interval. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Safety assessment and immunogenicity assessment via antibody response and conventional virus neutralisation test (cVNT). RESULTS: All adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate and transient in both phase I and phase II, and no AEs of special interest were reported. The seroconversion-rate of neutralising, antireceptor binding-domain (RBD) and anti-spike-glycoprotein (anti-S) antibodies 14-days after second dose of 5 µg vaccine in stage I was 70.8% (95% CI 48.9% to 87.4%), 87.5% (95% CI 67.6% to 97.3%), 91.7% (95% CI 73.0% to 99.0%). The antibody titres increased more among 5 µg than 3 µg. The corresponding rates for 3 µg vaccine were 45.8% (95% CI 25.6% to 67.2%), 54.2% (95% CI 32.8% to 74.5%) and 70.8% (95% CI 48.9% to 87.4%), respectively. In stage II, 100% (95% CI 84.6% to 100%), 86.4% (95% CI 65.1% to 97.1%) and 86.4% (95% CI 65.1% to 97.1%) of participants seroconverted for neutralising, anti-RBD and anti-S antibodies. In phase II, the seroconversion rate of neutralising-antibody was 82.8% (95% CI 77.0% to 87.6%), anti-RBD 77.0% (95% CI 70.7% to 82.6%) and anti-S 79.9% (95% CI 73.8% to 85.1%) on day 42. In the cVNT, the sera at 1/64 times dilution would neutralise SARS-CoV-2 among 91.7%, 77.3% and 82.5% of vaccinated participants in phase I-stage I, phase I-stage II and phase II clinical trials, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results support further evaluation of this inactivated whole virus particle vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: IRCT20201202049567N1 and IRCT20201202049567N2 for phase I and IRCT20201202049567N3 for phase II.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Virion
3.
Vaccine ; 40(18): 2551-2560, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has waning antibody over time. With the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant, which requires higher neutralizing antibody to prevent infection, a booster dose is needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of standard- versus low-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine booster after CoronaVac in healthy adults. METHODS: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial of adult, aged 18-59 years, with completion of 2-dose CoronaVac at 21-28 days apart for more than 2 months was conducted. Participants were randomized to receive AZD1222 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) intramuscularly; standard dose (SD, 5x1010 viral particles) or low dose (LD, 2.5x1010 viral particles). Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) against wild type and delta variant, and anti-spike-receptor-binding-domain IgG (anti-S-RBD IgG) were compared as geometric mean ratio (GMR) at day 14 and 90 between LD and SD arms. RESULTS: From July-August 2021, 422 adults with median age of 44 (IQR 36-51) years were enrolled. The median interval from CoronaVac to AZD1222 booster was 77 (IQR 64-95) days. At baseline, geometric means (GMs) of sVNT against delta variant and anti-S-RBD IgG were 18.1%inhibition (95% CI 16.4-20.0) and 111.5 (105.1-118.3) BAU/ml. GMs of sVNT against delta variant and anti-S-RBD IgG in SD were 95.6%inhibition (95% CI 94.3-97.0) and 1975.1 (1841.7-2118.2) BAU/ml at day 14, and 89.4%inhibition (86.4-92.4) and 938.6 (859.9-1024.4) BAU/ml at day 90, respectively. GMRs of sVNT against delta variant and anti-S-RBD IgG in LD compared to SD were 1.00 (95% CI 0.98-1.02) and 0.84 (0.76-0.93) at day 14, and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) and 0.89 (0.79-1.00) at day 90, respectively. LD recipients had significantly lower rate of fever (6.8% vs 25.0%) and myalgia (51.9% vs 70.7%) compared to SD. CONCLUSION: Half-dose AZD1222 booster after 2-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination had non-inferior immunogenicity, yet lower systemic reactogenicity. Fractional low-dose AZD1222 booster should be considered especially in resource-constrained settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(3): 362-370, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Case reports of carditis after BNT162b2 vaccination are accruing worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccination with carditis. DESIGN: Case-control study with hospital control participants. SETTING: Territory-wide, public health care database with linkage to population-based vaccination records in Hong Kong. PATIENTS: Inpatients aged 12 years or older first diagnosed with carditis were selected as case patients. All other hospitalized patients without carditis were treated as control participants. Ten control participants were randomly matched with each case patient by age, sex, and admission date. INTERVENTION: Vaccination with BNT162b2 or CoronaVac. MEASUREMENTS: Incident diagnosis of carditis based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and elevated troponin levels. RESULTS: A total of 160 case patients and 1533 control participants were included. Incidence of carditis per 100 000 doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 administered was estimated to be 0.31 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.66) and 0.57 (CI, 0.36 to 0.90), respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that recipients of the BNT162b2 vaccine had higher odds of carditis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.57 [CI, 1.93 to 6.60]) than unvaccinated persons. Stratified by sex, the OR was 4.68 (CI, 2.25 to 9.71) for males and 2.22 (CI, 0.57 to 8.69) for females receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. The ORs for adults and adolescents receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine were 2.41 (CI, 1.18 to 4.90) and 13.79 (CI, 2.86 to 110.38), respectively. Subanalysis showed an OR of 9.29 (CI, 3.94 to 21.91) for myocarditis and 1.06 (CI, 0.35 to 3.22) for pericarditis associated with BNT162b2. The risk was mainly seen after the second dose of BNT162b2 rather than the first. No association between CoronaVac and carditis with a magnitude similar to that for BNT162b2 was seen. LIMITATION: Limited sample size, absence of electrocardiography and other clinical investigative data, and unrecorded overseas vaccination exposure. CONCLUSION: Despite a low absolute risk, there is an increased risk for carditis associated with BNT162b2 vaccination. This elevated risk should be weighed against the benefits of vaccination. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Health and Medical Research Fund.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(3): 106298, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627029

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cerebrovascular disease, which has been reported with covid infection as well as covid vaccines, particularly AstraZeneca and Janssen vaccines. We present four consecutive cases of CVT after receiving either Sinopharm or Sinovac vaccine, both of which are composed of an inactivated-virus. All the patients recovered well with anticoagulation and discharged with a good functional outcome. This is the first case series reporting CVT following the administration of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intracranial Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 490, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621267

ABSTRACT

Based on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
7.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 18(3): 360-363, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. Indonesia had reported a 2.8% of mortality rate up to June 2021. CASE PRESENTATION: A strategy to control the virus spreading is by vaccination. The Indonesian Food and Drug Monitoring Agency had approved the use of CoronaVac, an inactivated virus vaccine developed by Sinovac. Most Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) for Corona- Vac are mild, and the most common symptoms are injection-site pain, headache, and fatigue. Neurovascular adverse events, including thrombosis or ischaemic stroke after receiving CoronaVac have not previously been reported. CONCLUSION: Correspondingly, we reported three patients with an Acute Ischaemic Stroke (AIS) after the administration of CoronaVac in our hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Aged , Humans , Incidence , Indonesia/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(1): 64-72, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bell's palsy is a rare adverse event reported in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines. However, to our knowledge no population-based study has assessed the association between the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and Bell's palsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of Bell's palsy after BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination. METHODS: In this case series and nested case-control study done in Hong Kong, we assessed the risk of Bell's palsy within 42 days following vaccination with BNT162b2 (Fosun-BioNTech [equivalent to Pfizer-BioNTech]) or CoronaVac (from Sinovac Biotech, Hong Kong) using data from voluntary surveillance reporting with the Hospital Authority, the COVID-19 Vaccine Adverse Event Online Reporting system for all health-care professionals, and the Hospital Authority's territory-wide electronic health records from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. We described reported cases of Bell's palsy among vaccine recipients (aged 18-110 years for CoronaVac and aged 16-110 years for BNT162b2). We compared the estimated age-standardised incidence of clinically confirmed cases among individuals who had received the CoronaVac or BNT162b2 vaccination (up to 42 days before presentation) with the background incidence in the population. A nested case-control study was also done using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for risk of Bell's palsy and vaccination. Cases and controls were matched (1:4) by age, sex, admission setting, and admission date. FINDINGS: Between February 23 and May 4, 2021, 451 939 individuals received the first dose of CoronaVac and 537 205 individuals received the first dose of BNT162b2. 28 clinically confirmed cases of Bell's palsy were reported following CoronaVac and 16 cases were reported following BNT162b2. The age-standardised incidence of clinically confirmed Bell's palsy was 66·9 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 37·2 to 96·6) following CoronaVac vaccination and 42·8 per 100 000 person-years (19·4 to 66·1) for BNT162b2 vaccination. The age-standardised difference for the incidence compared with the background population was 41·5 (95% CI 11·7 to 71·4) for CoronaVac and 17·0 (-6·6 to 40·6) for BNT162b2, equivalent to an additional 4·8 cases per 100 000 people vaccinated for CoronaVac and 2·0 cases per 100 000 people vaccinated for BNT162b2. In the nested case-control analysis, 298 cases were matched to 1181 controls, and the adjusted ORs were 2·385 (95% CI 1·415 to 4·022) for CoronaVac and 1·755 (0·886 to 3·477) for BNT162b2. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest an overall increased risk of Bell's palsy after CoronaVac vaccination. However, the beneficial and protective effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine far outweigh the risk of this generally self-limiting adverse event. Additional studies are needed in other regions to confirm our findings. FUNDING: The Food and Health Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Bell Palsy/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Population , Young Adult
9.
Cornea ; 41(4): 502-504, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575618

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our aim was to report the case of endothelial corneal allograft rejection after inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine with an atypical presentation. METHODS: This was a case report. RESULTS: A 63-year-old woman with previous penetrating keratoplasty and laser in situ keratomileusis presented with clinical signs of endothelial corneal graft rejection 24 hours after CoronaVac (SinoVac Biotech, Beijing/China) vaccine. Slitlamp examination showed corneal edema and interface fluid accumulation. It was partially resolved after treatment with topical corticosteroids and polydimethylsiloxane. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal allograft rejection was already reported after another SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. This is the first report in the literature describing a possible association with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and corneal allograft rejection, especially with laser in situ keratomileusis interface fluid accumulation presentation. Ophthalmologists should be aware of this potential complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Graft Rejection/etiology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Allografts , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Dimethylpolysiloxanes/therapeutic use , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Humans , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Middle Aged , Slit Lamp Microscopy
10.
Drug Saf ; 44(12): 1375-1390, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544606

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Seasonal influenza infects millions annually in Europe. Annual influenza vaccination is the most effective measure to reduce the risk of infection and its complications, especially among young children and older adults. OBJECTIVE: We assessed adverse event (AE) frequency after receiving GSK's inactivated quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV4). METHODS: A passive enhanced safety surveillance study was conducted in Belgium, Germany, and Spain. Adults who had received GSK's IIV4 or the parent(s)/guardian(s)/legally acceptable representative(s) of children given the vaccine were invited to complete an adverse drug reaction (ADR) card to document AEs experienced within 7 days post vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 1082 participants (51.6% females) received GSK's IIV4, including 115 children < 9 years of age who received two doses. The ADR card return rate was 97.0% (n = 1049) after dose 1 and 100% (n = 115) after dose 2. All participants in Belgium and Germany were adults. In Spain, 71.2% were children. After dose 1, 39.2% reported one or more AE. The most frequent AEs category was "general disorders and administration site conditions" (GDASC). AEs were most frequently reported in adults aged 18-65 years (47.2%), followed by children aged 6 months-17 years (38.1%), and adults aged > 65 years (31.6%). After dose 2, 7.8% reported one or more AE, and GDASC was again the most frequent AE category. There were no serious AEs related to GSK's IIV4 within 7 days post vaccination. CONCLUSION: No serious AEs related to GSK's IIV4 within 7 days post vaccination were reported. This study supports the favourable risk-benefit safety profile of GSK's IIV4.


Seasonal influenza infects millions annually in Europe, especially young children and older adults. Annual influenza vaccination is the most effective measure to reduce the risk of infection and its complications. As the wild influenza virus strains change every year, the composition of the influenza vaccine changes as well. Since the vaccine is produced in the same way over the years, extensive safety studies are no longer required by regulatory authorities. Instead, monitoring of any unwanted medical incidents (adverse events) after vaccination is required. For the 2019/2020 season, we monitored the adverse events reported by a representative sample of people in Belgium, Germany, and Spain within 7 days after receiving GSK's seasonal influenza vaccine.Of the 1082 people who received the first dose of the vaccine, 39% reported at least one adverse event, such as pain and swelling at the injection site, tiredness, fever, headache, or dizziness. A total of 115 children under 9 years of age received two doses 4 weeks apart. After their second dose, few of these children (8%) reported adverse events. The most frequent adverse events were fever, swelling and pain at the injection site, runny nose, or irritability. No serious adverse events were reported after either the first or second dose.No serious adverse events related to GSK's seasonal influenza vaccine within the 7 days after vaccination were reported. This study supports the favourable risk­benefit safety profile of GSK's seasonal influenza vaccine.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Belgium/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Seasons , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6486-6495, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently undergoing clinical trials. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect open human COVID-19 vaccines randomized controlled trials, without limiting the search time and language. The research papers collected in the above-mentioned databases were initially screened according to the title and abstract content and merged, and the repeated ones were removed. After reading the full text of the remaining research, the studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded, and finally, nine studies were obtained. After extracting the statistical data of adverse events in the study, load them into Review Manager for heterogeneity analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of adverse reactions of inactivated virus vaccines, RNA vaccines, and adenovirus vector vaccines was higher than that of placebo. Common adverse reactions included pain, swelling, and fever at the injection site. CONCLUSION: From the perspective of effectiveness, RNA vaccine > adenovirus vector vaccine > inactivated virus vaccine. From the perspective of safety, the incidence of adverse reactions of the three vaccines is higher than that of a placebo, and the incidence of adverse reactions of the adenovirus vector vaccine is higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenovirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1442-1449, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516779

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccines are essential for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CoronaVac, which is an inactivated virus vaccine, was the first imported COVID-19 vaccine in Thailand. To investigate the safety and immunogenicity of CoronaVac within the Thai population, we conducted a prospective cohort study among health care workers aged 18-59 years, who received a 2-dose regimen of CoronaVac 21 days apart between March and April 2021 at the hospital in Samut Sakhon, Thailand. We recruited 185 participants with a mean age of 32 years. Total antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 were tested. Total antibodies against RBD were negative before immunization. One volunteer was positive for N, although negative for the RBD antibodies. The seroconversion rate of total antibodies against RBD after the first CoronaVac dose was 67% with a Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 1.98 U/ml. Following CoronaVac dose 2, the seroconversion rate increased to 100% with a GMC of 92.9 U/ml. The seroconversion rates of IgG against N protein were 1% after dose 1 and 62.8% after dose 2. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was 59.5%. Injection-site pain was the most common local adverse event (52.4%), while myalgia was the most common systemic adverse event (31.9%). No serious adverse events were observed. A 0-21 days, 2-dose CoronaVac regimen appears safe, inducing a satisfactory response compared with convalescent serum obtained 4-6 weeks postnatural infection. Antibody responses after 2-dose CoronaVac were comparable to the convalescent plasma but waned rapidly after 3 months. Therefore, we recommend 2-dose CoronaVac administration with possible booster doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion , Thailand/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
14.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
15.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6520-6528, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11th, 2020. This serious outbreak and the precipitously increasing numbers of deaths worldwide necessitated the urgent need to develop an effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. The development of COVID-19 vaccines has moved quickly. In this study, we assessed the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an inactivated (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and its lot-to-lot consistency. A total of 1620 healthy adults aged 18-59 years were randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of the trial vaccine or placebo on a day 0 and 14 schedule. This article was based on an interim report completed within 3 months following the last dose of study vaccine. The interim analysis includes safety and immunogenicity data for 540 participants in the immunogenicity subset and an efficacy analysis of the 1620 subjects. For the safety evaluation, solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected after the first and second vaccination within 14 and 28 days, respectively. Blood samples were collected for an antibody assay before and 14 days following the second dose. RESULTS: Most of the adverse reactions were in the solicited category and were mild in severity. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported symptom. Antibody IgG titer determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 97.48% for the seroconversion rate. Using a neutralization assay, the seroconversion rate was 87.15%. The efficacy in preventing symptomatic confirmed cases of COVID-19 occurring at least 14 days after the second dose of vaccine using an incidence rate was 65.30%. CONCLUSIONS: From the 3-month interim analysis, the vaccine exhibited a 65.30% efficacy at preventing COVID-19 illness with favorable safety and immunogenicity profiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Indonesia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
16.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398985

ABSTRACT

This technical report accompanies the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the routine use of the influenza vaccine and antiviral medications in the prevention and treatment of influenza in children during the 2021-2022 season. Influenza vaccination is an important intervention to protect vulnerable populations and reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses during circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is expected to continue during this influenza season. In this technical report, we summarize recent influenza seasons, morbidity and mortality in children, vaccine effectiveness, vaccination coverage, and detailed guidance on storage, administration, and implementation. We also provide background on inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccine recommendations, vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding, diagnostic testing, and antiviral medications for treatment and chemoprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding , Child , Contraindications, Drug , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Storage , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Mass Vaccination , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
17.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(10): 1131-1135, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391528

ABSTRACT

Importance: As vaccinations against COVID-19 continue, potential ocular adverse events should be reported in detail to increase awareness among the medical community, although typically, a causal relationship cannot be established definitively. Objective: To describe ocular adverse events that occur soon after receiving an inactivated COVID-19 vaccination (Sinopharm). Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series took place from September 2020 to January 2021 at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, a tertiary referral center. Patients who reported ocular adverse events and presented within 15 days from the first of 2 doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine were analyzed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Each patient underwent Snellen best-corrected visual acuity that was then converted to logMAR, applanation tonometry, and biomicroscopic examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy. Color fundus photography was obtained with a conventional 9-field fundus photography camera or with a widefield fundus photography system. Optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomographic angiography images were obtained. Sex, race, age, and clinical data were self-reported. Results: Nine eyes of 7 patients (3 male individuals) presenting with ocular complaints following COVID-19 vaccine were included in the study. The mean (SD) age was 41.4 (9.3) years (range, 30-55 years); the mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.23 logMAR (range, 0-1 logMAR; approximate Snellen equivalent, 20/32). The mean time of ocular adverse event manifestations was 5.2 days (range, 1-10 days). One patient was diagnosed with episcleritis, 2 with anterior scleritis, 2 with acute macular neuroretinopathy, 1 with paracentral acute middle maculopathy, and 1 with subretinal fluid. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series study of 7 patients, the timing of transient and ocular complications 5.2 days after vaccination with an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine supported an association with the ocular findings, but a causal relationship cannot be established from this study design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Eye Diseases/chemically induced , Subretinal Fluid , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Macular Degeneration/chemically induced , Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Macular Degeneration/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Scleritis/chemically induced , Scleritis/diagnosis , Scleritis/physiopathology , Time Factors , United Arab Emirates , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , White Dot Syndromes/chemically induced , White Dot Syndromes/diagnosis , White Dot Syndromes/physiopathology
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1790-1806, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370760

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented in recent history global COVID-19 pandemic urged the implementation of all existing vaccine platforms to ensure the availability of the vaccines against COVID-19 to every country in the world. Despite the multitude of high-quality papers describing clinical trials of different vaccine products, basic detailed data on general toxicity, reproductive toxicity, immunogenicity, protective efficacy and durability of immune response in animal models are scarce. Here, we developed a ß-propiolactone-inactivated whole virion vaccine CoviVac and assessed its safety, protective efficacy, immunogenicity and stability of the immune response in rodents and non-human primates. The vaccine showed no signs of acute/chronic, reproductive, embryo- and fetotoxicity, or teratogenic effects, as well as no allergenic properties in studied animal species. The vaccine induced stable and robust humoral immune response both in form of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAbs in mice, Syrian hamsters, and common marmosets. The NAb levels did not decrease significantly over the course of one year. The course of two immunizations protected Syrian hamsters from severe pneumonia upon intranasal challenge with the live virus. Robustness of the vaccine manufacturing process was demonstrated as well. These data encouraged further evaluation of CoviVac in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Callithrix , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1289-1298, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults. METHODS: Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose. RESULTS: In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 24), 10-µg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-µg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-µg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
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